bims-mikwok Biomed News
on Mitochondrial quality control
Issue of 2021‒03‒28
eleven papers selected by
Avinash N. Mukkala
University of Toronto

  1. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Mar 22.
      The remodeling of the mitochondrial network is a critical process in maintaining cellular homeostasis and is intimately related to mitochondrial function. The interplay between the formation of new mitochondria (biogenesis) and the removal of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy) provide a means for the repopulation of the mitochondrial network. Additionally, mitochondrial fission and fusion serve as a bridge between biogenesis and mitophagy. In recent years, the importance of these processes has been characterised in multiple tissue- and cell-types, and under various conditions. In skeletal muscle, the robust remodeling of the mitochondrial network is observed, particularly after injury where large portions of the tissue/cell structures are damaged. The significance of mitochondrial remodeling in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration has been widely studied, with alterations in mitochondrial remodeling processes leading to incomplete regeneration and impaired skeletal muscle function. Needless to say, important questions related to mitochondrial remodeling and skeletal muscle regeneration still remain unanswered and require further investigation. Therefore, this review will discuss the known molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial network remodeling, as well as integrate these mechanisms and discuss their relevance in myogenesis and regenerating skeletal muscle.
    Keywords:  Biogenesis; Fission; Fusion; Mitochondria; Mitophagy; Regeneration; Skeletal muscle; Skeletal muscle stem cells
  2. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2021 Mar 22. pii: S2352-345X(21)00059-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND & AIMS: DJ-1 is universally expressed in various tissues and organs, and involved in the physiological processes in various liver diseases. However, the role of DJ-1 in liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is largely unknown.METHODS: In this study, we first examined the DJ-1 expression changes in the liver tissues of mice and clinical donor post hepatic I/R by both qPCR and western blotting assays. And then we investigate the role of DJ-1 in I/R injury by employing a murine liver I/R model.
    RESULTS: We demonstrate that DJ-1 down-regulation in both human and mouse liver tissues in response to I/R injury, and Dj-1 deficiency in hepatocytes but not in myeloid cells could significantly ameliorate I/R induced liver injury and inflammatory responses. This hepatoprotective effects was dependent on enhanced autophagy in Dj-1 knockout mice, because inhibition of autophagy by 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (CQ) could reverse the protective effect on hepatic I/R injury in Dj-1 knockout mice CONCLUSION: Dj-1 deficiency in hepatocytes significantly enhanced mitochondrial accumulation and protein stability of PARKIN, which in turn promotes the onset of mitophagy resulting in elevated clearance of damaged mitochondria during I/R injury.
    Keywords:  DJ-1; PARKIN; liver I/R injury; mitophagy
  3. PLoS One. 2021 ;16(3): e0248554
      Mitochondrial dynamics is a possible modulator of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injuries (IRI). We previously reported that mice partially deficient in the fusion protein OPA1 exhibited higher IRI. Therefore, we investigated whether deficiency in the fission protein DRP1 encoded by Dnm1l gene would affect IRI in Dnm1l+/- mouse. After baseline characterization of the Dnm1l+/- mice heart, using echocardiography, electron microscopy, and oxygraphy, 3-month-old Dnm1l+/- and wild type (WT) mice were exposed to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). The ischemic area-at-risk (AAR) and area of necrosis (AN) were delimited, and the infarct size was expressed by AN/AAR. Proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy were analyzed before and after I/R. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening sensitivity was assessed after I/R. Heart weight and left ventricular function were not significantly different in 3-, 6- and 12-month-old Dnm1l+/- mice than in WT. The cardiac DRP1 protein expression levels were 60% lower, whereas mitochondrial area and lipid degradation were significantly higher in Dnm1l+/- mice than in WT, though mitochondrial respiratory parameters and mPTP opening did not significantly differ. Following I/R, the infarct size was significantly smaller in Dnm1l+/- mice than in WT (34.6±3.1% vs. 44.5±3.3%, respectively; p<0.05) and the autophagic markers, LC3 II and P62 were significantly increased compared to baseline condition in Dnm1l+/- mice only. Altogether, data indicates that increasing fusion by means of Dnm1l deficiency was associated with protection against IRI, without alteration in cardiac or mitochondrial functions at basal conditions. This protection mechanism due to DRP1 haploinsufficiency increases the expression of autophagic markers.
  4. Apoptosis. 2021 Mar 09.
      Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability and death worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been recognized as a marker of neuronal death during ischemic stroke. Maintaining the function of mitochondria is important for improving the survival of neurons and maintaining neuronal function. Damaged mitochondria induce neuronal cell apoptosis by releasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-apoptotic factors. Mitochondrial fission and fusion processes and mitophagy are of great importance to mitochondrial quality control. This paper reviews the dynamic changes in mitochondria, the roles of mitochondria in different cell types, and related signaling pathways in ischemic stroke. This review describes in detail the role of mitochondria in the process of neuronal injury and protection in cerebral ischemia, and integrates neuroprotective drugs targeting mitochondria in recent years, which may provide a theoretical basis for the progress of treatment of ischemic stroke. The potential of mitochondrial-targeted therapy is also emphasized, which provides valuable insights for clinical research.
    Keywords:  Ischemic stroke; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial dynamics; Mitophagy; Neuroprotective drugs; Reactive oxygen species
  5. Mitochondrion. 2021 Mar 22. pii: S1567-7249(21)00037-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Calcium (Ca2+) signalling is well known to dictate cellular functioning and fate. In recent years, the accumulation of Ca2+ in the mitochondria has emerged as an important factor in Chronic Respiratory Diseases (CRD) such as Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Various reports underline an aberrant increase in the intracellular Ca2+, leading to mitochondrial ROS generation, and further activation of the apoptotic pathway in these diseases. Mitochondria contribute to Ca2+ buffering which in turn regulates mitochondrial metabolism and ATP production. Disruption of this Ca2+ balance leads to impaired cellular processes like apoptosis or necrosis and thus contributes to the pathophysiology of airway diseases. This review highlights the key role of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca2+ signalling in regulating CRD, such as asthma and COPD. A better understanding of the dysregulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis in these diseases could provide cues for the development of advanced therapeutic interventions in these diseases.
    Keywords:  Airway remodelling; Asthma; COPD; Calcium Homeostasis; Mitochondria
  6. Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 23. 11(1): 6671
      The mitochondrion is one of the key organelles for maintaining cellular homeostasis. External environmental stimuli and internal regulatory processes may alter the metabolism and functions of mitochondria. To understand these activities of mitochondria, it is critical to probe the key metabolic molecules inside these organelles. In this study, we used label-free chemical imaging modalities including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and multiphoton-excited fluorescence to investigate the mitochondrial activities in living cancer cells. We found that hypothermia exposure tends to induce fatty-acid (FA) accumulation in some mitochondria of MIAPaCa-2 cells. Autofluorescence images show that the FA-accumulated mitochondria also have abnormal metabolism of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen, likely induced by the dysfunction of the electron transport chain. We also found that when the cells were re-warmed to physiological temperature after a period of hypothermia, the FA-accumulated mitochondria changed their structural features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that FA accumulation in mitochondria was observed in live cells. Our research also demonstrates that multimodal label-free chemical imaging is an attractive tool to discover abnormal functions of mitochondria at the single-organelle level and can be used to quantify the dynamic changes of these organelles under perturbative conditions.
  7. FASEB J. 2021 Apr;35(4): e21553
      The role of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) in the regulation of skeletal muscle (SM) mitochondria-sarcoplasmic (SR) juxtaposition, mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial cristae density (MCD), and SM quality has not been studied in humans. In in vitro studies, whether Mfn2 increases or decreases mitochondria-SR juxtaposition remains controversial. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images are commonly used to measure the organelle juxtaposition, but the measurements are performed "by-hand," thus potentially leading to between-rater differences. The purposes of this study were to: (1) examine the repeatability and reproducibility of mitochondrial-SR juxtaposition measurement from TEM images of human SM between three raters with different experience and (2) compare the mitochondrial-SR juxtaposition, mitochondrial morphology, MCD (stereological-method), and SM quality (cross-sectional area [CSA] and the maximum voluntary contraction [MVC]) between subjects with high abundance (Mfn2-HA; n = 6) and low abundance (Mfn2-LA; n = 6) of Mfn2 protein. The mitochondria-SR juxtaposition had moderate repeatability and reproducibility, with the most experienced raters showing the best values. There were no differences between Mfn2-HA and Mfn2-LA groups in mitochondrial size, distance from mitochondria to SR, CSA, or MVC. Nevertheless, the Mfn2-LA group showed lower mitochondria-SR interaction, MCD, and VO2max . In conclusion, mitochondrial-SR juxtaposition measurement depends on the experience of the rater, and Mfn2 protein seems to play a role in the metabolic control of human men SM, by regulating the mitochondria-SR interaction.
    Keywords:  MICOS complex; mitochondria dynamics; organelle communication; repeatability; reproducibility; transmission electron microscopy
  8. Mol Med Rep. 2021 May;pii: 384. [Epub ahead of print]23(5):
      Platelet mitophagy is a major pathway involved in the clearance of injured mitochondria during hemostasis and thrombosis. Prohibitin 2 (PHB2) has recently emerged as an inner mitochondrial membrane receptor involved in mitophagy. However, the mechanisms underlying PHB2‑mediated platelet mitophagy and activation are not completely understood. PHB2 is a highly conserved inner mitochondrial membrane protein that regulates mitochondrial assembly and function due to its unique localization on the mitochondrial membrane. The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism underlying PHB2 in platelet mitophagy and activation. Phorbol‑12‑myristate‑13‑acetate (PMA) was used to induce MEG‑01 cells maturation and differentiate into platelets following PHB2 knockdown. Cell Counting Kit‑8 assays were performed to examine platelet viability. Flow cytometry was performed to assess platelet mitochondrial membrane potential. RT‑qPCR and western blotting were conducted to measure mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. Subsequently, platelets were exposed to CCCP and the role of PHB2 was assessed. The results of the present study identified a crucial role for PHB2 in platelet mitophagy and activation, suggesting that PHB2‑mediated regulation of mitophagy may serve as a novel strategy for downregulating the expression of platelet activation genes. Although further research into mitophagy is required, the present study suggested that PHB2 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for thrombosis‑related diseases due to its unique localization on the mitochondrial membrane.
  9. Mitochondrion. 2021 Mar 17. pii: S1567-7249(21)00035-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      Complex I is the largest and most intricate of the protein complexes of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). This L-shaped enzyme consists of a peripheral hydrophilic matrix domain and a membrane-bound orthogonal hydrophobic domain. The interfacial region between these two arms is known to be critical for binding of ubiquinone moieties and has also been shown to be the binding site of Complex I inhibitors. Knowledge on specific roles of the ETC interfacial region proteins is scarce due to lack of knockout cell lines and animal models. Here we mutated nuclear encoded NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 2 (NDUFS2), one of three protein subunits of the interfacial region, in a human embryonic kidney cell line 293 using a CRISPR/Cas9 procedure. Disruption of NDUFS2 significantly decreased cell growth in medium, Complex I specific respiration, glycolytic capacity, ATP pool and cell-membrane integrity, but significantly increased Complex II respiration, ROS generation, apoptosis, and necrosis. Treatment with idebenone, a clinical benzoquinone currently being investigated in other indications, partially restored growth, ATP pool, and oxygen consumption of the mutant. Overall, our results suggest that NDUFS2 is vital for growth and metabolism of mammalian cells, and respiratory defects of NDUFS2 dysfunction can be partially corrected with treatment of an established mitochondrial therapeutic candidate. This is the first report to use CRISPR/Cas9 approach to construct a knockout NDUFS2 cell line and use the constructed mutant to evaluate the efficacy of a known mitochondrial therapeutic to enhance bioenergetic capacity.
    Keywords:  ATP synthesis; CRISPR/Cas9; Complex I; Electron transport chain; ROS; apoptosis; glycolysis; idebenone; necrosis; oxygen consumption; respiration
  10. Redox Biol. 2021 Mar 06. pii: S2213-2317(21)00084-7. [Epub ahead of print]41 101936
      Recently, numerous evidence has revealed that excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial disruption during acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) will aggravate the inflammatory process. To identify whether antioxidation can be one of the treatment strategies during this progress, we chose mitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant that was proved to be effective in reducing ROS generated in mitochondria, as a ROS scavenger to investigate the role of antioxidation in ALI. We demonstrated that overoxidation occurred during the process of ALI, which could be reduced by mitoQ. In the meantime, apoptosis of endothelial cells of ALI mice, accompanied by hyperpermeability of pulmonary vascular and impaired pulmonary function, was partially reversed following an intraperitoneal injection of mitoQ. Moreover, in in vitro study, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced excessive ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs), which were rectified by mitoQ. To explore underlying mechanisms, we proceeded RNA-sequencing and found significantly upregulated expression of musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma F (MafF) in mitoQ treated group. Additionally, mitoQ inhibited the degradation and increased nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulated its downstream antioxidant response elements (AREs), such as heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO)-1. This effect was abolished by transfecting HPMECs with Nrf2 or Maff siRNA. In Nrf2 deficient mice, the protective effects of mitoQ on LPS model of ALI were largely vanished. Taken together, these results provide insights into how antioxidation exerts beneficial effects on ALI via maintaining mitochondrial hemostasis, inhibiting endothelial cells apoptosis, attenuating the endothelial disruption and regulating lung inflammation via Nrf2-MafF/ARE pathway.
    Keywords:  ALI; Apoptosis; Endothelial cells; MitoQ; Nrf2
  11. FASEB J. 2021 Apr;35(4): e21278
      Mitochondria share attributes of vesicular transport with their bacterial ancestors given their ability to form mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs). MDVs are involved in mitochondrial quality control and their formation is enhanced with stress and may, therefore, play a potential role in mitochondrial-cellular communication. However, MDV proteomic cargo has remained mostly undefined. In this study, we strategically used an in vitro MDV budding/reconstitution assay on cardiac mitochondria, followed by graded oxidative stress, to identify and characterize the MDV proteome. Our results confirmed previously identified cardiac MDV markers, while also revealing a complete map of the MDV proteome, paving the way to a better understanding of the role of MDVs. The oxidative stress vulnerability of proteins directed the cargo loading of MDVs, which was enhanced by antimycin A (Ant-A). Among OXPHOS complexes, complexes III and V were found to be Ant-A-sensitive. Proteins from metabolic pathways such as the TCA cycle and fatty acid metabolism, along with Fe-S cluster, antioxidant response proteins, and autophagy were also found to be Ant-A sensitive. Intriguingly, proteins containing hyper-reactive cysteine residues, metabolic redox switches, including professional redox enzymes and those that mediate iron metabolism, were found to be components of MDV cargo with Ant-A sensitivity. Last, we revealed a possible contribution of MDVs to the formation of extracellular vesicles, which may indicate mitochondrial stress. In conclusion, our study provides an MDV proteomics signature that delineates MDV cargo selectivity and hints at the potential for MDVs and their novel protein cargo to serve as vital biomarkers during mitochondrial stress and related pathologies.
    Keywords:  hyper-reactive cysteine residues; mitochondrial iron transport; mitochondrial quality control; mitochondrial stress; mitochondrial-derived vesicle proteome