bims-mikwok Biomed News
on Mitochondrial quality control
Issue of 2021‒05‒30
twenty-five papers selected by
Avinash N. Mukkala
University of Toronto


  1. Bioeng Transl Med. 2021 May;6(2): e10209
      Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury is predominantly caused by free radicals, in which mitochondrial function of hepatocytes is impaired, accompanying with the production of ROS and decreased ATP energy supply in animals intoxicated with CCl4. Here we explored a novel therapeutic approach, mitochondrial transplantation therapy, for treating the liver injury. The results showed that mitochondria entered hepatocytes through macropinocytosis pathway, and thereby cell viability was recovered in a concentration-dependent manner. Mitochondrial therapy could increase ATP supply and reduce free radical damage. In liver injury model of mice, mitochondrial therapy significantly improved liver function and prevented tissue fibrogenesis. Transcriptomic data revealed that mitochondrial unfold protein response (UPRmt), a protective transcriptional response of mitochondria-to-nuclear retrograde signaling, would be triggered after mitochondrial administration. Then the anti-oxidant genes were up-regulated to scavenge free radicals. The mitochondrial function was rehabilitated through the transcriptional activation of respiratory chain enzyme and mitophage-associated genes. The protective response re-balanced the cellular homeostasis, and eventually enhanced stress resistance that is linked to cell survival. The efficacy of mitochondrial transplantation therapy in the animals would suggest a novel approach for treating liver injury caused by toxins.
    Keywords:  UPRmt; energy supply; free radical; mitochondrial therapy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/btm2.10209
  2. Mol Biol Rep. 2021 May 22.
      Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic, metabolic condition characterized by excessive blood glucose that causes perturbations in physiological functioning of almost all the organs of human body. This devastating metabolic disease has its implications in cognitive decline, heart damage, renal, retinal and neuronal complications that severely affects quality of life and associated with decreased life expectancy. Mitochondria possess adaptive mechanisms to meet the cellular energy demand and combat cellular stress. In recent years mitochondrial homeostasis has been point of focus where several mechanisms regulating mitochondrial health and function are evaluated. Mitochondrial dynamics plays crucial role in maintaining healthy mitochondria in cell under physiological as well as stress condition. Mitochondrial dynamics and corresponding regulating mechanisms have been implicated in progression of metabolic disorders including diabetes and its complications. In current review we have discussed about role of mitochondrial dynamics under physiological and pathological conditions. Also, modulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion in diabetic complications are described. The available literature supports mitochondrial remodelling as reliable target for diabetic complications.
    Keywords:  Diabetic complications; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial dynamics; Mitochondrial fission; Mitochondrial fusion; Mitochondrial morphology
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06408-8
  3. FASEB J. 2021 Jun;35(6): e21620
      Mitochondria are highly dynamic, maternally inherited cytoplasmic organelles, which fulfill cellular energy demand through the oxidative phosphorylation system. Besides, they play an active role in calcium and damage-associated molecular patterns signaling, amino acid, and lipid metabolism, and apoptosis. Thus, the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity and homeostasis is extremely critical, which is achieved through continual fusion and fission. Mitochondrial fusion allows the transfer of gene products between mitochondria for optimal functioning, especially under metabolic and environmental stress. On the other hand, fission is crucial for mitochondrial division and quality control. The imbalance between these two processes is associated with various ailments such as cancer, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms that control mitochondrial fusion and fission and how the disruption of mitochondrial dynamics manifests into various disease conditions.
    Keywords:  diseases; dynamics; fission; fusion; mitochondria
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.202100067R
  4. J Cell Biol. 2021 Aug 02. pii: e202009092. [Epub ahead of print]220(8):
      Mitophagy is the degradation of surplus or damaged mitochondria by autophagy. In addition to programmed and stress-induced mitophagy, basal mitophagy processes exert organelle quality control. Here, we show that the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM) complex protein SAMM50 interacts directly with ATG8 family proteins and p62/SQSTM1 to act as a receptor for a basal mitophagy of components of the SAM and mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) complexes. SAMM50 regulates mitochondrial architecture by controlling formation and assembly of the MICOS complex decisive for normal cristae morphology and exerts quality control of MICOS components. To this end, SAMM50 recruits ATG8 family proteins through a canonical LIR motif and interacts with p62/SQSTM1 to mediate basal mitophagy of SAM and MICOS components. Upon metabolic switch to oxidative phosphorylation, SAMM50 and p62 cooperate to mediate efficient mitophagy.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202009092
  5. Cell. 2021 May 27. pii: S0092-8674(21)00530-4. [Epub ahead of print]184(11): 2896-2910.e13
      Damaged mitochondria need to be cleared to maintain the quality of the mitochondrial pool. Here, we report mitocytosis, a migrasome-mediated mitochondrial quality-control process. We found that, upon exposure to mild mitochondrial stresses, damaged mitochondria are transported into migrasomes and subsequently disposed of from migrating cells. Mechanistically, mitocytosis requires positioning of damaged mitochondria at the cell periphery, which occurs because damaged mitochondria avoid binding to inward motor proteins. Functionally, mitocytosis plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial quality. Enhanced mitocytosis protects cells from mitochondrial stressor-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial respiration; conversely, blocking mitocytosis causes loss of MMP and mitochondrial respiration under normal conditions. Physiologically, we demonstrate that mitocytosis is required for maintaining MMP and viability in neutrophils in vivo. We propose that mitocytosis is an important mitochondrial quality-control process in migrating cells, which couples mitochondrial homeostasis with cell migration.
    Keywords:  migrasome; mitochondrial quality control; mitochondrion; mitocytosis; mitosome
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.04.027
  6. Autophagy. 2021 May 24. 1-23
      Parkinson disease (PD)-affected brains show consistent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitophagic dysfunctions. The mechanisms underlying these perturbations and how they are directly linked remain a matter of questions. XBP1 is a transcription factor activated upon ER stress after unconventional splicing by the nuclease ERN1/IREα thereby yielding XBP1s, whereas PINK1 is a kinase considered as the sensor of mitochondrial physiology and a master gatekeeper of mitophagy process. We showed that XBP1s transactivates PINK1 in human cells, primary cultured neurons and mice brain, and triggered a pro-mitophagic phenotype that was fully dependent of endogenous PINK1. We also unraveled a PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of XBP1s that conditioned its nuclear localization and thereby, governed its transcriptional activity. PINK1-induced XBP1s phosphorylation occurred at residues reminiscent of, and correlated to, those phosphorylated in substantia nigra of sporadic PD-affected brains. Overall, our study delineated a functional loop between XBP1s and PINK1 governing mitophagy that was disrupted in PD condition.Abbreviations: 6OHDA: 6-hydroxydopamine; baf: bafilomycin A1; BECN1: beclin 1; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; CASP3: caspase 3; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide chlorophenylhydrazone; COX8A: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 8A; DDIT3/CHOP: DNA damage inducible transcript 3; EGFP: enhanced green fluorescent protein; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERN1/IRE1α: endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1; FACS: fluorescence-activated cell sorting; HSPD1/HSP60: heat shock protein family D (Hsp60) member 1; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MFN2: mitofusin 2; OPTN: optineurin; PD: Parkinson disease; PINK1: PTEN-induced kinase 1; PCR: polymerase chain reaction:; PRKN: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; XBP1s [p-S61A]: XBP1s phosphorylated at serine 61; XBP1s [p-T48A]: XBP1s phosphorylated at threonine 48; shRNA: short hairpin RNA, SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TIMM23: translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 23; TM: tunicamycin; TMRM: tetramethyl rhodamine methylester; TOMM20: translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20; Toy: toyocamycin; TP: thapsigargin; UB: ubiquitin; UB (S65): ubiquitin phosphorylated at serine 65; UPR: unfolded protein response, XBP1: X-box binding protein 1; XBP1s: spliced X-box binding protein 1.
    Keywords:  Mitophagy; PINK1; Parkinson disease; XBP1; phosphorylation; transcription; unfolded protein response
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1917129
  7. Methods Mol Biol. 2021 ;2322 81-92
      The physiological importance of mitochondrial quality control has been uncovered by the finding that genes for early onset Parkinson's disease (PD), PINK1 and Parkin, regulate mitochondrial autophagy, called mitophagy, and motility. Dopaminergic neurons derived from human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a useful tool for analyzing the pathogenesis caused by defects in mitochondrial quality control and for screening candidate drugs for PD. Moreover, dopaminergic neurons could provide new findings not obtained in other cells. In this chapter, we will describe our method for monitoring PINK1-Parkin signaling using iPS cell-derived dopaminergic neurons.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Dopaminergic neuron; Immunocytochemistry; Mitochondria; PINK1; Parkin; Ubiquitin; Western blot; iPS cells
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1495-2_9
  8. Nucleic Acids Res. 2021 May 25. pii: gkab404. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria contain their own translation apparatus which enables them to produce the polypeptides encoded in their genome. The mitochondrially-encoded RNA components of the mitochondrial ribosome require various post-transcriptional processing steps. Additional protein factors are required to facilitate the biogenesis of the functional mitoribosome. We have characterized a mitochondrially-localized protein, YbeY, which interacts with the assembling mitoribosome through the small subunit. Loss of YbeY leads to a severe reduction in mitochondrial translation and a loss of cell viability, associated with less accurate mitochondrial tRNASer(AGY) processing from the primary transcript and a defect in the maturation of the mitoribosomal small subunit. Our results suggest that YbeY performs a dual, likely independent, function in mitochondria being involved in precursor RNA processing and mitoribosome biogenesis. Issue Section: Nucleic Acid Enzymes.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab404
  9. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2021 May 22. pii: S1535-9476(21)00074-8. [Epub ahead of print] 100101
      Normothermic ex-vivo kidney perfusion (NEVKP) results in significantly improved graft function in porcine auto-transplant models of DCD injury compared to static cold storage (SCS); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects remain unclear. We performed an unbiased proteomics analysis of 28 kidney biopsies obtained at 3 time points from pig kidneys subjected to 30-minutes of warm ischemia, followed by 8 hours of NEVKP or SCS, and auto-transplantation. 70/6593 proteins quantified were differentially expressed between NEVKP and SCS groups (FDR<0.05). Proteins increased in NEVKP mediated key metabolic processes including fatty acid ß-oxidation, the TCA-cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Comparison of our findings with external datasets of ischemia-reperfusion, and other models of kidney injury confirmed that 47 of our proteins represent a common signature of kidney injury reversed or attenuated by NEVKP. We validated key metabolic proteins (ETFB, CPT2) by immunoblotting. Transcription factor databases identified members of the PPAR-family of transcription factors as the upstream regulators of our dataset, and we confirmed increased expression of PPARA, PPARD and RXRA in NEVKP with RT-PCR. The proteome-level changes observed in NEVKP mediate critical metabolic pathways. These effects may be coordinated by PPAR-family transcription factors, and may represent novel therapeutic targets in ischemia-reperfusion injury.
    Keywords:  Ischemia-reperfusion injury; kidney transplant; metabolism; normothermic ex-vivo perfusion; proteomics; systems biology
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcpro.2021.100101
  10. Nat Metab. 2021 May;3(5): 618-635
      Macrophages generate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial reactive electrophilic species as antimicrobials during Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent inflammatory responses. Whether mitochondrial stress caused by these molecules impacts macrophage function is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that both pharmacologically driven and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-driven mitochondrial stress in macrophages triggers a stress response called mitohormesis. LPS-driven mitohormetic stress adaptations occur as macrophages transition from an LPS-responsive to LPS-tolerant state wherein stimulus-induced pro-inflammatory gene transcription is impaired, suggesting tolerance is a product of mitohormesis. Indeed, like LPS, hydroxyoestrogen-triggered mitohormesis suppresses mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and acetyl-CoA production needed for histone acetylation and pro-inflammatory gene transcription, and is sufficient to enforce an LPS-tolerant state. Thus, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial reactive electrophilic species are TLR-dependent signalling molecules that trigger mitohormesis as a negative feedback mechanism to restrain inflammation via tolerance. Moreover, bypassing TLR signalling and pharmacologically triggering mitohormesis represents a new anti-inflammatory strategy that co-opts this stress response to impair epigenetic support of pro-inflammatory gene transcription by mitochondria.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-021-00392-w
  11. Front Mol Biosci. 2021 ;8 681237
      Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) is a transmembrane GTPase located on the mitochondrial outer membrane that contributes to mitochondrial network regulation. It is an essential multifunctional protein that participates in various biological processes under physical and pathological conditions, including mitochondrial fusion, reticulum-mitochondria contacts, mitochondrial quality control, and apoptosis. Mfn2 dysfunctions have been found to contribute to cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Here, this review mainly focuses on what is known about the structure and function of Mfn2 and its crucial role in heart failure.
    Keywords:  Mfn2; endoplasmic reticulum–mitochondria contacts; heart failure; mitochondria fusion; mitophagy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.681237
  12. J Cell Sci. 2021 May 26. pii: jcs.253781. [Epub ahead of print]
      In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria, termed mitophagy, is critically regulated by the adapter protein, Atg32. Despite our knowledge about the molecular mechanisms by which Atg32 controls mitophagy, its physiological roles in yeast survival and fitness remains less clear. Here, we demonstrate a requirement for Atg32 in promoting spermidine production during respiratory growth and heat-induced mitochondrial stress. During respiratory growth, mitophagy-deficient yeast exhibit profound heat-stress induced defects in growth and viability due to impaired biosynthesis of spermidine and its biosynthetic precursor S-Adenosyl-Methionine (SAM). Moreover, spermidine production is crucial for the induction of cytoprotective nitric oxide (NO) during heat stress. Hence, the re-addition of spermidine to Atg32 mutant yeast is sufficient to both enhance NO production and restore respiratory growth during heat stress. Our findings uncover a previously unrecognized physiological role for yeast mitophagy in spermidine metabolism and illuminate new interconnections between mitophagy, polyamine biosynthesis and NO signaling.
    Keywords:  ATG32; Autophagy; Mitophagy; Nitric Oxide; S-Adenosyl-Methionine; Spermidine
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.253781
  13. Stem Cell Reports. 2021 May 18. pii: S2213-6711(21)00217-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      PARK2 (parkin) mutations cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin is an ubiquitin E3 ligase that participates in several cellular functions, including mitochondrial homeostasis. However, the specific metabolomic changes caused by parkin depletion remain unknown. Here, we used isogenic human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with and without PARK2 knockout (KO) to investigate the effect of parkin loss of function by comparative metabolomics supplemented with ultrastructural and functional analyses. PARK2 KO neurons displayed increased tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, perturbed mitochondrial ultrastructure, ATP depletion, and dysregulation of glycolysis and carnitine metabolism. These perturbations were combined with increased oxidative stress and a decreased anti-oxidative response. Key findings for PARK2 KO cells were confirmed using patient-specific iPSC-derived neurons. Overall, our data describe a unique metabolomic profile associated with parkin dysfunction and show that combining metabolomics with an iPSC-derived dopaminergic neuronal model of PD is a valuable approach to obtain novel insight into the disease pathogenesis.
    Keywords:  Parkinson's disease; induced pluripotent stem cells; metabolomics; mitochondria; oxidative stress; parkin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.04.022
  14. Front Oncol. 2021 ;11 672781
      Mitochondria are vital organelles in cells, regulating energy metabolism and apoptosis. Mitochondrial transcellular transfer plays a crucial role during physiological and pathological conditions, such as rescuing recipient cells from bioenergetic deficit and tumorigenesis. Studies have shown several structures that conduct transcellular transfer of mitochondria, including tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), extracellular vesicles (EVs), and Cx43 gap junctions (GJs). The intra- and intercellular transfer of mitochondria is driven by a transport complex. Mitochondrial Rho small GTPase (MIRO) may be the adaptor that connects the transport complex with mitochondria, and myosin XIX is the motor protein of the transport complex, which participates in the transcellular transport of mitochondria through TNTs. In this review, the roles of TNTs, EVs, GJs, and related transport complexes in mitochondrial transcellular transfer are discussed in detail, as well as the formation mechanisms of TNTs and EVs. This review provides the basis for the development of potential clinical therapies targeting the structures of mitochondrial transcellular transfer.
    Keywords:  Cx43 gap junction; Miro; extracellular vesicles; mitochondria; myosin XIX; transcellular transport; tunneling nanotubes
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.672781
  15. Cell Rep. 2021 May 25. pii: S2211-1247(21)00525-8. [Epub ahead of print]35(8): 109180
      Mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits assemble in supercomplexes. Studies of supercomplexes have typically relied upon antibody-based quantification, often limited to a single subunit per respiratory complex. To provide a deeper insight into mitochondrial and supercomplex plasticity, we combine native electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to determine the supercomplexome of skeletal muscle from sedentary and exercise-trained mice. We quantify 422 mitochondrial proteins within 10 supercomplex bands in which we show the debated presence of complexes II and V. Exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis results in non-stoichiometric changes in subunits and incorporation into supercomplexes. We uncover the dynamics of supercomplex-related assembly proteins and mtDNA-encoded subunits after exercise. Furthermore, exercise affects the complexing of Lactb, an obesity-associated mitochondrial protein, and ubiquinone biosynthesis proteins. Knockdown of ubiquinone biosynthesis proteins leads to alterations in mitochondrial respiration. Our approach can be applied to broad biological systems. In this instance, comprehensively analyzing respiratory supercomplexes illuminates previously undetectable complexity in mitochondrial plasticity.
    Keywords:  complexome; exercise; mitochondrial respiratory complexes; mitochondrial supercomplexes; oxidative phosphorylation; protein complexes
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109180
  16. J Invest Dermatol. 2021 May 25. pii: S0022-202X(21)01243-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Melanoma cells are relatively resistant to ER stress, which contributes to tumor progression under stressful conditions and renders tolerance to ER stress-inducing therapeutic agents. Mitochondria are tightly interconnected with ER. However, whether mitochondria play a role in regulating ER stress resistance in melanoma remains elusive. Herein, we reported that the XBP1-MARCH5-MFN2 axis conferred ER stress resistance by coordinating mitochondrial fission and mitophagy in melanoma. Our integrative bioinformatics first revealed that the down-regulation of mitochondrial genes was highly correlated with UPR activation in melanoma. Then we proved that mitochondrial fission and mitophagy were prominently induced to contribute to ER stress resistance both in vitro and in vivo by maintaining mitochondrial function. Mechanistically, the activation of IRE1α/ATF6-XBP1 branches of UPR promoted the transcription of E3 ligase MARCH5 to facilitate the ubiquitination and degradation of MFN2, which thereby triggered mitochondrial fission and mitophagy under ER stress. Together, our findings demonstrate a regulatory axis that links mitochondrial fission and mitophagy to the resistance to ER stress. Targeting mitochondrial quality control machinery can be exploited as an approach to reinforce the efficacy of ER stress-inducing agents against cancer.
    Keywords:  ER stress; MFN2; melanoma; mitochondrial fission; mitophagy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2021.03.031
  17. J Biol Chem. 2021 May 21. pii: S0021-9258(21)00623-2. [Epub ahead of print] 100825
      Normal contractile function of the heart depends on a constant and reliable production of ATP by cardiomyocytes. Dysregulation of cardiac energy metabolism can result in immature heart development and disrupt the ability of the adult myocardium to adapt to stress, potentially leading to heart failure. Further, restoration of abnormal mitochondrial function can have beneficial effects on cardiac dysfunction. Previously, we identified a novel protein termed Perm1 (PGC-1 and ERR induced regulator, muscle 1) that is enriched in skeletal and cardiac-muscle mitochondria and transcriptionally regulated by PGC-1 (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1) and ERR (Estrogen-related receptor). The role of Perm1 in the heart is poorly understood and was studied here. We utilized cell culture, mouse models and human tissue, to study its expression and transcriptional control, as well as its role in transcription of other factors. Critically, we tested Perm1's role in cardiomyocyte mitochondrial function and its ability to protect myocytes from stress-induced damage. Our studies show Perm1 expression increases throughout mouse cardiogenesis, demonstrate that Perm1 interacts with PGC-1α and enhances activation of PGC-1 and ERR, increases mitochondrial DNA copy number, and augments oxidative capacity in cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. Moreover, we found that Perm1 reduced cellular damage produced as a result of hypoxia and reoxygenation-induced stress and mitigated cell death of cardiomyocytes. Taken together, our results show that Perm1 promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse cardiomyocytes. Future studies can assess the potential of Perm1 to be used as a novel therapeutic to restore cardiac dysfunction induced by ischemic injury.
    Keywords:  Perm1; cardiomyocytes; mitochondrial biogenesis; oxidative metabolism
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100825
  18. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2021 May 19. pii: S1357-2725(21)00091-1. [Epub ahead of print] 106013
      The NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is responsible for the sensation of various pathogenic and non-pathogenic damage signals and has a vital role in neuroinflammation and neural diseases. Various stimuli, such as microbial infection, misfolded protein aggregates, and aberrant deposition of proteins including amyloid-β, α-synuclein can induce NLRP3 inflammasome in neural cells. Once triggered, the NLRP3 inflammasome leads to the activation of caspase-1, which in turn activates inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β and interleukin -18, and induces pyroptotic cell death. Mitochondria are critically involved in diverse cellular processes and are involved in regulating cellular redox status, calcium levels, inflammasome activation, and cell death. Mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent accumulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid, and other mitochondria-associated proteins and lipids play vital roles in the instigation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In addition, the processes of mitochondrial dynamics, such as fission and fusion, are essential in the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity and their imbalance also promotes NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In this connection, mitophagy-mediated maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis restricts NLRP3 inflammasome hyperactivation and its consequences in various neurological disorders. Hence, mitophagy can be exploited as a potential strategy to target damaged mitochondria-derived NLRP3 inflammasome activation and its lethal consequences. Therefore, the identification of novel mitophagy modulators has promising therapeutic potential for NLRP3 inflammasome-associated neuronal diseases.
    Keywords:  Inflammasome; NLRP3; mitochondria; mitochondrial dynamics; mitophagy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2021.106013
  19. Sci Rep. 2021 May 25. 11(1): 10897
      Mitochondrial diseases currently have no cure regardless of whether the cause is a nuclear or mitochondrial genome mutation. Mitochondrial dysfunction notably affects a wide range of disorders in aged individuals, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancers, and even senescence. Here, we present a procedure to generate mitochondrial DNA-replaced somatic cells with a combination of a temporal reduction in endogenous mitochondrial DNA and coincubation with exogeneous isolated mitochondria. Heteroplasmy in mitochondrial disease patient-derived fibroblasts in which the mutant genotype was dominant over the wild-type genotype was reversed. Mitochondrial disease patient-derived fibroblasts regained respiratory function and showed lifespan extension. Mitochondrial membranous components were utilized as a vehicle to deliver the genetic materials into endogenous mitochondria-like horizontal genetic transfer in prokaryotes. Mitochondrial DNA-replaced cells could be a resource for transplantation to treat maternal inherited mitochondrial diseases.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90316-1
  20. EMBO Mol Med. 2021 May 27. e14316
      Mitochondria exist as dynamic networks whose morphology is driven by the complex interplay between fission and fusion events. Failure to modulate these processes can be detrimental to human health as evidenced by dominantly inherited, pathogenic variants in OPA1, an effector enzyme of mitochondrial fusion, that lead to network fragmentation, cristae dysmorphology and impaired oxidative respiration, manifesting typically as isolated optic atrophy. However, a significant number of patients develop more severe, systemic phenotypes, although no genetic modifiers of OPA1-related disease have been identified to date. In this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, supervised machine learning algorithms underlie a novel tool that enables automated, high throughput and unbiased screening of changes in mitochondrial morphology measured using confocal microscopy. By coupling this approach with a bespoke siRNA library targeting the entire mitochondrial proteome, the work described by Cretin and colleagues yielded significant insight into mitochondrial biology, discovering 91 candidate genes whose endogenous depletion can remedy impaired mitochondrial dynamics caused by OPA1 deficiency.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.15252/emmm.202114316
  21. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021 May 26. 12(1): 299
      BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a major cause of death in ICU, and intestinal barrier dysfunction is its important complication, while the treatment is limited. Recently, mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles (MMVs) attract much attention as a strategy of cell-free treatment; whether MMVs are therapeutic in sepsis induced-intestinal barrier dysfunction is obscure.METHODS: In this study, cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis rats and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells to investigate the effect of MMVs on intestinal barrier dysfunction. MMVs were harvested from mesenchymal stem cells and were injected into sepsis rats, and the intestinal barrier function was measured. Afterward, MMVs were incubated with intestinal epithelial cells, and the effect of MMVs on mitochondrial dynamic balance was measured. Then the expression of mfn1, mfn2, OPA1, and PGC-1α in MMVs were measured by western blot. By upregulation and downregulation of mfn2 and PGC-1α, the role of MMVs in mitochondrial dynamic balance was investigated. Finally, the role of MMV-carried mitochondria in mitochondrial dynamic balance was investigated.
    RESULTS: MMVs restored the intestinal barrier function by improving mitochondrial dynamic balance and metabolism of mitochondria. Further study revealed that MMVs delivered mfn2 and PGC-1α to intestinal epithelial cells, and promoted mitochondrial fusion and biogenesis, thereby improving mitochondrial dynamic balance. Furthermore, MMVs delivered functional mitochondria to intestinal epithelial cells and enhanced energy metabolism directly.
    CONCLUSION: MMVs can deliver mfn2, PGC-1α, and functional mitochondria to intestinal epithelial cells, synergistically improve mitochondrial dynamic balance of target cells after sepsis, and restore the mitochondrial function and intestinal barrier function. The study illustrated that MMVs might be a promising strategy for the treatment of sepsis.
    Keywords:  Intestinal barrier function; Mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles; Mitochondrial dynamic balance; PGC-1α; Sepsis; mfn2
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02363-0
  22. Blood Adv. 2021 05 25. 5(10): 2490-2504
      Mammalian red blood cells (RBCs), which primarily contain hemoglobin, exemplify an elaborate maturation process, with the terminal steps of RBC generation involving extensive cellular remodeling. This encompasses alterations of cellular content through distinct stages of erythroblast maturation that result in the expulsion of the nucleus (enucleation) followed by the loss of mitochondria and all other organelles and a transition to anaerobic glycolysis. Whether there is any link between erythroid removal of the nucleus and the function of any other organelle, including mitochondria, remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that mitochondria are key to nuclear clearance. Using live and confocal microscopy and high-throughput single-cell imaging, we show that before nuclear polarization, mitochondria progressively move toward one side of maturing erythroblasts and aggregate near the nucleus as it extrudes from the cell, a prerequisite for enucleation to proceed. Although we found active mitochondrial respiration is required for nuclear expulsion, levels of mitochondrial activity identify distinct functional subpopulations, because terminally maturing erythroblasts with low relative to high mitochondrial membrane potential are at a later stage of maturation, contain greatly condensed nuclei with reduced open chromatin-associated acetylation histone marks, and exhibit higher enucleation rates. Lastly, to our surprise, we found that late-stage erythroblasts sustain mitochondrial metabolism and subsequent enucleation, primarily through pyruvate but independent of in situ glycolysis. These findings demonstrate the critical but unanticipated functions of mitochondria during the erythroblast enucleation process. They are also relevant to the in vitro production of RBCs as well as to disorders of the erythroid lineage.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004259
  23. Nat Commun. 2021 May 28. 12(1): 3210
      Diseases caused by heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA mutations have no effective treatment or cure. In recent years, DNA editing enzymes were tested as tools to eliminate mutant mtDNA in heteroplasmic cells and tissues. Mitochondrial-targeted restriction endonucleases, ZFNs, and TALENs have been successful in shifting mtDNA heteroplasmy, but they all have drawbacks as gene therapy reagents, including: large size, heterodimeric nature, inability to distinguish single base changes, or low flexibility and effectiveness. Here we report the adaptation of a gene editing platform based on the I-CreI meganuclease known as ARCUS®. These mitochondrial-targeted meganucleases (mitoARCUS) have a relatively small size, are monomeric, and can recognize sequences differing by as little as one base pair. We show the development of a mitoARCUS specific for the mouse m.5024C>T mutation in the mt-tRNAAla gene and its delivery to mice intravenously using AAV9 as a vector. Liver and skeletal muscle show robust elimination of mutant mtDNA with concomitant restoration of mt-tRNAAla levels. We conclude that mitoARCUS is a potential powerful tool for the elimination of mutant mtDNA.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23561-7
  24. Br J Haematol. 2021 May 25.
      Adult erythropoiesis entails a series of well-coordinated events that produce mature red blood cells. One of such events is the mitochondria clearance that occurs cell-autonomously via autophagy-dependent mechanisms. Interestingly, recent studies have shown mitochondria transfer activities between various cell types. In the context of erythropoiesis, macrophages are known to interact closely with the early stages of erythroblasts to provide a specialized niche, termed erythroblastic islands (EBI). However, whether mitochondria transfer can occur in the EBI niche has not been explored. Here, we report that mitochondria transfer in the EBI niche occurs in vivo. We observed mitochondria transfer activities from the early stages of erythroblasts to macrophages in the reconstituted in vitro murine EBI via different modes, including tunnelling nanotubes (TNT). Moreover, we demonstrated that Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) in macrophages mediates TNT formation and mitochondria transfer via the modulation of F-actin filamentation, thus promoting mitochondria clearance from erythroid cells, to potentially enhance their differentiation. Taken together, our findings provide novel insight into the mitochondria clearance machineries that mediate erythroid maturation.
    Keywords:  F-actin filamentation; erythroblastic island; erythropoiesis; mitochondria transfer; tunnelling nanotubes
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17531
  25. FEBS Open Bio. 2021 May 29.
      Mitophagy, a form of autophagy, plays a role in cancer development, progression and recurrence. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) also play a key role in these processes, but it is unknown whether mitophagy can regulate the stemness of CSCs. Here, we employed the A549-SD human non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma CSC model that we have developed and characterized to investigate the effect of mitophagy on the stemness of CSCs. We observed a positive relationship between mitophagic activity and the stemness of lung CSCs. At the mechanistic level, our results suggest that augmentation of mitophagy in lung CSCs can be induced by FIS1 through mitochondrial fission. In addition, we assessed the clinical relevance of FIS1 in lung adenocarcinoma by using the TCGA database. An elevation in FIS1, when observed together with other prognostic markers for lung cancer progression, was found to correlate with shorter overall survival.
    Keywords:  FIS1; cancer stem cell; mitochondrial fission; mitophagy; stemness
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.13207