bims-mikwok Biomed News
on Mitochondrial quality control
Issue of 2020‒10‒25
thirteen papers selected by
Avinash N. Mukkala
University of Toronto


  1. Cell Death Differ. 2020 Oct 21.
    Zhang Y, Xu X, Hu M, Wang X, Cheng H, Zhou R.
      Selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria (mitophagy) is important in maintaining proper cellular homeostasis. Here, we found that SPATA33 is a novel autophagy mediator for mitophagy in testis. The SPATA33 protein localizes on mitochondria via its binding of the carboxyl terminal with the outer mitochondrial membrane protein VDAC2. Upon starvation induction, SPATA33 is recruited to autophagosome by binding the autophagy machinery ATG16L1 via its N-terminal along with mitochondria. Notably, Spata33 knockout inhibited autophagy and overexpression can promote autophagosome formation for mitochondrial sequestration. Therefore, SPATA33 confers selectivity for mitochondrial degradation and promotes mitophagy in male germline cells.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-00638-2
  2. Commun Biol. 2020 Oct 21. 3(1): 596
    Lobo MJ, Reverte-Salisa L, Chao YC, Koschinski A, Gesellchen F, Subramaniam G, Jiang H, Pace S, Larcom N, Paolocci E, Pfeifer A, Zanivan S, Zaccolo M.
      Programmed degradation of mitochondria by mitophagy, an essential process to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis, is not completely understood. Here we uncover a regulatory process that controls mitophagy and involves the cAMP-degrading enzyme phosphodiesterase 2A2 (PDE2A2). We find that PDE2A2 is part of a mitochondrial signalosome at the mitochondrial inner membrane where it interacts with the mitochondrial contact site and organizing system (MICOS). As part of this compartmentalised signalling system PDE2A2 regulates PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the MICOS component MIC60, resulting in modulation of Parkin recruitment to the mitochondria and mitophagy. Inhibition of PDE2A2 is sufficient to regulate mitophagy in the absence of other triggers, highlighting the physiological relevance of PDE2A2 in this process. Pharmacological inhibition of PDE2 promotes a 'fat-burning' phenotype to retain thermogenic beige adipocytes, indicating that PDE2A2 may serve as a novel target with potential for developing therapies for metabolic disorders.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01311-7
  3. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2020 Oct 22.
    Song J, Herrmann JM, Becker T.
      Mitochondria contain about 1,000-1,500 proteins that fulfil multiple functions. Mitochondrial proteins originate from two genomes: mitochondrial and nuclear. Hence, proper mitochondrial function requires synchronization of gene expression in the nucleus and in mitochondria and necessitates efficient import of mitochondrial proteins into the organelle from the cytosol. Furthermore, the mitochondrial proteome displays high plasticity to allow the adaptation of mitochondrial function to cellular requirements. Maintenance of this complex and adaptable mitochondrial proteome is challenging, but is of crucial importance to cell function. Defects in mitochondrial proteostasis lead to proteotoxic insults and eventually cell death. Different quality control systems monitor the mitochondrial proteome. The cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system controls protein transport across the mitochondrial outer membrane and removes damaged or mislocalized proteins. Concomitantly, a number of mitochondrial chaperones and proteases govern protein folding and degrade damaged proteins inside mitochondria. The quality control factors also regulate processing and turnover of native proteins to control protein import, mitochondrial metabolism, signalling cascades, mitochondrial dynamics and lipid biogenesis, further ensuring proper function of mitochondria. Thus, mitochondrial protein quality control mechanisms are of pivotal importance to integrate mitochondria into the cellular environment.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41580-020-00300-2
  4. J Cell Sci. 2020 Oct 18. pii: jcs.247379. [Epub ahead of print]
    Townley AR, Wheatley SP.
      Survivin is a cancer-associated protein that is pivotal for cellular life and death: it is an essential mitotic protein and an inhibitor of apoptosis. In cancer cells, a small pool of survivin localises to the mitochondria, the function of which remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that mitochondrial survivin inhibits the selective form of autophagy, called "mitophagy", causing an accumulation of respiratory defective mitochondria. Mechanistically the data reveal that survivin prevents recruitment of the E3-ubiquitin ligase Parkin to mitochondria and their subsequent recognition by the autophagosome. The data also demonstrate that cells in which mitophagy has been blocked by survivin expression have an increased dependency on glycolysis. As these effects were found exclusively in cancer cells they suggest that the primary act of mitochondrial survivin is to steer cells towards the implementation of the Warburg transition by inhibiting mitochondrial turnover, which enables them to adapt and survive.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Mitochondria; Mitophagy; Respiration; Survivin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.247379
  5. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Oct 18. pii: E7704. [Epub ahead of print]21(20):
    Urbina-Varela R, Castillo N, Videla LA, Del Campo A.
      Mitochondria are the first-line defense of the cell in the presence of stressing processes that can induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Under these conditions, the activation of two axes is accomplished, namely, (i) the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) to promote cell recovery and survival of the mitochondrial network; (ii) the mitophagy process to eliminate altered or dysfunctional mitochondria. For these purposes, the former response induces the expression of chaperones, proteases, antioxidant components and protein import and assembly factors, whereas the latter is signaled through the activation of the PINK1/Parkin and BNIP3/NIX pathways. These adaptive mechanisms may be compromised during aging, leading to the development of several pathologies including sarcopenia, defined as the loss of skeletal muscle mass and performance; and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These age-associated diseases are characterized by the progressive loss of organ function due to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced damage to biomolecules, since the ability to counteract the continuous and large generation of ROS becomes increasingly inefficient with aging, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction as a central pathogenic mechanism. Nevertheless, the role of the integrated stress response (ISR) involving UPRmt and mitophagy in the development and progression of these illnesses is still a matter of debate, considering that some studies indicate that the prolonged exposure to low levels of stress may trigger these mechanisms to maintain mitohormesis, whereas others sustain that chronic activation of them could lead to cell death. In this review, we discuss the available research that contributes to unveil the role of the mitochondrial UPR in the development of sarcopenia, in an attempt to describe changes prior to the manifestation of severe symptoms; and in NAFLD, in order to prevent or reverse fat accumulation and its progression by means of suitable protocols to be addressed in future studies.
    Keywords:  aging; liver disease; mitochondrial homeostasis; skeletal muscle
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21207704
  6. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 536389
    Teulière J, Bernard G, Bapteste E.
      Genetically regulated cell death (RCD) occurs in all domains of life. In eukaryotes, the evolutionary origin of the mitochondrion and of certain forms of RCD, in particular apoptosis, are thought to coincide, suggesting a central general role for mitochondria in cellular suicide. We tested this mitochondrial centrality hypothesis across a dataset of 67 species of protists, presenting 5 classes of mitochondrial phenotypes, including functional mitochondria, metabolically diversified mitochondria, functionally reduced mitochondria (Mitochondrion Related Organelle or MRO) and even complete absence of mitochondria. We investigated the distribution of genes associated with various forms of RCD. No homologs for described mammalian regulators of regulated necrosis could be identified in our set of 67 unicellular taxa. Protists with MRO and the secondarily a mitochondriate Monocercomonoides exilis display heterogeneous reductions of apoptosis gene sets with respect to typical mitochondriate protists. Remarkably, despite the total lack of mitochondria in M. exilis, apoptosis-associated genes could still be identified. These same species of protists with MRO and M. exilis harbored non-reduced autophagic cell death gene sets. Moreover, transiently multicellular protist taxa appeared enriched in apoptotic and autophagy associated genes compared to free-living protists. This analysis suggests that genes associated with apoptosis in animals and the presence of the mitochondria are significant yet non-essential biological components for RCD in protists. More generally, our results support the hypothesis of a selection for RCD, including both apoptosis and autophagy, as a developmental mechanism linked to multicellularity.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; autophagy; mitochondria; mitochondrion-related organelle; regulated cell death; unicellular eukaryotes
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.536389
  7. J Cell Biol. 2020 Dec 07. pii: e202002144. [Epub ahead of print]219(12):
    English AM, Schuler MH, Xiao T, Kornmann B, Shaw JM, Hughes AL.
      Mitochondria are dynamic organelles with essential roles in signaling and metabolism. We recently identified a cellular structure called the mitochondrial-derived compartment (MDC) that is generated from mitochondria in response to amino acid overabundance stress. How cells form MDCs is unclear. Here, we show that MDCs are dynamic structures that form and stably persist at sites of contact between the ER and mitochondria. MDC biogenesis requires the ER-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) and the conserved GTPase Gem1, factors previously implicated in lipid exchange and membrane tethering at ER-mitochondria contacts. Interestingly, common genetic suppressors of abnormalities displayed by ERMES mutants exhibit distinct abilities to rescue MDC formation in ERMES-depleted strains and are incapable of rescuing MDC formation in cells lacking Gem1. Thus, the function of ERMES and Gem1 in MDC biogenesis may extend beyond their conventional role in maintaining mitochondrial phospholipid homeostasis. Overall, this study identifies an important function for ER-mitochondria contacts in the biogenesis of MDCs.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202002144
  8. Sci Rep. 2020 Oct 19. 10(1): 17599
    McLaughlin KL, Hagen JT, Coalson HS, Nelson MAM, Kew KA, Wooten AR, Fisher-Wellman KH.
      Human disease pathophysiology commonly involves metabolic disruption at both the cellular and subcellular levels. Isolated mitochondria are a powerful model for separating global cellular changes from intrinsic mitochondrial alterations. However, common laboratory practices for isolating mitochondria (e.g., differential centrifugation) routinely results in organelle preparations with variable mitochondrial purity. To overcome this issue, we developed a mass spectrometry-based method that quantitatively evaluates sample-specific percent mitochondrial enrichment. Sample-specific mitochondrial enrichment was then used to correct various biochemical readouts of mitochondrial function to a 'fixed' amount of mitochondrial protein, thus allowing for intrinsic mitochondrial bioenergetics, relative to the underlying proteome, to be assessed across multiple mouse tissues (e.g., heart, brown adipose, kidney, liver). Our results support the use of mitochondrial-targeted nLC-MS/MS as a method to quantitate mitochondrial enrichment on a per-sample basis, allowing for unbiased comparison of functional parameters between populations of mitochondria isolated from metabolically distinct tissues. This method can easily be applied across multiple experimental settings in which intrinsic shifts in the mitochondrial network are suspected of driving a given physiological or pathophysiological outcome.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74718-1
  9. Circulation. 2020 Oct 19.
    Lin HB, Naito K, Oh Y, Farber G, Kanaan G, Valaperti A, Dawood F, Zhang L, Li GH, Smyth D, Moon M, Liu Y, Liang W, Rotstein B, Philpott D, Kim KH, Harper ME, Liu PP.
      Background: Cardiac hypertrophy is a key biological response to injurious stresses such as pressure overload and when excessive can lead to heart failure. Innate immune activation by danger signals, through intracellular pattern recognition receptors such as nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1(Nod1) and its adaptor receptor-interacting protein 2 (RIP2), might play a major role in cardiac remodeling and progression to heart failure. We hypothesize that Nod1/RIP2 are major contributors to cardiac hypertrophy, but may not be sufficient to fully express the phenotype alone. Methods: To elucidate the contribution of Nod1/RIP2 signaling to cardiac hypertrophy, we randomized Nod1-/-, RIP2-/- or wild-type (WT) mice to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operations. Cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and cardiac function were examined in these mice. Results: Nod1 and RIP2 proteins were up-regulated in the heart after TAC, and this was paralleled by increased expression of mitochondrial proteins, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS). Nod1-/- and RIP2-/- mice subjected to TAC exhibited better survival, improved cardiac function and decreased cardiac hypertrophy. Downstream signal transduction pathways that regulate inflammation and fibrosis including NF-κB and MAPK-GATA4/p300, were reduced in both Nod1-/- and RIP2-/- mice after TAC compared with WT mice. Co-immunoprecipitation of extracted cardiac proteins and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that Nod1/ RIP2 interaction was robust and that this complex also included MAVS as an essential component. Suppression of MAVS expression attenuated the complex formation, NF-κB signalling and myocyte hypertrophy. Interrogation of mitochondrial function compared in the presence or ablation of MAVS revealed that MAVS serves to suppress mitochondrial energy output and mediate fission/fusion related dynamic changes. The latter is possibly linked to mitophagy during cardiomyocytes stress, which may provide an intriguing link between innate immune activation and mitochondrial energy balance under stress or injury conditions. Conclusions: We have identified that innate immune Nod1/RIP2 signaling is a major contributor to cardiac remodeling following stress. This process is critically joined by and regulated through the mitochondrial danger signal adapter MAVS. This novel complex coordinates remodeling, inflammatory response and mitochondrial energy metabolism in stressed cardiomyocytes. Thus Nod1/RIP2/MAVS signaling complex may represent an attractive new therapeutic approach toward heart failure.
    Keywords:  Innate Immune Signaling; MAVS; Nod1; RIP2; hypertrophic response
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.041213
  10. PLoS Genet. 2020 Oct 21. 16(10): e1008844
    Terriente-Felix A, Wilson EL, Whitworth AJ.
      Balanced mitochondrial fission and fusion play an important role in shaping and distributing mitochondria, as well as contributing to mitochondrial homeostasis and adaptation to stress. In particular, mitochondrial fission is required to facilitate degradation of damaged or dysfunctional units via mitophagy. Two Parkinson's disease factors, PINK1 and Parkin, are considered key mediators of damage-induced mitophagy, and promoting mitochondrial fission is sufficient to suppress the pathological phenotypes in Drosophila Pink1/parkin mutants. We sought additional factors that impinge on mitochondrial dynamics and which may also suppress Pink1/parkin phenotypes. We found that the Drosophila phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ homologue, Four wheel drive (Fwd), promotes mitochondrial fission downstream of the pro-fission factor Drp1. Previously described only as male sterile, we identified several new phenotypes in fwd mutants, including locomotor deficits and shortened lifespan, which are accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction. Finally, we found that fwd overexpression can suppress locomotor deficits and mitochondrial disruption in Pink1/parkin mutants, consistent with its function in promoting mitochondrial fission. Together these results shed light on the complex mechanisms of mitochondrial fission and further underscore the potential of modulating mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics in the context of neurodegeneration.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008844
  11. Redox Biol. 2020 Oct 14. pii: S2213-2317(20)30966-6. [Epub ahead of print]37 101761
    Yu W, Wang X, Zhao J, Liu R, Liu J, Wang Z, Peng J, Wu H, Zhang X, Long Z, Kong D, Li W, Hai C.
      Macrophage recruitment and pro-inflammatory differentiation are hallmarks of various diseases, including infection and sepsis. Although studies suggest that mitochondria may regulate macrophage immune responses, it remains unclear whether mitochondrial mass affects macrophage pro-inflammatory differentiation. Here, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages possess higher mitochondrial mass than resting cells. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the functional role and molecular mechanisms of increased mitochondrial mass in pro-inflammatory differentiated macrophages. Results show that an increase in the mitochondrial mass of macrophages positively correlates with inflammatory cytokine generation in response to LPS. RNA-seq analysis revealed that LPS promotes signal transducers and activators of transcription 2 (Stat2) and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) expression, which are enriched in positive mitochondrial fission regulation. Meanwhile, knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of Drp1 blunts LPS-induced mitochondrial mass increase and pro-inflammatory differentiation. Moreover, Stat2 boosts Drp1 phosphorylation at serine 616, required for Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission. LPS also causes Stat2-and Drp1-dependent biogenesis, which contributes to the generation of additional mitochondria. However, these mitochondria are profoundly remodeled, displaying fragmented morphology, loose cristae, reduced Δψm, and metabolic programming. Furthermore, these remodeled mitochondria shift their function from ATP synthesis to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which drives NFκB-dependent inflammatory cytokine transcription. Interestingly, an increase in mitochondrial mass with constitutively active phosphomimetic mutant of Drp1 (Drp1S616E) boosted pro-inflammatory response in macrophages without LPS stimulation. In vivo, we also demonstrated that Mdivi-1 administration inhibits LPS-induced macrophage pro-inflammatory differentiation. Importantly, we observed Stat2 phosphorylation and Drp1-dependent mitochondrial mass increase in macrophages isolated from LPS-challenged mice. In conclusion, we comprehensively demonstrate that a Stat2-Drp1 dependent mitochondrial mass increase is necessary for pro-inflammatory differentiation of macrophages. Therefore, targeting the Stat2-Drp1 axis may provide novel therapeutic approaches for treating infection and inflammatory diseases.
    Keywords:  Drp1; Lipopolysaccharide; Mitochondrial mass; Pro-inflammatory macrophage; Reactive oxygen species; Stat2
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2020.101761
  12. Commun Biol. 2020 Oct 20. 3(1): 592
    Watanabe M, Saeki Y, Takahashi H, Ohtake F, Yoshida Y, Kasuga Y, Kondo T, Yaguchi H, Suzuki M, Ishida H, Tanaka K, Hatakeyama S.
      The identification of true substrates of an E3 ligase is biologically important but biochemically difficult. In recent years, several techniques for identifying substrates have been developed, but these approaches cannot exclude indirect ubiquitination or have other limitations. Here we develop an E3 ligase substrate-trapping strategy by fusing a tandem ubiquitin-binding entity (TUBE) with an anti-ubiquitin remnant antibody to effectively identify ubiquitinated substrates. We apply this method to one of the RBR-type ligases, Parkin, and to one of the RING-type ligases, TRIM28, and identify previously unknown substrates for TRIM28 including cyclin A2 and TFIIB. Furthermore, we find that TRIM28 promotes cyclin A2 ubiquitination and degradation at the G1/S phase and suppresses premature entry into S phase. Taken together, the results indicate that this method is a powerful tool for comprehensively identifying substrates of E3 ligases.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01328-y
  13. Mitochondrion. 2020 Oct 15. pii: S1567-7249(20)30199-9. [Epub ahead of print]
    Koshenov Z, Oflaz FE, Hirtl M, Bachkoenig OA, Rost R, Osibow K, Gottschalk B, Madreiter-Sokolowski CT, Waldeck-Weiermair M, Malli R, Graier WF.
      Considering the versatile functions attributed to uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in health and disease, a profound understanding of the protein's molecular actions under physiological and pathophysiological conditions is indispensable. This review aims to revisit and shed light on the fundamental molecular functions of UCP2 in mitochondria, with particular emphasis on its intricate role in regulating mitochondrial calcium (Ca2+) uptake. UCP2's modulating effect on various vital processes in mitochondria makes it a crucial regulator of mitochondrial homeostasis in health and disease.
    Keywords:  MCU; MICU1; PRMT1; UCP2; mitochondrial calcium homeostasis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mito.2020.10.003