bims-mikwok Biomed News
on Mitochondrial quality control
Issue of 2020‒09‒27
eight papers selected by
Avinash N. Mukkala
University of Toronto

  1. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2020 Sep 23.
      The protein levels and activities of calpain-1 and calpain-2 are increased in cardiac mitochondria under pathological conditions including ischemia, diabetes, and sepsis, and transgenic overexpression of mitochondrial-targeted calpain-1 induces dilated heart failure, which underscores an important role of increased calpain in mitochondria in mediating myocardial injury. However, it remains to be determined whether selective inhibition of calpain in mitochondria protects the heart under pathological conditions. In this study, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing mitochondrial-targeted calpastatin in cardiomyocytes. Their hearts were isolated and subjected to global ischemia/reperfusion. Hyperglycemia was induced in the transgenic mice by injections of STZ. We showed that transgenic calpastatin was expressed exclusively in mitochondria isolated from their hearts but not from other organs including skeletal muscle and lung tissues. Transgenic overexpression of mitochondrial-targeted calpastatin significantly attenuated mitochondrial oxidative stress and cell death induced by global ischemia/reperfusion in isolated hearts, and ameliorated mitochondrial oxidative stress, cell death, myocardial remodeling and dysfunction in STZ-treated transgenic mice. The protective effects of mitochondrial-targeted calpastatin were correlated with increased ATP5A1 protein expression and ATP synthase activity in isolated hearts subjected to global ischemia/reperfusion and hearts of STZ-treated transgenic mice. In cultured rat myoblast H9c2 cells, overexpression of mitochondrial-targeted calpastatin maintained the protein levels of ATP5A1 and ATP synthase activity, prevented mitochondrial ROS production and decreased cell death following hypoxia/reoxygenation, whereas upregulation of ATP5A1 or scavenging of mitochondrial ROS by mito-TEMPO abrogated mitochondrial ROS production and decreased cell death. These results confirm the role of calpain in myocardial injury, suggesting that selective inhibition of calpain in myocardial mitochondria by mitochondrial-targeted calpastatin is an effective strategy for alleviating myocardial injury and dysfunction in cardiac pathologies.
    Keywords:  ATP synthase; calpain; calpastatin; global ischemia-reperfusion; heart; hyperglycemia; mitochondria; myocardial injury; oxidative stress
  2. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2020 Sep 19. pii: S0955-0674(20)30111-3. [Epub ahead of print]68 28-36
      Mitochondria form networks that continually remodel and adapt to carry out their cellular function. The mitochondrial network is remodeled through changes in mitochondrial morphology, number, and distribution within the cell. Mitochondrial dynamics depend directly on fission, fusion, shape transition, and transport or tethering along the cytoskeleton. Over the past several years, many of the mechanisms underlying these processes have been uncovered. It has become clear that each process is precisely and contextually regulated within the cell. Here, we discuss the mechanisms regulating each aspect of mitochondrial dynamics, which together shape the network as a whole.
    Keywords:  Cytoskeleton; Fission; Fusion; Mitochondria; Morphology; Transport
  3. EMBO Rep. 2020 Sep 25. e50202
      Mitochondrial quality is controlled by the selective removal of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy. Mitophagy impairment is associated with aging and many pathological conditions. An iron loss induced by iron chelator triggers mitophagy by a yet unknown mechanism. This type of mitophagy may have therapeutic potential, since iron chelators are clinically used. Here, we aimed to clarify the mechanisms by which iron loss induces mitophagy. Deferiprone, an iron chelator, treatment resulted in the increased expression of mitochondrial ferritin (FTMT) and the localization of FTMT precursor on the mitochondrial outer membrane. Specific protein 1 and its regulator hypoxia-inducible factor 1α were necessary for deferiprone-induced increase in FTMT. FTMT specifically interacted with nuclear receptor coactivator 4, an autophagic cargo receptor. Deferiprone-induced mitophagy occurred selectively for depolarized mitochondria. Additionally, deferiprone suppressed the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in mice by inducing mitophagy. Silencing FTMT abrogated deferiprone-induced mitophagy and suppression of HCC. These results demonstrate the mechanisms by which iron loss induces mitophagy and provide a rationale for targeting mitophagic activation as a therapeutic strategy.
    Keywords:  hepatocellular carcinoma; iron chelator; mitochondria; mitochondrial ferritin; mitophagy
  4. Redox Biol. 2020 Sep 14. pii: S2213-2317(20)30927-7. [Epub ahead of print]37 101722
      Understanding how mitochondria contribute to cellular oxidative stress and drive signaling and disease is critical, but quantitative assessment is difficult. Our previous studies of cultured C2C12 cells used inhibitors of specific sites of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production to show that mitochondria generate about half of the hydrogen peroxide released by the cells, and site IQ of respiratory complex I produces up to two thirds of the superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generated in the mitochondrial matrix. Here, we used the same approach to measure the engagement of these sites in seven diverse cell lines to determine whether this pattern is specific to C2C12 cells, or more general. These diverse cell lines covered primary, immortalized, and cancerous cells, from seven tissues (liver, cervix, lung, skin, neuron, heart, bone) of three species (human, rat, mouse). The rate of appearance of hydrogen peroxide in the extracellular medium spanned a 30-fold range from HeLa cancer cells (3 pmol/min/mg protein) to AML12 liver cells (84 pmol/min/mg protein). The mean contribution of identified mitochondrial sites to this extracellular hydrogen peroxide signal was 30 ± 7% SD; the mean contribution of NADPH oxidases was 60 ± 14%. The relative contributions of different sites in the mitochondrial electron transport chain were broadly similar in all seven cell types (and similar to published results for C2C12 cells). 70 ± 4% of identified superoxide/hydrogen peroxide generation in the mitochondrial matrix was from site IQ; 30 ± 4% was from site IIIQo. We conclude that although absolute rates vary considerably, the relative contributions of different sources of hydrogen peroxide production are similar in nine diverse cell types under unstressed conditions in vitro. Identified mitochondrial sites account for one third of total cellular hydrogen peroxide production (half each from sites IQ and IIIQo); in the mitochondrial matrix the majority (two thirds) of superoxide/hydrogen peroxide is from site IQ.
    Keywords:  Hydrogen peroxide; Matrix; Mitochondria; NOX; S1QEL; S3QEL; Superoxide
  5. Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 23. 10(1): 15485
      Mutations in PRKN are the most common cause of early onset Parkinson's disease. Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, functioning in mitophagy. Mitochondrial abnormalities are present in PRKN mutant models. Patient derived neurons are a promising model in which to study pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic targets. Here we generate induced neuronal progenitor cells from PRKN mutant patient fibroblasts with a high dopaminergic neuron yield. We reveal changing mitochondrial phenotypes as neurons undergo a metabolic switch during differentiation. Fibroblasts from 4 controls and 4 PRKN mutant patients were transformed into induced neuronal progenitor cells and subsequently differentiated into dopaminergic neurons. Mitochondrial morphology, function and mitophagy were evaluated using live cell fluorescent imaging, cellular ATP and reactive oxygen species production quantification. Direct conversion of control and PRKN mutant patient fibroblasts results in induced neuronal progenitor and their differentiation yields high percentage of dopaminergic neurons. We were able to observe changing mitochondrial phenotypes as neurons undergo a metabolic switch during differentiation. Our results show that when pre-neurons are glycolytic early in differentiation mitophagy is unimpaired by PRKN deficiency. However as neurons become oxidative phosphorylation dependent, mitophagy is severely impaired in the PRKN mutant patient neurons. These changes correlate with changes in mitochondrial function and morphology; resulting in lower neuron yield and altered neuronal morphology. Induced neuronal progenitor cell conversion can produce a high yield of dopaminergic neurons. The mitochondrial phenotype, including mitophagy status, is highly dependent on the metabolic status of the cell. Only when neurons are oxidative phosphorylation reliant the extent of mitochondrial abnormalities are identified. These data provide insight into cell specific effects of PRKN mutations, in particular in relation to mitophagy dependent disease phenotypes and provide avenues for alternative therapeutic approaches.
  6. Trends Cell Biol. 2020 Sep 22. pii: S0962-8924(20)30169-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that have essential metabolic and regulatory functions. Earlier studies using electron microscopy (EM) revealed an immense diversity in the architecture of cristae - infoldings of the mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) - in different cells, tissues, bioenergetic and metabolic conditions, and during apoptosis. However, cristae were considered to be largely static entities. Recently, advanced super-resolution techniques have revealed that cristae are independent bioenergetic units that are highly dynamic and remodel on a timescale of seconds. These advances, coupled with mechanistic and structural studies on key molecular players, such as the MICOS (mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system) complex and the dynamin-like GTPase OPA1, have changed our view on mitochondria in a fundamental way. We summarize these recent findings and discuss their functional implications.
    Keywords:  MICOS; OPA1; cristae dynamics; remodeling
  7. Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 25. 10(1): 15758
      The mitochondrial network of cardiac cells is finely tuned for ATP delivery to sites of energy demand; however, emergent phenomena, such as mitochondrial transmembrane potential oscillations or propagating waves of depolarization have been observed under metabolic stress. While regenerative signaling by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced ROS release (RIRR) has been suggested as a potential trigger, it is unknown how it could lead to widespread responses. Here, we present a novel computational model of RIRR transmission that explains the mechanisms of this phenomenon. The results reveal that superoxide mediates neighbor-neighbor activation of energy-dissipating ion channels, while hydrogen peroxide distributes oxidative stress to sensitize the network to mitochondrial criticality. The findings demonstrate the feasibility of RIRR as a synchronizing factor across the dimensions of the adult heart cell and illustrate how a cascade of failures at the organellar level can scale to impact cell and organ level functions of the heart.
  8. Redox Biol. 2020 Aug 27. pii: S2213-2317(20)30901-0. [Epub ahead of print] 101696
      Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical for the progression of cardiovascular diseases, inflammations and tumors. However, the mechanisms of how ROS sense metabolic stress, regulate metabolic pathways and initiate proliferation, inflammation and cell death responses remain poorly characterized. In this analytic review, we concluded that: 1) Based on different features and functions, eleven types of ROS can be classified into seven functional groups: metabolic stress-sensing, chemical connecting, organelle communication, stress branch-out, inflammasome-activating, dual functions and triple functions ROS. 2) Among the ROS generation systems, mitochondria consume the most amount of oxygen; and nine types of ROS are generated; thus, mitochondrial ROS systems serve as the central hub for connecting ROS with inflammasome activation, trained immunity and immunometabolic pathways. 3) Increased nuclear ROS production significantly promotes cell death in comparison to that in other organelles. Nuclear ROS systems serve as a convergent hub and decision-makers to connect unbearable and alarming metabolic stresses to inflammation and cell death. 4) Balanced ROS levels indicate physiological homeostasis of various metabolic processes in subcellular organelles and cytosol, while imbalanced ROS levels present alarms for pathological organelle stresses in metabolic processes. Based on these analyses, we propose a working model that ROS systems are a new integrated network for sensing homeostasis and alarming stress in metabolic processes in various subcellular organelles. Our model provides novel insights on the roles of the ROS systems in bridging metabolic stress to inflammation, cell death and tumorigenesis; and provide novel therapeutic targets for treating those diseases. (Word count: 246).
    Keywords:  A sensing network for metabolic stress; Inflammation; Nuclear signaling; Reactive oxygen species (ROS); Trained immunity