bims-mikwok Biomed News
on Mitochondrial quality control
Issue of 2021‒05‒23
thirty-one papers selected by
Avinash N. Mukkala
University of Toronto

  1. J Transl Med. 2021 05 17. 19(1): 214
      BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are essential organelles that provide energy for cellular functions, participate in cellular signaling and growth, and facilitate cell death. Based on their multifactorial roles, mitochondria are also critical in the progression of critical illnesses. Transplantation of mitochondria has been reported as a potential promising approach to treat critical illnesses, particularly ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). However, a systematic review of the relevant literature has not been conducted to date. Here, we systematically reviewed the animal and human studies relevant to IRI to summarize the evidence for mitochondrial transplantation.METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane library, and Embase and performed a systematic review of mitochondrial transplantation for IRI in both preclinical and clinical studies. We developed a search strategy using a combination of keywords and Medical Subject Heading/Emtree terms. Studies including cell-mediated transfer of mitochondria as a transfer method were excluded. Data were extracted to a tailored template, and data synthesis was descriptive because the data were not suitable for meta-analysis.
    RESULTS: Overall, we identified 20 animal studies and two human studies. Among animal studies, 14 (70%) studies focused on either brain or heart IRI. Both autograft and allograft mitochondrial transplantation were used in 17 (85%) animal studies. The designs of the animal studies were heterogeneous in terms of the route of administration, timing of transplantation, and dosage used. Twelve (60%) studies were performed in a blinded manner. All animal studies reported that mitochondrial transplantation markedly mitigated IRI in the target tissues, but there was variation in biological biomarkers and pathological changes. The human studies were conducted with a single-arm, unblinded design, in which autologous mitochondrial transplantation was applied to pediatric patients who required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for IRI-associated myocardial dysfunction after cardiac surgery.
    CONCLUSION: The evidence gathered from our systematic review supports the potential beneficial effects of mitochondrial transplantation after IRI, but its clinical translation remains limited. Further investigations are thus required to explore the mechanisms of action and patient outcomes in critical settings after mitochondrial transplantation. Systematic review registration The study was registered at UMIN under the registration number UMIN000043347.
    Keywords:  Ischemia reperfusion injury; Mitochondria; Systematic review; Translation science; Transplantation
  2. J Cell Sci. 2020 Jan 01. pii: jcs.249045. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4) is palmitoylated type II transmembrane protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Knockout (KO) of CKAP4 in HeLaS3 cells induced the alterations of mitochondrial structures and increased the number of ER-mitochondria contact sites. To understand the involvement of CKAP4 in mitochondrial functions, the binding proteins of CKAP4 were explored, enabling identification of the mitochondrial porin voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 2 (VDAC2), which is localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane. Palmitoylation at Cys100 of CKAP4 was required for the binding of CKAP4 and VDAC2. In CKAP4 KO cells, the binding of inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and VDAC2 was enhanced, the intramitochondrial Ca2+ concentration increased, and the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased. In addition, CKAP4 KO decreased the oxidative consumption rate, in vitro cancer cell proliferation under low-glucose conditions, and in vivo xenograft tumor formation. The phenotypes were not rescued by a palmitoylation-deficient CKAP4 mutant. These results suggest that CKAP4 plays a role in maintaining mitochondrial functions through the binding to VDAC2 at ER-mitochondria contact sites and that palmitoylation is required for this novel function of CKAP4.
    Keywords:  CKAP4; ER; MAM; Mitochondria; Palmitoylation; VDAC2
  3. J Cell Sci. 2020 Jan 01. pii: jcs.237917. [Epub ahead of print]
      Heme is a cofactor and signaling molecule that is essential for much of aerobic life. All heme-dependent processes in eukaryotes require that heme is trafficked from its site of synthesis in the mitochondria to hemoproteins located throughout the cell. However, the mechanisms governing the mobilization of heme out of the mitochondria, and the spatio-temporal dynamics of these processes, are poorly understood. Herein, using genetically encoded fluorescent heme sensors, we developed a live cell assay to monitor heme distribution dynamics between the mitochondrial inner-membrane, where heme is synthesized, and the mitochondrial matrix, cytosol, and nucleus. Surprisingly, heme trafficking to the nucleus is ∼25% faster than to the cytosol or mitochondrial matrix, which are nearly identical, potentially supporting a role for heme as a mitochondrial-nuclear retrograde signal. Moreover, we discovered that the heme synthetic enzyme, 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS), and GTPases in control of the mitochondrial dynamics machinery, Mgm1 and Dnm1, and ER contact sites, Gem1, regulate the flow of heme between the mitochondria and nucleus. Overall, our results indicate that there are parallel pathways for the distribution of bioavailable heme.
    Keywords:  Heme; Heme transport; Mitochondrial dynamics; Yeast
  4. J Cell Sci. 2020 Jan 01. pii: jcs.248492. [Epub ahead of print]
      Proteasome-mediated degradation of misfolded proteins prevents aggregation inside and outside mitochondria. But how do cells safeguard mitochondrial proteome and function despite increased aggregation during proteasome-inactivation? Here, using a novel two-dimensional complexome profiling strategy, we report increased supra-organizations of respiratory complexes (RCs) in proteasome-inhibited cells simultaneous to pelletable aggregation of RC-subunits inside mitochondria. Complex-II (CII) and CV-subunits are increasingly incorporated into oligomers. CI, CIII and CIV-subunits are engaged into supercomplex formation. We unravel unique quinary-states of supercomplexes at early-stress that exhibit plasticity and inequivalence of constituent RCs. Core stoichiometry of CI and CIII is preserved whereas CIV-composition varies. These partially disintegrated supercomplexes remain functionally competent via conformational optimization. Subsequently, increased stepwise integration of RC-subunits into holocomplex and supercomplexes re-establish steady-state stoichiometry. Overall, the mechanism of increased supra-organization of RCs mimics the cooperative unfolding and folding pathways for protein-folding, restricted to RCs only and not observed for any other mitochondrial protein complexes.
    Keywords:  Increased supercomplex; Multistep proteome remodelling; Proteostasis; Quinary supercomplex; Respiratory complex biogenesis; Two-dimensional complexome profiling
  5. J Cell Sci. 2020 Jan 01. pii: jcs.247379. [Epub ahead of print]
      Survivin is a cancer-associated protein that is pivotal for cellular life and death: it is an essential mitotic protein and an inhibitor of apoptosis. In cancer cells, a small pool of survivin localises to the mitochondria, the function of which remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that mitochondrial survivin inhibits the selective form of autophagy, called "mitophagy", causing an accumulation of respiratory defective mitochondria. Mechanistically the data reveal that survivin prevents recruitment of the E3-ubiquitin ligase Parkin to mitochondria and their subsequent recognition by the autophagosome. The data also demonstrate that cells in which mitophagy has been blocked by survivin expression have an increased dependency on glycolysis. As these effects were found exclusively in cancer cells they suggest that the primary act of mitochondrial survivin is to steer cells towards the implementation of the Warburg transition by inhibiting mitochondrial turnover, which enables them to adapt and survive.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Mitochondria; Mitophagy; Respiration; Survivin
  6. J Cell Sci. 2020 Jan 01. pii: jcs.250944. [Epub ahead of print]
      Both functional and dysfunctional mitochondria are known to underlie tumor progression. Here, we establish use of the proto-oncogene Drosophila Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (Hipk) as a new tool to address this paradox. We find that, in Hipk-overexpressing tumor-like cells, mitochondria accumulate and switch from fragmented to highly fused interconnected morphologies. Moreover, elevated Hipk promotes mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization. These mitochondrial changes are at least in part driven by the upregulation of Myc. Furthermore, we show that the altered mitochondrial energetics, but not morphology, is required for Hipk tumor-like growth as knockdown of pdsw (NDUFB10 in mammals; a Complex I subunit) abrogates the growth. Knockdown of ATPsynβ (a Complex V subunit), which produces higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than pdsw knockdown, instead synergizes with Hipk to potentiate JNK activation and the downstream induction of Matrix metalloproteinases. Accordingly, ATPsynβ knockdown suppresses Hipk tumor-like growth only when ROS scavengers are co-expressed. Altogether, our work presents an in vivo tumor model featuring the accumulation of hyperfused and hyperpolarized mitochondria, and reveals respiratory Complex subunit-dependent, opposing effects on tumorigenic outcomes.
    Keywords:  Drosophila; Energetics; Hipk; Mitochondria; Myc; ROS
  7. Biol Open. 2020 Jan 01. pii: bio.054262. [Epub ahead of print]
      The mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) is a multi-protein interaction hub that helps define mitochondrial ultrastructure. While the functional importance of MICOS is mostly characterized in yeast and mammalian cells in culture, the contributions of MICOS to tissue homeostasis in vivo remain further elucidation. In this study, we examined how knocking down expression of Drosophila MICOS genes affects mitochondrial function and muscle tissue homeostasis. We found that CG5903/MIC26-MIC27 colocalizes and functions with Mitofilin/MIC60 and QIL1/MIC13 as a Drosophila MICOS component; knocking down expression of any of these three genes predictably altered mitochondrial morphology, causing loss of cristae junctions, and disruption of cristae packing. Furthermore, the knockdown flies exhibited low mitochondrial membrane potential, fusion/fission imbalances, increased mitophagy, and limited cell death. Reductions in climbing ability indicated deficits in muscle function. Knocking down MICOS genes also caused reduced mtDNA content and fragmented mitochondrial nucleoid structure in Drosophila. Together, our data demonstrate an essential role of Drosophila MICOS in maintaining proper homeostasis of mitochondrial structure and function to promote the function of muscle tissue.
    Keywords:  Drosophila; MICOS; Mitochondria
  8. J Cell Sci. 2020 Jan 01. pii: jcs.250241. [Epub ahead of print]
      Defective intracellular trafficking and export of microRNAs have been observed in growth retarded mammalian cells having impaired mitochondrial potential and dynamics. Uncoupling Protein 2 mediated depolarization of mitochondrial membrane also results in progressive sequestration of microRNAs with polysomes and lowered their release via extracellular vesicles. Interestingly, impaired miRNA-trafficking process in growth retarded human cells could be reversed in presence of Genipin an inhibitor of Uncoupling Protein 2. Mitochondrial detethering of endoplasmic reticulum, observed in mitochondria depolarized cells, found to be responsible for defective compartmentalization of translation initiation factor eIF4E to endoplasmic reticulum attached polysomes. It causes retarded translation process accompanied by enhanced retention of miRNAs and target mRNAs with endoplasmic reticulum attached polysomes to restrict extracellular export of miRNAs. Reduced compartment specific activity of mTORC1 complex, the master regulator of protein synthesis, in mitochondria defective or ER- detethered cells, causes reduced phosphorylation of eIF4E-BP1 to prevent eIF-4E targeting to ER attached polysome and microRNA export. These data suggest how mitochondrial membrane potential and dynamics, by affecting mTORC1 activity and compartmentalization, determine sub-cellular localization and export of microRNAs.
    Keywords:  EIF4E and mTORC1; Exosomes; Extracellular vesicles; MiRNA; Mitochondria; P-body; Polysome; Processing bodies
  9. EMBO Mol Med. 2021 May 20. e13579
      Mutations in OPA1 cause autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA) as well as DOA+, a phenotype characterized by more severe neurological deficits. OPA1 deficiency causes mitochondrial fragmentation and also disrupts cristae, respiration, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance, and cell viability. It has not yet been established whether phenotypic severity can be modulated by genetic modifiers of OPA1. We screened the entire known mitochondrial proteome (1,531 genes) to identify genes that control mitochondrial morphology using a first-in-kind imaging pipeline. We identified 145 known and novel candidate genes whose depletion promoted elongation or fragmentation of the mitochondrial network in control fibroblasts and 91 in DOA+ patient fibroblasts that prevented mitochondrial fragmentation, including phosphatidyl glycerophosphate synthase (PGS1). PGS1 depletion reduces CL content in mitochondria and rebalances mitochondrial dynamics in OPA1-deficient fibroblasts by inhibiting mitochondrial fission, which improves defective respiration, but does not rescue mtDNA depletion, cristae dysmorphology, or apoptotic sensitivity. Our data reveal that the multifaceted roles of OPA1 in mitochondria can be functionally uncoupled by modulating mitochondrial lipid metabolism, providing novel insights into the cellular relevance of mitochondrial fragmentation.
    Keywords:  OPA1; genetic modifiers; high-throughput screening; mitochondrial dynamics; phospholipid metabolism
  10. Cell Rep. 2021 May 18. pii: S2211-1247(21)00468-X. [Epub ahead of print]35(7): 109129
      Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles subjected to fission and fusion events. During mitosis, mitochondrial fission ensures equal distribution of mitochondria to daughter cells. If and how this process can actively drive mitotic progression remains largely unknown. Here, we discover a pathway linking mitochondrial fission to mitotic progression in mammalian cells. The mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), the main mitochondrial receptor for the Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), is directly phosphorylated by Protein Kinase D (PKD) specifically during mitosis. PKD-dependent MFF phosphorylation is required and sufficient for mitochondrial fission in mitotic but not in interphasic cells. Phosphorylation of MFF is crucial for chromosome segregation and promotes cell survival by inhibiting adaptation of the mitotic checkpoint. Thus, PKD/MFF-dependent mitochondrial fission is critical for the maintenance of genome integrity during cell division.
    Keywords:  MFF; PKD; cell survival; fission; mitochondria; mitosis; mitotic checkpoint
  11. Curr Biol. 2021 May 14. pii: S0960-9822(21)00609-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mutations in Vps13D cause defects in autophagy, clearance of mitochondria, and human movement disorders. Here, we discover that Vps13D functions in a pathway downstream of Vmp1 and upstream of Marf/Mfn2. Like vps13d, vmp1 mutant cells exhibit defects in autophagy, mitochondrial size, and clearance. Through the relationship between vmp1 and vps13d, we reveal a novel role for Vps13D in the regulation of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact. Significantly, the function of Vps13D in mitochondria and ER contact is conserved between fly and human cells, including fibroblasts derived from patients suffering from VPS13D mutation-associated neurological symptoms. vps13d mutants have increased levels of Marf/MFN2, a regulator of mitochondrial fusion. Importantly, loss of marf/MFN2 suppresses vps13d mutant phenotypes, including mitochondria and ER contact. These findings indicate that Vps13d functions at a regulatory point between mitochondria and ER contact, mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, and help to explain how Vps13D contributes to disease.
    Keywords:  Drosophila; Vmp1; Vps13D; autophagy; membrane contact; mitochondria
  12. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021 May 17. 12(1): 289
      BACKGROUND: Recent studies demonstrated that autologous mitochondria derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) might be valuable in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the mechanisms of mitochondrial transfer from BMSCs to injured neurons are not fully understood.METHODS: We modified BMSCs by CD157, a cell surface molecule as a potential regulator mitochondria transfer, then transplanted to SCI rats and co-cultured with OGD injured VSC4.1 motor neuron. We detected extracellular mitochondrial particles derived from BMSCs by transmission electron microscope and measured the CD157/cyclic ADP-ribose signaling pathway-related protein expression by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting assay. The CD157 ADPR-cyclase activity and Fluo-4 AM was used to detect the Ca2+ signal. All data were expressed as mean ± SEM. Statistical analysis was analyzed by GraphPad Prism 6 software. Unpaired t-test was used for the analysis of two groups. Multiple comparisons were evaluated by one-way ANOVA or two-way ANOVA.
    RESULTS: CD157 on BMSCs was upregulated when co-cultured with injured VSC4.1 motor neurons. Upregulation of CD157 on BMSCs could raise the transfer extracellular mitochondria particles to VSC4.1 motor neurons, gradually regenerate the axon of VSC4.1 motor neuron and reduce the cell apoptosis. Transplantation of CD157-modified BMSCs at the injured sites could significantly improve the functional recovery, axon regeneration, and neuron apoptosis in SCI rats. The level of Ca2+ in CD157-modified BMSCs dramatically increased when objected to high concentration cADPR, ATP content, and MMP of BMSCs also increased.
    CONCLUSION: The present results suggested that CD157 can regulate the production and transfer of BMSC-derived extracellular mitochondrial particles, enriching the mechanism of the extracellular mitochondrial transfer in BMSCs transplantation and providing a novel strategy to improve the stem cell treatment on SCI.
    Keywords:  Bone marrow stromal cells; CD157; Calcium; Mitochondria; Spinal cord injury
  13. J Cell Sci. 2020 Jan 01. pii: jcs.241539. [Epub ahead of print]
      One major cause of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is homeostatic imbalance between biosynthetic protein folding and protein folding capacity. Cells utilize mechanisms such as the unfolded protein response (UPR) to cope with ER stress. Nevertheless, when ER stress is prolonged or severe, cell death may occur, accompanied by production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using a yeast model, we describe an innate, adaptive response to ER stress to increase select mitochondrial proteins, O2 consumption, and cell survival. The mitochondrial response allows cells to resist additional ER stress. ER stress-induced mitochondrial response is mediated by activation of retrograde (RTG) signaling to enhance anapleurotic reactions of the TCA cycle. Mitochondrial response to ER stress is accompanied by inactivation of the conserved TORC1 pathway, and activation of Snf1/AMPK, the conserved energy sensor and regulator of metabolism. Our results provide new insight into the role of respiration in cell survival in the face of ER stress, and should help in developing therapeutic strategies to limit cell death in disorders linked to ER stress.
    Keywords:  ER stress; Endoplasmic reticulum; Mitochondria; Yeast
  14. J Cell Sci. 2020 Jan 01. pii: jcs.240374. [Epub ahead of print]
      The mitochondrial inner membrane contains a unique phospholipid known as cardiolipin (CL), which stabilises the protein complexes embedded in the membrane and supports its overall structure. Recent evidence indicates that the mitochondrial ribosome may associate with the inner membrane to facilitate co-translational insertion of the hydrophobic oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins into the inner membrane. We generated three mutant knockout cell lines for the cardiolipin biosynthesis gene Crls1 to investigate the effects of cardiolipin loss on mitochondrial protein synthesis. Reduced CL levels caused altered mitochondrial morphology and transcriptome-wide changes that were accompanied by reduced uncoordinated mitochondrial translation rates and impaired respiratory supercomplex formation. Aberrant protein synthesis was caused by impaired formation and distribution of mitochondrial ribosomes. Reduction or loss of cardiolipin resulted in divergent mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses. We show that cardiolipin is required to stabilise the interaction of the mitochondrial ribosome with the membrane via its association with OXA1 during active translation. This interaction facilitates insertion of newly synthesised mitochondrial proteins into the inner membrane and stabilises the respiratory supercomplexes.
    Keywords:  Mitochondrial membranes; Mitochondrial ribosomes; Protein synthesis
  15. J Cell Sci. 2021 May 15. pii: jcs255844. [Epub ahead of print]134(10):
      Myosin XIX (Myo19) is an actin-based motor that competes with adaptors of microtubule-based motors for binding to the outer mitochondrial transmembrane proteins Miro1 and Miro2 (collectively Miro, also known as RhoT1 and RhoT2, respectively). Here, we investigate which mitochondrial and cellular processes depend on the coordination of Myo19 and microtubule-based motor activities. To this end, we created Myo19-deficient HEK293T cells. Mitochondria in these cells were not properly fragmented at mitosis and were partitioned asymmetrically to daughter cells. Respiratory functions of mitochondria were impaired and ROS generation was enhanced. On a cellular level, cell proliferation, cytokinesis and cell-matrix adhesion were negatively affected. On a molecular level, Myo19 regulates focal adhesions in interphase, and mitochondrial fusion and mitochondrially associated levels of fission protein Drp1 and adaptor proteins dynactin and TRAK1 at prometaphase. These alterations were due to a disturbed coordination of Myo19 and microtubule-based motor activities by Miro.
    Keywords:  Cell adhesion; Mitochondria; Mitosis; Myosin
  16. J Exp Biol. 2020 Jan 01. pii: jeb.223776. [Epub ahead of print]
      The association of complex I (CI), complex III (CIII) and complex IV (CIV) of the mitochondrial electron transport chain into stable high-molecular weight supercomplexes (SCs) has been observed in several prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but among vertebrates it has only been examined in mammals. The biological role of these SCs is unclear but suggestions so far include enhanced electron transfer between complexes, decreased production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) O2·- and H2O2, or enhanced structural stability. Here, we provide the first overview on the stability, composition and activity of mitochondrial SCs in representative species of several vertebrate classes to determine patterns of SC variation across endotherms and ectotherms. We found that the stability of the CICIII2 SC and the inclusion of CIV within SC varied considerably. Specifically, when solubilized by the detergent DDM, mitochondrial CICIII2 SCs were unstable in endotherms (birds and mammals) and highly stable in reptiles. Using mass-spectrometric complexomics, we confirmed that the CICIII2 is the major SC in the turtle, and that 90% of CI is found in this highly stable SC. Interestingly, the presence of stable SCs did not prevent mitochondrial H2O2 production and was not associated with elevated respiration rates of mitochondria isolated from the examined species. Together, these data show that SC stability varies among vertebrates and is greatest in poikilothermic reptiles and weakest in endotherms. This pattern suggests an adaptive role of SCs to varying body temperature, but not necessarily a direct effect on electron transfer or in the prevention of ROS production.
    Keywords:  Bioenergetics; Complexomics; Mass spectrometry; Mitochondria; Oxidative phosphorylation; Reactive oxygen species
  17. Commun Biol. 2021 May 21. 4(1): 615
      Mitochondria are typically essential for the viability of eukaryotic cells, and utilize oxygen and nutrients (e.g. glucose) to perform key metabolic functions that maintain energetic homeostasis and support proliferation. Here we provide a comprehensive functional annotation of mitochondrial genes that are essential for the viability of a large panel (625) of tumour cell lines. We perform genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 deletion screening in normoxia-glucose, hypoxia-glucose and normoxia-galactose conditions, and identify both unique and overlapping genes whose loss influences tumour cell viability under these different metabolic conditions. We discover that loss of certain oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes (e.g. SDHC) improves tumour cell growth in hypoxia-glucose, but reduces growth in normoxia, indicating a metabolic switch in OXPHOS gene function. Moreover, compared to normoxia-glucose, loss of genes involved in energy-consuming processes that are energetically demanding, such as translation and actin polymerization, improve cell viability under both hypoxia-glucose and normoxia-galactose. Collectively, our study defines mitochondrial gene essentiality in tumour cells, highlighting that essentiality is dependent on the metabolic environment, and identifies routes for regulating tumour cell viability in hypoxia.
  18. Biol Open. 2020 Jan 01. pii: bio.048629. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria adapt to cellular needs by changes in morphology through fusion and fission events, referred to as mitochondrial dynamics. Mitochondrial function and morphology are intimately connected and the dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics is linked to several human diseases. In this work, we investigated the role of mitochondrial dynamics in wound healing in the Drosophila embryonic epidermis. Mutants for mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins fail to close their wounds, indicating that the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics is required for wound healing. By live-imaging, we found that loss of function of the mitochondrial fission protein Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) compromises the increase of cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium upon wounding and leads to reduced ROS production and F-actin defects at the wound edge, culminating in wound healing impairment. Our results highlight a new role for mitochondrial dynamics in the regulation of calcium, ROS and F-actin during epithelial repair.
    Keywords:  Calcium; Drp1; F-actin; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial dynamics; Wound healing
  19. Cell Metab. 2021 May 17. pii: S1550-4131(21)00183-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria control eukaryotic cell fate by producing the energy needed to support life and the signals required to execute programed cell death. The biochemical milieu is known to affect mitochondrial function and contribute to the dysfunctional mitochondrial phenotypes implicated in cancer and the morbidities of aging. However, the physical characteristics of the extracellular matrix are also altered in cancerous and aging tissues. Here, we demonstrate that cells sense the physical properties of the extracellular matrix and activate a mitochondrial stress response that adaptively tunes mitochondrial function via solute carrier family 9 member A1-dependent ion exchange and heat shock factor 1-dependent transcription. Overall, our data indicate that adhesion-mediated mechanosignaling may play an unappreciated role in the altered mitochondrial functions observed in aging and cancer.
    Keywords:  UPRmt; adhesion; aging; cancer; extracellular matrix; mechanical stress; mechanotabolism; metabolism; oxidative stress; tension
  20. J Exp Biol. 2020 Jan 01. pii: jeb.222513. [Epub ahead of print]
      Telomeres are DNA structures that protect chromosome ends. However, telomeres shorten during cell replication and at critically low lengths can reduce cell replicative potential, induce cell senescence and decrease fitness. Stress exposure, which elevates glucocorticoid hormone concentrations, can exacerbate telomere attrition. This phenomenon has been attributed to increased oxidative stress generated by glucocorticoids ('oxidative stress hypothesis'). We recently suggested that glucocorticoids could increase telomere attrition during stressful periods by reducing the resources available for telomere maintenance through changes in the metabolic machinery ('metabolic telomere attrition hypothesis'). Here we tested whether experimental increases in glucocorticoid levels affected telomere length and mitochondrial function in wild great tit (Parus major) nestlings during the energy-demanding early growth. We monitored resulting corticosterone (Cort) concentrations in plasma, and in red blood cells, telomere lengths and mitochondrial metabolism (metabolic rate, proton leak, oxidative phosphorylation, maximal mitochondrial capacity and mitochondrial inefficiency). We assessed oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolites as well as the total non-enzymatic antioxidant protection in plasma. Compared with control (Ctrl) nestlings, Cort-nestlings had higher baseline corticosterone, shorter telomeres and higher mitochondrial metabolic rate. Importantly, Cort-nestlings showed increased mitochondrial proton leak, leading to a decreased ATP production efficiency. Treatment groups did not differ in oxidative damage or antioxidants. Hence, glucocorticoid-induced telomere attrition is associated with changes in mitochondrial metabolism, but not with ROS production. These findings support the hypothesis that shortening of telomere length during stressful periods is mediated by glucocorticoids through metabolic rearrangements.
    Keywords:  Glucocorticoid receptor; Metabolism; Mitochondria; Nr3c1; Oxidative stress; Proton leak; Telomere
  21. J Cell Sci. 2020 Jan 01. pii: jcs.248880. [Epub ahead of print]
      Neutrophils rely on glycolysis for energy production. How mitochondria regulate neutrophil function is not fully understood. Here, we report that mitochondrial outer membrane protein Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) regulates neutrophil homeostasis and chemotaxis in vivo. Mfn2-deficient neutrophils are released from the hematopoietic tissue, trapped in the vasculature in zebrafish embryos, and not capable of chemotaxis. Consistently, human neutrophil-like cells deficient with MFN2 fail to arrest on activated endothelium under sheer stress or perform chemotaxis on 2D surfaces. Deletion of Mfn2 results in a significant reduction of neutrophil infiltration to the inflamed peritoneal cavity in mice. Mechanistically, MFN2-deficient neutrophil-like cells display disrupted mitochondria-ER interaction, heightened intracellular calcium levels, and elevated Rac activation after chemokine stimulation. Restoring mitochondria-ER tether rescues the abnormal calcium levels, Rac hyperactivation, and chemotaxis defect resulted from MFN2 depletion. Finally, inhibition of Rac activation restores chemotaxis in MFN2-deficient neutrophils. Altogether, we identified that MFN2 regulates neutrophil migration via maintaining mitochondria-ER interaction to suppress Rac activation and uncovered a previously unrecognized role of MFN2 in regulating cell migration and the actin cytoskeleton.
    Keywords:  Actin; Chemotaxis; Leukocyte; Mitochondria; Rac; Zebrafish
  22. J Exp Biol. 2020 Jan 01. pii: jeb.215558. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mass-specific metabolic rate negatively co-varies with body mass from the whole-animal to the mitochondrial levels. Mitochondria are the mainly consumers of oxygen inspired by mammals to generate ATP or compensate energetic losses dissipated as the form of heat (proton leak) during oxidative phosphorylation. Consequently, ATP synthesis and proton leak thus compete for the same electrochemical gradient. Because proton leak co-varies negatively with body mass, it is unknown if extremely small mammals further decouple their mitochondria to maintain their body temperature or if they implement metabolic innovations to ensure cellular homeostasis. The present study investigates the impact of body mass variation on cellular and mitochondrial functioning in small mammals, comparing the two extremely small African pygmy mice (Mus mattheyi, approx. 5 g and Mus minutoides, approx. 7 g) with the larger house mouse (Mus musculus, approx. 22 g). Oxygen consumption rates were measured from the animal to the mitochondrial levels. We also measured mitochondrial ATP synthesis in order to appreciate the mitochondrial efficiency (ATP/O). At the whole-animal scale, mass- and surface-specific metabolic rates co-varied negatively with body mass, whereas this was not necessarily the case at cellular and mitochondrial levels. M. mattheyi had generally the lowest cellular and mitochondrial fluxes, depending on the tissue considered (liver or skeletal muscle), as well as having higher efficient muscle mitochondria than the other two species. M. mattheyi presents metabolic innovations to ensure its homeostasis, by generating more ATP per oxygen consumed.
    Keywords:  Allometry; Liver; Mitochondrial efficiency; Mus; Muscles; Oxidative phosphorylation
  23. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2021 May 20.
      SIGNIFICANCE: The small, multicopy mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is essential for efficient energy production, as alterations in its coding information or a decrease in its copy number disrupt mitochondrial ATP synthesis. However, the mitochondrial replication machinery encounters numerous challenges that may limit its ability to duplicate this important genome and that jeopardize mtDNA stability, including various lesions in the DNA template, topological stress and an insufficient nucleotide supply. Recent Advances: An ever-growing array of DNA repair or maintenance factors are being reported to localize to the mitochondria. We review current knowledge regarding the mitochondrial factors that may contribute to the tolerance or repair of various types of changes in the mitochondrial genome, such as base damage, incorporated ribonucleotides and strand breaks. We also discuss the newly-discovered link between mtDNA instability and activation of the innate immune response.CRITICAL ISSUES: By which mechanisms do mitochondria respond to challenges that threaten mtDNA maintenance? What types of mtDNA damage are repaired, and when are the affected molecules degraded instead? And, finally, which forms of mtDNA instability trigger an immune response, and how?
    FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Further work is required to understand the contribution of the DNA repair and damage-tolerance factors present in the mitochondrial compartment, as well as the balance between mtDNA repair and degradation. Finally, efforts to understand the events underlying mtDNA release into the cytosol are warranted. Pursuing these and many related avenues can improve our understanding of what goes wrong in mitochondrial disease.
  24. J Cell Sci. 2020 Jan 01. pii: jcs.245589. [Epub ahead of print]
      Heat shock response (HSR) is a conserved cellular defensive response against stresses such as temperature, oxidative stress, and heavy metals. A significant group of players in HSR is the set of molecular chaperones, known as heat shock proteins (HSPs) that assist in the refolding of unfolded proteins and prevent the accumulation of damaged proteins. HSP genes are activated by the HSF1 transcription factor-a master regulator of the HSR pathway. A variety of stressors activates HSF1, but the key molecular players and the process that directly contribute to the HSF1 activation remains unclear. In this study, we show that heat shock induces perinuclear clustering of mitochondria in mammalian cells, and this clustering is essential for the activation of HSR. We also show that this perinuclear clustering of mitochondria results in the increased levels of ROS in the nucleus, leading to the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Finally, we provide evidence to suggest that HIF-1α is one of the critical regulators of HSF1 and that HIF-1α is essential for the activation of HSR during a heat shock.
    Keywords:  Chaperones; Hypoxia response; Mitochondrial transport; Oxidative stress; Stress response; Transcriptional regulation
  25. STAR Protoc. 2021 Jun 18. 2(2): 100466
      Hypoxia is known to stimulate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) in cells. Here, we present a detailed protocol to detect mROS using MitoSOX staining in live cells under normoxia and hypoxia. Flow cytometry allows sensitive and reliable quantification of mROS by FlowJo software. We optimized several aspects of the procedure including hypoxic treatment, working concentrations of the staining buffer, and quantitative analyses. Here, we use HepG2 cells, but the protocol can be applied to other cell lines. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Yang et al. (2020).
    Keywords:  Cell Biology; Cell-based Assays; Flow Cytometry/Mass Cytometry; Molecular/Chemical Probes
  26. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 606639
      Over the years, Drosophila has served as a wonderful genetically tractable model system to unravel various facets of tissue-resident stem cells in their microenvironment. Studies in different stem and progenitor cell types of Drosophila have led to the discovery of cell-intrinsic and extrinsic factors crucial for stem cell state and fate. Though initially touted as the ATP generating machines for carrying various cellular processes, it is now increasingly becoming clear that mitochondrial processes alone can override the cellular program of stem cells. The last few years have witnessed a surge in our understanding of mitochondria's contribution to governing different stem cell properties in their subtissular niches in Drosophila. Through this review, we intend to sum up and highlight the outcome of these in vivo studies that implicate mitochondria as a central regulator of stem cell fate decisions; to find the commonalities and uniqueness associated with these regulatory mechanisms.
    Keywords:  Drosophila; differentiation; maintenance; metabolism; mitochondria; regulation; stem cell
  27. Redox Biol. 2021 May 05. pii: S2213-2317(21)00158-0. [Epub ahead of print]43 102000
      The consequences of damage to the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) are poorly understood, although mtDNA is more susceptible to damage resulting from some genotoxicants than nuclear DNA (nucDNA), and many environmental toxicants target the mitochondria. Reports from the toxicological literature suggest that exposure to early-life mitochondrial damage could lead to deleterious consequences later in life (the "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease" paradigm), but reports from other fields often report beneficial ("mitohormetic") responses to such damage. Here, we tested the effects of low (causing no change in lifespan) levels of ultraviolet C (UVC)-induced, irreparable mtDNA damage during early development in Caenorhabditis elegans. This exposure led to life-long reductions in mtDNA copy number and steady-state ATP levels, accompanied by increased oxygen consumption and altered metabolite profiles, suggesting inefficient mitochondrial function. Exposed nematodes were also developmentally delayed, reached smaller adult size, and were rendered more susceptible to subsequent exposure to chemical mitotoxicants. Metabolomic and genetic analysis of key signaling and metabolic pathways supported redox and mitochondrial stress-response signaling during early development as a mechanism for establishing these persistent alterations. Our results highlight the importance of early-life exposures to environmental pollutants, especially in the context of exposure to chemicals that target mitochondria.
    Keywords:  Bioenergetics; Developmental exposures; Environmental toxicants; Mitochondrial DNA damage; Mitochondrial function; Redox signaling
  28. Sci Rep. 2021 May 18. 11(1): 10515
      Acute respiratory failure (ARF) requiring mechanical ventilation, a complicating factor in sepsis and other disorders, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite its severity and prevalence, treatment options are limited. In light of accumulating evidence that mitochondrial abnormalities are common in ARF, here we applied broad spectrum quantitative and semiquantitative metabolomic analyses of serum from ARF patients to detect bioenergetic dysfunction and determine its association with survival. Plasma samples from surviving and non-surviving patients (N = 15/group) were taken at day 1 and day 3 after admission to the medical intensive care unit and, in survivors, at hospital discharge. Significant differences between survivors and non-survivors (ANOVA, 5% FDR) include bioenergetically relevant intermediates of redox cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and NAD phosphate (NADP), increased acyl-carnitines, bile acids, and decreased acyl-glycerophosphocholines. Many metabolites associated with poor outcomes are substrates of NAD(P)-dependent enzymatic processes, while alterations in NAD cofactors rely on bioavailability of dietary B-vitamins thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine. Changes in the efficiency of the nicotinamide-derived cofactors' biosynthetic pathways also associate with alterations in glutathione-dependent drug metabolism characterized by substantial differences observed in the acetaminophen metabolome. Based on these findings, a four-feature model developed with semi-quantitative and quantitative metabolomic results predicted patient outcomes with high accuracy (AUROC = 0.91). Collectively, this metabolomic endotype points to a close association between mitochondrial and bioenergetic dysfunction and mortality in human ARF, thus pointing to new pharmacologic targets to reduce mortality in this condition.
  29. Vascul Pharmacol. 2021 May 13. pii: S1537-1891(21)00045-8. [Epub ahead of print] 106873
      During myocardial ischemia, timely reperfusion is critical to limit infarct area and the overall loss of cardiac contractile function. However, reperfusion further exacerbates the damage of the ischemic heart. This type of injury is known as ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Ischemic conditioning is a procedure which consists of brief cycles of ischemia and reperfusion in order to protect the myocardium against IRI. Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC), namely transient brief episodes of ischemia at a remote site before a subsequent damaging ischemia/reperfusion procedure of the target organ (e.g., the heart), protects against IRI. However, how the stimulus of RIC is transduced from the remote organ to the ischemic heart is still unknown. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been proposed to have a role in the RIC procedure. The endothelium releases EVs and is also one of the tissues mostly exposed to EVs during their journey to the target organ. Moreover, EVs may have important roles in angiogenesis and, therefore, in the remodeling of post-ischemic organs. Here we analyze how EVs may contribute to the overall cardioprotective effect and the implication of the endothelium and its EVs in RIC mediated acute cardioprotection as well as in angiogenesis.
    Keywords:  Biomarkers; Cardioprotection; Endothelial cells; Remote ischemic conditioning
  30. J Exp Biol. 2020 Jan 01. pii: jeb.210492. [Epub ahead of print]
      The capacity to extract oxygen from the environment and transport it to respiring tissues in support of metabolic demand reportedly has implications for species' thermal tolerance, body-size, diversity and biogeography. Here we derive a quantifiable linkage between maximum and basal metabolic rate and their oxygen, temperature and size dependencies. We show that, regardless of size or temperature, the physiological capacity for oxygen supply precisely matches the maximum evolved demand at the highest persistently available oxygen pressure and this is the critical PO2 for the maximum metabolic rate. For most terrestrial and shallow-living marine species, this "Pcrit-max" is the current atmospheric pressure, 21 kPa. Any reduction in oxygen partial pressure from current values will result in a calculable decrement in maximum metabolic performance. However, oxygen supply capacity has evolved to match demand across temperatures and body sizes and so does not constrain thermal tolerance or cause the well-known reduction in mass-specific metabolic rate with increasing body mass. The critical oxygen pressure for resting metabolic rate, typically viewed as an indicator of hypoxia tolerance, is, instead, simply a rate-specific reflection of the oxygen supply capacity. A compensatory reduction in maintenance metabolic costs in warm-adapted species constrains factorial aerobic scope and the critical PO2 to a similar range, between ∼2 and 6, across each species' natural temperature range. The simple new relationship described here redefines many important physiological concepts and alters their ecological interpretation.
    Keywords:  Aerobic scope; Critical thermal maximum; Hypoxia tolerance; Maximum metabolic rate; Metabolic theory; Oxygen supply capacity
  31. Mitochondrion. 2021 May 16. pii: S1567-7249(21)00072-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Non-shivering thermogenesis takes place in brown and beige adipocytes and facilitates cold tolerance and acclimation. However, thermogenesis in adipose tissue also was found to be activated in metabolic overload states for fast utilization of nutrients excess. This observation spurred research interest in mechanisms of thermogenesis regulation for metabolic overload and obesity prevention. One of proposed regulators of thermogenic efficiency in adipocytes is the dynamics of mitochondria, where thermogenesis takes place. Indeed, brown and beige adipocytes exhibit fragmented round-shaped mitochondria, while white adipocytes have elongated organelles with high ATP synthesis. Mitochondrial morphology can determine uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) content, efficiency of catabolic pathways and electron transport chain, supplying thermogenesis. This review will highlight the co-regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and thermogenesis and formulate hypothetical ways for excessive nutrients burning in response to mitochondrial morphology manipulation .
    Keywords:  Mitochondrial dynamics; beige fat; brown fat; metabolism; thermogenesis