bims-mikwok Biomed News
on Mitochondrial quality control
Issue of 2021‒01‒03
twenty-four papers selected by
Avinash N. Mukkala
University of Toronto

  1. Cardiovasc Res. 2021 Jan 02. pii: cvaa343. [Epub ahead of print]
      AIMS: Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial fission induced by acute myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury has been shown to reduce myocardial infarct size. The clinically used anti-hypertensive and heart failure medication, hydralazine, is known to have anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. Here, we investigated whether hydralazine confers acute cardioprotection by inhibiting Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission.METHODS AND RESULTS: Pre-treatment with hydralazine was shown to inhibit both mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial membrane depolarisation induced by oxidative stress in HeLa cells. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), pre-treatment with hydralazine attenuated mitochondrial fission and cell death induced by oxidative stress, but this effect was absent in MEFs deficient in the mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1. Molecular docking and surface plasmon resonance studies demonstrated binding of hydralazine to the GTPase domain of the mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1 (KD 8.6 ± 1.0 µM), and inhibition of Drp1 GTPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. In isolated adult murine cardiomyocytes subjected to simulated ischaemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), hydralazine inhibited mitochondrial fission, preserved mitochondrial fusion events, and reduced cardiomyocyte death (hydralazine 24.7 ± 2.5% vs control 34.1 ± 1.5%, P = 0.0012). In ex vivo perfused murine hearts subjected to acute IRI, pre-treatment with hydralazine reduced myocardial infarct size (as % left ventricle: hydralazine 29.6 ± 6.5% vs vehicle control 54.1 ± 4.9%, P = 0.0083), and in the murine heart subjected to in vivo IRI, the administration of hydralazine at reperfusion, decreased myocardial infarct size (as % area-at-risk: hydralazine 28.9 ± 3.0% vs vehicle control 58.2 ± 3.8%, P < 0.001).
    CONCLUSION: We show that, in addition to its anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects, hydralazine, confers acute cardioprotection by inhibiting IRI-induced mitochondrial fission, raising the possibility of repurposing hydralazine as a novel cardioprotective therapy for improving post-infarction outcomes.
    TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Hydralazine is used clinically as a treatment for patients with hypertension and chronic heart failure, and experimental studies have known it to have anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. In our study, we show that administration of hydralazine immediately prior to reperfusion inhibited ischaemia/reperfusion injury-induced mitochondrial fission, and reduced myocardial infarct size. These findings raise the possibility of repurposing hydralazine as a novel potential cardioprotective therapy, which can be administered to acute myocardial infarction patients immediately prior to reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention, to reduce myocardial infarct size and prevent heart failure.
    Keywords:  Hydralazine; acute myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury; cardioprotection; mitochondrial fission
  2. Cell Rep. 2020 Dec 29. pii: S2211-1247(20)31551-5. [Epub ahead of print]33(13): 108562
      Generating mammalian cells with desired mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences is enabling for studies of mitochondria, disease modeling, and potential regenerative therapies. MitoPunch, a high-throughput mitochondrial transfer device, produces cells with specific mtDNA-nuclear DNA (nDNA) combinations by transferring isolated mitochondria from mouse or human cells into primary or immortal mtDNA-deficient (ρ0) cells. Stable isolated mitochondrial recipient (SIMR) cells isolated in restrictive media permanently retain donor mtDNA and reacquire respiration. However, SIMR fibroblasts maintain a ρ0-like cell metabolome and transcriptome despite growth in restrictive media. We reprogrammed non-immortal SIMR fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with subsequent differentiation into diverse functional cell types, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. Remarkably, after reprogramming and differentiation, SIMR fibroblasts molecularly and phenotypically resemble unmanipulated control fibroblasts carried through the same protocol. Thus, our MitoPunch "pipeline" enables the production of SIMR cells with unique mtDNA-nDNA combinations for additional studies and applications in multiple cell types.
    Keywords:  cell engineering; differentiation, MitoPunch, mitochondrial transplantation, mitochondrial replacement, mitonuclear communication, isolated mitochondria; mitochondrial transfer; mtDNA; reprogramming
  3. Front Physiol. 2020 ;11 604069
      Hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Injured mitochondrial segments are separated by mitochondrial fission and eliminated by autophagic sequestration and subsequent degradation in the lysosome, a process termed mitophagy. However, it remains poorly understood how high glucose affects the activities of, and the relationship between, mitochondrial fission and mitophagy in cardiomyocytes. In this study, we determined the functional roles of mitochondrial fission and mitophagy in hyperglycemia-induced cardiomyocyte injury. High glucose (30 mM, HG) reduced mitochondrial connectivity and particle size and increased mitochondrial number in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes, suggesting an enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation. SiRNA knockdown of the pro-fission factor dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) restored mitochondrial size but did not affect HG toxicity, and Mdivi-1, a DRP1 inhibitor, even increased HG-induced cardiomyocyte injury, as shown by superoxide production, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell death. However, DRP1 overexpression triggered mitochondrial fragmentation and mitigated HG-induced cardiomyocyte injury, suggesting that the increased mitochondrial fission is beneficial, rather than detrimental, to cardiomyocytes cultured under HG conditions. This is in contrast to the prevailing hypothesis that mitochondrial fragmentation mediates or contributes to HG cardiotoxicity. Meanwhile, HG reduced mitophagy flux as determined by the difference in the levels of mitochondria-associated LC3-II or the numbers of mitophagy foci indicated by the novel dual fluorescent reporter mt-Rosella in the absence and presence of the lysosomal inhibitors. The ability of HG to induce mitochondrial fragmentation and inhibit mitophagy was reproduced in adult mouse cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of Parkin, a positive regulator of mitophagy, or treatment with CCCP, a mitochondrial uncoupler, induced mitophagy and attenuated HG-induced cardiomyocyte death, while Parkin knockdown had opposite effects, suggesting an essential role of mitophagy in cardiomyocyte survival under HG conditions. Strikingly, Parkin overexpression increased mitochondrial fragmentation, while DRP1 overexpression accelerated mitophagy flux, demonstrating a reciprocal activation loop that controls mitochondrial fission and mitophagy. Thus, strategies that promote the mutual positive interaction between mitochondrial fission and mitophagy while simultaneously maintain their levels within the physiological range would be expected to improve mitochondrial health, alleviating hyperglycemic cardiotoxicity.
    Keywords:  DRP1; Parkin; cardiomyocytes; cell death; diabetes; hyperglycemia; mitochondrial fission; mitophagy
  4. Mitochondrion. 2020 Dec 28. pii: S1567-7249(20)30230-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      Optic atrophy-1 (OPA1) is a dynamin-like GTPase localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane, playing key roles in inner membrane fusion and cristae maintenance. OPA1 is regulated by the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm): when Δψm is intact, long OPA1 isoforms (L-OPA1) carry out inner membrane fusion. Upon loss of Δψm, L-OPA1 isoforms are proteolytically cleaved to short (S-OPA1) isoforms by the stress-inducible OMA1 metalloprotease, causing collapse of the mitochondrial network and promoting apoptosis. Here, we show that L-OPA1 isoforms of H9c2 cardiomyoblasts are retained under loss of Δψm, despite the presence of OMA1. However, when H9c2s are differentiated to a more cardiac-like phenotype via treatment with retinoic acid (RA) in low serum media, loss of Δ ψm induces robust, and reversible, cleavage of L-OPA1 and subsequent OMA1 degradation. These findings indicate that a potent developmental switch regulates Δ ψm-sensitive OPA1 cleavage, suggesting novel developmental and regulatory mechanisms for OPA1 homeostasis.
    Keywords:  Mitochondria; OMA1; OPA1; cardiac; cultured cell; differentiation
  5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Jan 05. pii: e2015632118. [Epub ahead of print]118(1):
      The balance between NLRP3 inflammasome activation and mitophagy is essential for homeostasis and cellular health, but this relationship remains poorly understood. Here we found that interleukin-1α (IL-1α)-deficient macrophages have reduced caspase-1 activity and diminished IL-1β release, concurrent with reduced mitochondrial damage, suggesting a role for IL-1α in regulating this balance. LPS priming of macrophages induced pro-IL-1α translocation to mitochondria, where it directly interacted with mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL). Computational modeling revealed a likely CL binding motif in pro-IL-1α, similar to that found in LC3b. Thus, binding of pro-IL-1α to CL in activated macrophages may interrupt CL-LC3b-dependent mitophagy, leading to enhanced Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and more robust IL-1β production. Mutation of pro-IL-1α residues predicted to be involved in CL binding resulted in reduced pro-IL-1α-CL interaction, a reduction in NLRP3 inflammasome activity, and increased mitophagy. These data identify a function for pro-IL-1α in regulating mitophagy and the potency of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
    Keywords:  IL-1α; autophagy; cardiolipin; inflammasome; mitochondria
  6. Plant Cell Physiol. 2020 Dec 23. pii: pcaa162. [Epub ahead of print]
      In autophagy, cytoplasmic components of eukaryotic cells are transported to lysosomes or the vacuole for degradation. Autophagy is involved in plant tolerance to the photooxidative stress caused by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, but its roles in plant adaptation to UVB damage have not been fully elucidated. Here, we characterized organellar behavior in UVB-damaged Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves and observed the occurrence of autophagic elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria, a process termed mitophagy. Notably, Arabidopsis plants blocked in autophagy displayed increased leaf chlorosis after a 1-h UVB exposure compared to wild-type plants. We visualized autophagosomes by labeling with a fluorescent protein-tagged autophagosome marker, AUTOPHAGY8 (ATG8), and found that a 1-h UV-B treatment led to increased formation of autophagosomes and the active transport of mitochondria into the central vacuole. In atg mutant plants, the mitochondrial population increased in UVB-damaged leaves due to cytoplasmic accumulation of fragmented, depolarized mitochondria. Furthermore, we observed that autophagy was involved in the removal of depolarized mitochondria when mitochondrial function was disrupted by mutation of the FRIENDLY gene, which is required for proper mitochondrial distribution. Therefore, autophagy of mitochondria functions in response to mitochondrion-specific dysfunction as well as UVB damage. Together, these results indicate that autophagy is centrally involved in mitochondrial quality control in Arabidopsis leaves.
    Keywords:  Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana); Autophagy; Mitochondria; Mitophagy; Organelle quality control; ultraviolet-B
  7. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(12): e0229634
      Mitochondrial fission and fusion play an important role not only in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis but also in preserving overall cellular viability. However, quantitative analysis based on the three-dimensional localisation of these highly dynamic mitochondrial events in the cellular context has not yet been accomplished. Moreover, it remains largely uncertain where in the mitochondrial network depolarisation is most likely to occur. We present the mitochondrial event localiser (MEL), a method that allows high-throughput, automated and deterministic localisation and quantification of mitochondrial fission, fusion and depolarisation events in large three-dimensional microscopy time-lapse sequences. In addition, MEL calculates the number of mitochondrial structures as well as their combined and average volume for each image frame in the time-lapse sequence. The mitochondrial event locations can subsequently be visualised by superposition over the fluorescence micrograph z-stack. We apply MEL to both control samples as well as to cells before and after treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). An average of 9.3/7.2/2.3 fusion/fission/depolarisation events per cell were observed respectively for every 10 sec in the control cells. With peroxide treatment, the rate initially shifted toward fusion with and average of 15/6/3 events per cell, before returning to a new equilibrium not far from that of the control cells, with an average of 6.2/6.4/3.4 events per cell. These MEL results indicate that both pre-treatment and control cells maintain a fission/fusion equilibrium, and that depolarisation is higher in the post-treatment cells. When individually validating mitochondrial events detected with MEL, for a representative cell for the control and treated samples, the true-positive events were 47%/49%/14% respectively for fusion/fission/depolarisation events. We conclude that MEL is a viable method of quantitative mitochondrial event analysis.
  8. Eur J Cell Biol. 2020 Dec 07. pii: S0171-9335(20)30083-2. [Epub ahead of print]100(1): 151144
      In response to mitochondrial damage, mitochondria activate mitochondrial dynamics to maintain normal functions, and an imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics triggers multiple programmed cell death processes. Recent studies have shown that phosphoglycerate mutase 5 (PGAM5) is associated with mitochondrial damage. PGAM5 activates mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy to promote a cellular compensatory response when mitochondria are mildly damaged, whereas severe damage to mitochondria leads to PGAM5 inducing excessive mitochondria fission, disruption to mitochondrial movement, and amplification of apoptosis, necroptosis and mitophagic death signals, which eventually evoke cell death. PGAM5 functions mainly through protein-protein interactions and specific Ser/Thr/His protein phosphatase activity. PGAM5 is also regulated by mitochondrial proteases. Detection of PGAM5 and its interacting protein partners should enable a more accurate evaluation of mitochondrial damage and a more precise method for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Mitochondrial dynamics; Mitochondrial proteases; Necroptosis; PGAM5
  9. Aging Cell. 2020 Dec 23. e13283
      The mitochondrial free radical theory of aging suggests that accumulating oxidative damage to mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) plays a central role in aging. Circulating cell-free mtDNA (ccf-mtDNA) isolated from blood may be a biomarker of disease. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small (30-400 nm), lipid-bound vesicles capable of shuttling proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids as part of intercellular communication systems. Here, we report that a portion of ccf-mtDNA in plasma is encapsulated in EVs. To address whether EV mtDNA levels change with human age, we analyzed mtDNA in EVs from individuals aged 30-64 years cross-sectionally and longitudinally. EV mtDNA levels decreased with age. Furthermore, the maximal mitochondrial respiration of cultured cells was differentially affected by EVs from old and young donors. Our results suggest that plasma mtDNA is present in EVs, that the level of EV-derived mtDNA is associated with age, and that EVs affect mitochondrial energetics in an EV age-dependent manner.
    Keywords:  aging; biomarker; circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; intercellular communication; microvesicles; mitochondrial DNA
  10. Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 Dec 28. pii: S0891-5849(20)31690-7. [Epub ahead of print]163 255-267
      Liver regeneration is a remarkably complex phenomenon conserved across all vertebrates, enabling the restoration of lost liver mass in a matter of days. Unfortunately, extensive damage to the liver may compromise this process, often leading to the death of affected individuals. Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common source of damage preceding regeneration, often present during liver transplantation, resection, trauma, or hemorrhagic shock. Increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are key hallmarks of IRI, which can jeopardize the liver's ability to regenerate. Therefore, a better understanding of both liver regeneration and IRI is of important clinical significance. In the current review, we discuss the potential role of sestrin 2 (SESN2), a novel anti-aging protein, in liver regeneration and ischemia/reperfusion preceding regeneration. We highlight its beneficial role in protecting cells from mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress as key aspects of its involvement in liver regeneration. Additionally, we describe how its ability to promote the expression of Nrf2 bears significant importance in this context. Finally, we focus on a potential novel link between SESN2, mitohormesis and ischemic preconditioning, which could explain some of the protective effects of preconditioning.
    Keywords:  Ischemia/reperfusion; Liver regeneration; Mitochondrial health; Oxidative stress; Sestrin 2
  11. J Physiol. 2020 Dec 28.
      Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, intricately designed to meet cellular energy requirements. To accommodate alterations in energy demand, mitochondria have a high degree of plasticity, changing in response to transient activation of numerous stress-related pathways. This adaptive response is particularly relevant in highly metabolic tissues such as skeletal muscle, where mitochondria support numerous biological processes related to metabolism, growth and regeneration. Aerobic exercise is a potent stimulus for skeletal muscle remodeling, leading to alterations in substrate utilisation, fibre-type composition and performance. Underlying these physiological responses is a change in mitochondrial quality control (MQC), a term encompassing the co-ordination of mitochondrial synthesis (biogenesis), remodeling (dynamics) and degradation (mitophagy) pathways. Understanding of MQC in skeletal muscle and the regulatory role of aerobic exercise of this process are rapidly advancing, as are the molecular techniques allowing the study of MQC in vivo. Given the emerging link between MQC and the onset of numerous non-communicable diseases, understanding the molecular regulation of MQC and the role of aerobic exercise in this process, will have substantial future impact on therapeutic approaches to manipulate MQC and maintain mitochondrial function across healthspan. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  12. Front Immunol. 2020 ;11 591815
      Background: NOD-like receptors (NLR) are intracellular sensors of the innate immune system, with the NLRP3 being a pro-inflammatory member that modulates cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and metabolism. No information is available on a possible role of anti-inflammatory NLRs on IRI and metabolism in the intact heart. Here we hypothesize that the constitutively expressed, anti-inflammatory mitochondrial NLRX1, affects IRI and metabolism of the isolated mouse heart.Methods: Isolated C57Bl/6J and NLRX1 knock-out (KO) mouse hearts were perfused with a physiological mixture of the essential substrates (lactate, glucose, pyruvate, fatty acid, glutamine) and insulin. For the IRI studies, hearts were subjected to either mild (20 min) or severe (35 min) ischemia and IRI was determined at 60 min reperfusion. Inflammatory mediators (IL-6, TNFα) and survival pathways (mito-HKII, p-Akt, p-AMPK, p-STAT3) were analyzed at 5 min of reperfusion. For the metabolism studies, hearts were perfused for 35 min with either 5.5 mM 13C-glucose or 0.4 mM 13C-palmitate under normoxic conditions, followed by LC-MS analysis and integrated, stepwise, mass-isotopomeric flux analysis (MIMOSA).
    Results: NLRX1 KO significantly increased IRI (infarct size from 63% to 73%, end-diastolic pressure from 59 mmHg to 75 mmHg, and rate-pressure-product recovery from 15% to 6%), following severe, but not mild, ischemia. The increased IRI in NLRX1 KO hearts was associated with depressed Akt signaling at early reperfusion; other survival pathways or inflammatory parameters were not affected. Metabolically, NLRX1 KO hearts displayed increased lactate production and glucose oxidation relative to fatty acid oxidation, associated with increased pyruvate dehydrogenase flux and 10% higher cardiac oxygen consumption.
    Conclusion: Deletion of the mitochondrially-located NOD-like sensor NLRX1 exacerbates severe cardiac IR injury, possibly through impaired Akt signaling, and increases cardiac glucose metabolism.
    Keywords:  cardiac metabolism; duration of ischemia; infarct size; innate immunity; oxygen consumption
  13. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(12): e0243504
      The ultimate treatment for patients with end-stage heart failure is heart transplantation. The number of donor hearts which are primarily procured from donation after brain death (DBD) donors is limited, but donation after circulatory death (DCD) donor hearts can increase the heart donor pool. However, ischemia and reperfusion injuries associated with the DCD process causes myocardial damage, limiting the use of DCD hearts in transplantation. Addressing this problem is critical in the exploration of DCD hearts as suitable donor hearts for transplantation. In this study, rat hearts were procured following the control beating-heart donor (CBD) or DCD donation process. Changes in mitochondria and cardiac function from DCD hearts subjected to 25 or 35 minutes of ischemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion were compared to CBD hearts. Following ischemia, rates of oxidative phosphorylation and calcium retention capacity were progressively impaired in DCD hearts compared to CBD hearts. Reperfusion caused additional mitochondrial dysfunction in DCD hearts. Developed pressure, inotropy and lusitropy, were significantly reduced in DCD hearts compared to CBD hearts. We, therefore, suggest that interventional strategies targeted before the onset of ischemia and at reperfusion could protect mitochondria, thus potentially making DCD hearts suitable for heart transplantation.
  14. STAR Protoc. 2020 Dec 18. 1(3): 100160
      The redox state of mitochondria is one indicator of the functional state of the organelles. Mitochondria are also the primary endogenous source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the redox state of the organelles also reflects their function in ROS production. Here, we provide step-by-step protocols for live-cell imaging and quantification of mitochondrial redox state using the genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor, mitochondria-targeted redox sensing GFP (mito-roGFP), and mitochondrial ROS using the membrane-permeant small molecule dihydroethidium (DHE) in budding yeast cells. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Liao et al. (2020c).
  15. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(12): e0241576
      Mitophagy, the process that degrades mitochondria selectively through autophagy, is involved in the quality control of mitochondria in cells grown under respiratory conditions. In yeast, the presence of the Atg32 protein on the outer mitochondrial membrane allows for the recognition and targeting of superfluous or damaged mitochondria for degradation. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation are crucial for the execution of mitophagy. In our study we monitor the stability of Atg32 protein in the yeast S. cerevisiae and show that Atg32 is degraded under normal growth conditions, upon starvation or rapamycin treatment. The Atg32 turnover can be prevented by inhibition of the proteasome activity, suggesting that Atg32 is also ubiquitinated. Mass spectrometry analysis of purified Atg32 protein revealed that at least lysine residue in position 282 is ubiquitinated. Interestingly, the replacement of lysine 282 with alanine impaired Atg32 degradation only partially in the course of cell growth, suggesting that additional lysine residues on Atg32 might also be ubiquitinated. Our results provide the foundation to further elucidate the physiological significance of Atg32 turnover and the interplay between mitophagy and the proteasome.
  16. Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 Dec 24. pii: S0891-5849(20)31685-3. [Epub ahead of print]163 306-313
      Oxygen, in form of reactive oxygen species (ROS), has been shown to participate in oxidative stress, one of the major triggers for pathology, but also is a main contributor to physiological processes. Recently, it was found that 1267 nm irradiation can produce singlet oxygen without photosensitizers. We used this phenomenon to study the effect of laser-generated singlet oxygen on one of the major oxygen-dependent processes, mitochondrial energy metabolism. We have found that laser-induced generation of 1O2 in neurons and astrocytes led to the increase of mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of NADH- and FADH-dependent respiration, and importantly, increased the rate of maximal respiration in isolated mitochondria. The activation of mitochondrial respiration stimulated production of ATP in these cells. Thus, we found that the singlet oxygen generated by 1267 nm laser pulse works as an activator of mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in the brain.
    Keywords:  1267 nm; Brain; Energy metabolism; Mitochondrial respiration; Singlet oxygen
  17. J Cell Sci. 2020 Dec 29. pii: jcs249136. [Epub ahead of print]133(24):
      Calcium is the third most abundant metal on earth, and the fundaments of its homeostasis date back to pre-eukaryotic life forms. In higher organisms, Ca2+ serves as a cofactor for a wide array of (enzymatic) interactions in diverse cellular contexts and constitutes the most important signaling entity in excitable cells. To enable responsive behavior, cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations are kept low through sequestration into organellar stores, particularly the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but also mitochondria and lysosomes. Specific triggers are then used to instigate a local release of Ca2+ on demand. Here, communication between organelles comes into play, which is accomplished through intimate yet dynamic contacts, termed membrane contact sites (MCSs). The field of MCS biology in relation to cellular Ca2+ homeostasis has exploded in recent years. Taking advantage of this new wealth of knowledge, in this Review, we invite the reader on a journey of Ca2+ flux through the ER and its associated MCSs. New mechanistic insights and technological advances inform the narrative on Ca2+ acquisition and mobilization at these sites of communication between organelles, and guide the discussion of their consequences for cellular physiology.
    Keywords:  Calcium; ER; Endosome; Membrane contact sites; Mitochondria
  18. Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 Dec 19. pii: S0891-5849(20)31682-8. [Epub ahead of print]163 243-254
      Cytochrome bc1, also known as mitochondrial complex III, is considered to be one of the important producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living organisms. Under physiological conditions, a certain level of ROS produced by mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) might be beneficial and take part in cellular signaling. However, elevated levels of ROS might exhibit negative effects, resulting in cellular damage. It is well known that inhibiting the electron flow within mitochondrial complex III leads to high production of ROS. However, superoxide production by cytochrome bc1 in a non-inhibited system remained controversial. Here, we propose a novel method for ROS detection in ETC hybrid system in solution comprising bacterial cytochrome bc1 and mitochondrial complex IV. We clearly show that non-inhibited cytochrome bc1 generates ROS and that adaptive and pathogenic mitochondrial mutations suppress and enhance ROS production, respectively. We also noted that cytochrome bc1 produces ROS in a rate-dependent manner and that the mechanism of ROS generation changes according to the rate of operation of the enzyme. This dependency has not yet been reported, but seems to be crucial when discussing ROS signaling originating from mitochondria.
    Keywords:  Amplex red; Cytochrome bc(1); Mitochondrial mutations; Reactive oxygen species; Superoxide anion radical; aa(3) oxidase
  19. Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg. 2020 Dec 23. pii: S0005-2728(20)30207-3. [Epub ahead of print] 148357
      The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a channel that, when open, is responsible for a dramatic increase in the permeability of the mitochondrial inner membrane, a process known as the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT). mPTP activation during Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and oxidative stress disrupts normal mitochondrial function and induces cell death. mPTP opening has been implicated as a critical event in many diseases, including hypoxic injuries, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. Discoveries of recent years indicate that mPTP demonstrates very complicated behavior and regulation, and depending on specific induction or stress conditions, it can function as a high-conductance pore, a small channel, or a non-specific membrane leak. The focus of this review is to summarize the literature on the electrophysiological properties of the mPTP and to evaluate the evidence that it has multiple molecular identities. This review also provides perspective on how an electrophysiological approach can be used to quantitatively investigate the biophysical properties of the mPTP under physiological, pharmacological, pathophysiological, and disease conditions.
    Keywords:  ROS; calcium; ion channel; mitochondria; mitochondrial permeability transition pore; patch-clamp
  20. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(12): e0244499
      The synthesis of a mitochondria-targeted derivative of the classical mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) by alkoxy substitution of CCCP with n-decyl(triphenyl)phosphonium cation yielded mitoCCCP, which was able to inhibit the uncoupling action of CCCP, tyrphostin A9 and niclosamide on rat liver mitochondria, but not that of 2,4-dinitrophenol, at a concentration of 1-2 μM. MitoCCCP did not uncouple mitochondria by itself at these concentrations, although it exhibited uncoupling action at tens of micromolar concentrations. Thus, mitoCCCP appeared to be a more effective mitochondrial recoupler than 6-ketocholestanol. Both mitoCCCP and 6-ketocholestanol did not inhibit the protonophoric activity of CCCP in artificial bilayer lipid membranes, which might compromise the simple proton-shuttling mechanism of the uncoupling activity on mitochondria.
  21. Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 Dec 28. pii: S0891-5849(20)31897-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      Oxygen (O2) deprivation and metals are common environmental stressors and their exposure to aquatic organisms can induce oxidative stress by disrupting cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. Mitochondria are a major source of ROS in the cell wherein a dozen sites located on enzymes of the electron transport system (ETS) and substrate oxidation produce superoxide anion radicals (O2˙¯) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Sites located on ETS enzymes can generate ROS by forward electron transfer (FET) and reverse electron transfer (RET) reactions; however, knowledge of how exogenous stressors modulate site-specific ROS production is limited. We investigated the effects of anoxia-reoxygenation and cadmium (Cd) on H2O2 emission in fish liver mitochondria oxidizing glutamate-malate, succinate or palmitoylcarnitine-malate. We find that anoxia-reoxygenation attenuates H2O2 emission while the effect of Cd depends on the substrate, with monotonic responses for glutamate-malate and palmitoylcarnitine-malate, and a biphasic response for succinate. Anoxia-reoxygenation exerts a substrate-dependent inhibition of mitochondrial respiration which is more severe with palmitoylcarnitine-malate compared with succinate or glutamate-malate. Additionally, specific mitochondrial ROS-emitting sites were sequestered using blockers of electron transfer and the effects of anoxia-reoxygenation and Cd on H2O2 emission were evaluated. Here, we find that site-specific H2O2 emission capacities depend on the substrate and the direction of electron flow. Moreover, anoxia-reoxygenation alters site-specific H2O2 emission rates during succinate and glutamate-malate oxidation whereas Cd imposes monotonic or biphasic H2O2 emission responses depending on the substrate and site. Contrary to our expectation, anoxia-reoxygenation blunts the effect of Cd. These results suggest that the effect of exogenous stressors on mitochondrial oxidant production is governed by their impact on energy conversion reactions and mitochondrial redox poise. Moreover, direct increased ROS production seemingly does not explain the increased adverse effects associated with combined exposure of aquatic organisms to Cd and low dissolved oxygen levels.
    Keywords:  anoxia-reoxygenation; cadmium; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species; respiration
  22. Redox Biol. 2020 Dec 23. pii: S2213-2317(20)31048-X. [Epub ahead of print]40 101843
      The advent of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) as a treatment for HIV-1 infection has not only resulted in a dramatic decrease in the peripheral viral load but has also led to increased life expectancy of the infected individuals. Paradoxically, increased lifespan is accompanied with higher prevalence of age-related comorbidities, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Present study was aimed at exploring the role of HIV TAT protein in mediating microglial mitochondrial oxidative stress, ultimately resulting in neuroinflammation and microglial senescence. Our findings demonstrated that exposure of mouse primary microglial cells (mPMs) to HIV TAT protein resulted in a senescence-like phenotype, that was characterized by elevated expression of both p16 and p21 proteins, increased numbers of senescence-associated-β-galactosidase positive cells, augmented cell-cycle arrest, increased release of proinflammatory cytokines and decreased telomerase activity. Additionally, exposure of mPMs to HIV TAT also resulted downregulation of SIRT3 with a concomitant increase in mitochondrial oxidative stress. Dual luciferase reporter assay identified miR-505 as a novel target of SIRT3, which was upregulated in mPMs exposed to HIV TAT. Furthermore, transient transfection of mPMs with either the SIRT3 plasmid or miRNA-505 inhibitor upregulated the expression of SIRT3 and mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, with a concomitant decrease in microglial senescence. These in vitro findings were also validated in the prefrontal cortices and striatum of HIV transgenic rats as well as cART-treated HIV-infected individuals. In summary, this study underscores a yet undiscovered novel mechanism(s) underlying HIV TAT-mediated induction of senescence phenotype in microglia, involving the miR-505-SIRT3 axis-mediated induction of mitochondrial oxidative stress.
    Keywords:  HIV TAT; Microglial activation; Mitochondria stress; Neuroinflammation; SIRT3; miRNA
  23. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Dec 23. pii: E66. [Epub ahead of print]22(1):
      Cell death represents a basic biological paradigm that governs outcomes and long-term sequelae in almost every hepatic disease. Necroptosis is a common form of programmed cell death in the liver. Necroptosis can be activated by ligands of death receptors, which then interact with receptor-interactive protein kinases 1 (RIPK1). RIPK1 mediates receptor interacting receptor-interactive protein kinases 3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) and necrosome formation. Regarding the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial-mediated necroptosis, the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL necrosome complex can enhance oxidative respiration and generate reactive oxygen species, which can be a crucial factor in the susceptibility of cells to necroptosis. The necrosome complex is also linked to mitochondrial components such as phosphoglycerate mutase family member 5 (PGAM5), metabolic enzymes in the mitochondrial matrix, mitochondrial permeability protein, and cyclophilin D. In this review, we focus on the role of mitochondria-mediated cell necroptosis in acute liver injury, chronic liver diseases, and hepatocellular carcinoma, and its possible translation into clinical applications.
    Keywords:  PGAM5; ROS; cyclophilin D; liver diseases; mitochondrial; necroptosis
  24. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Dec 21. pii: E9747. [Epub ahead of print]21(24):
      Studies showed that energy metabolism plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of stem cells. Previous studies revealed that simulated microgravity (SMG) inhibits osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the underlying relationship between osteogenesis and energy metabolism under SMG conditions is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by assessing the level of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, mitochondrial mass and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) during osteogenesis of MSCs under SMG conditions. We found that SMG inhibited osteogenic differentiation and OXPHOS of MSCs. Moreover, the expression of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), an important energy sensor, significantly decreased. After upregulating the expression of Sirt1 using resveratrol, an activator of Sirt1, SMG-inhibited OXPHOS and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs were recovered. Taken together, our results suggest that SMG suppresses osteogenic differentiation of MSCs by inhibiting OXPHOS, indicating that OXPHOS might serve as a potential therapeutic target for repairing bone loss under microgravity conditions.
    Keywords:  Sirt1; mesenchymal stem cells; osteogenesis; oxidative phosphorylation; simulated microgravity