bims-mibica Biomed News
on Mitochondrial bioenergetics in cancer
Issue of 2020‒03‒29
eighteen papers selected by
Kelsey Fisher-Wellman
East Carolina University


  1. Front Physiol. 2020 ;11 153
    Roussel D, Voituron Y.
      Global climatic warming is predicted to drive extreme thermal events, especially in temperate terrestrial environments. Hence, describing how physiological parameters are affected by acute temperature changes would allow us to understand the energy management of organisms facing such non-predictable and constraining events. As mitochondria play a key role in the conversion of energy from food into ATP but also produce harmful reactive oxygen species, the understanding of its functioning is crucial to determine the proximal causes of potential decline in an animal's performance. Here we studied the effects of acute temperature changes (between 20 and 30°C) on mitochondrial respiration, ATP synthesis rate, oxidative phosphorylation efficiency (ATP/O), and H2O2 generation in isolated liver mitochondria of a terrestrial ectotherm, the common toad (Bufo bufo). Using succinate as the respiratory substrate, we found that the mitochondrial rates of oxygen consumption, ATP synthesis, and H2O2 generation increased as the temperature increased, being 65, 52, and 66% higher at 30°C than at 20°C, respectively. We also found that the mitochondrial coupling efficiency (ATP/O) decreased, while the oxidative cost of ATP production (H2O2/ATP ratio) increased. The present results further indicate that between 40 and 60% of temperature effects on mitochondrial ATP production and H2O2 generation was at minima driven by an action on the oxidative capacity of the mitochondria. These results suggest that B. bufo may need to allocate extra energy to maintain ATP production and protect cells from oxidative stress, reducing the energy allocable performances.
    Keywords:  ATP synthesis; H2O2 release; amphibian; mitochondrial efficiency; oxygen consumption; temperature
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00153
  2. FASEB J. 2020 Mar 24.
    Iljas JD, Homer HA.
      Mammalian oocytes rely heavily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for generating ATP. However, mitochondria are also the primary source of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial de-regulation, therefore, underpins poor oocyte quality associated with conditions such as obesity and aging. The mitochondrial sirtuin, Sirt3, is critical for mitochondrial respiration and redox regulation. Interestingly, however, Sirt3 knockout (Sirt3-/- ) mice do not exhibit systemic compromise under basal conditions, only doing so under stressed conditions such as high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Mouse oocytes depleted of Sirt3 exhibit increased ROS in vitro, but it is unknown whether Sirt3 is necessary for female fertility in vivo. Here, we test this for the first time by investigating ovarian follicular reserve, oocyte maturation (including detailed spindle assembly and chromosome segregation), and female fertility in Sirt3-/- females. We find that under basal conditions, young Sirt3-/- females exhibit no defects in any parameters. Surprisingly, all parameters also remain intact following HFD-induced obesity. Despite markedly increased ROS levels in HFD Sirt3-/- oocytes, ATP levels nevertheless remain normal. Our data support that ATP is sustained in vivo through increased mitochondrial mass possibly secondary to compensatory upregulation of another sirtuin, Sirt1, which has overlapping functions with Sirt3.
    Keywords:  mitochondria; obesity; oocytes; oxidative stress; sirtuins
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000153R
  3. Sci Rep. 2020 Mar 25. 10(1): 5444
    Lai N, Kummitha CM, Loy F, Isola R, Hoppel CL.
      A distinct bioenergetic impairment of heart mitochondrial subpopulations in diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with obesity; however, many type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients with high-risk for cardiovascular disease are not obese. In the absence of obesity, it is unclear whether bioenergetic function in the subpopulations of mitochondria is affected in heart with T2DM. To address this issue, a rat model of non-obese T2DM was used to study heart mitochondrial energy metabolism, measuring bioenergetics and enzyme activities of the electron transport chain (ETC). Oxidative phosphorylation in the presence of substrates for ETC and ETC activities in both populations of heart mitochondria in T2DM rats were unchanged. Despite the preservation of mitochondrial function, aconitase activity in T2DM heart was reduced, suggesting oxidative stress in mitochondria. Our study indicate that metabolic function of heart mitochondria is unchanged in the face of oxidative stress and point to a critical role of obesity in T2DM cardiomyopathy.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-62370-8
  4. FASEB J. 2020 Mar 24.
    Chen Y, Cai GH, Xia B, Wang X, Zhang CC, Xie BC, Shi XC, Liu H, Lu JF, Zhang RX, Zhu MQ, Liu M, Yang SZ, Yang Zhang D, Chu XY, Khan R, Wang YL, Wu JW.
      Mitochondrial aconitase (Aco2) catalyzes the conversion of citrate to isocitrate in the TCA cycle, which produces NADH and FADH2, driving synthesis of ATP through OXPHOS. In this study, to explore the relationship between adipogenesis and mitochondrial energy metabolism, we hypothesize that Aco2 may play a key role in the lipid synthesis. Here, we show that overexpression of Aco2 in 3T3-L1 cells significantly increased lipogenesis and adipogenesis, accompanied by elevated mitochondrial biogenesis and ATP production. However, when ATP is depleted by rotenone, an inhibitor of the respiratory chain, the promotive role of Aco2 in adipogenesis is abolished. In contrast to Aco2 overexpression, deficiency of Aco2 markedly reduced lipogenesis and adipogenesis, along with the decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and ATP production. Supplementation of isocitrate efficiently rescued the inhibitory effect of Aco2 deficiency. Similarly, the restorative effect of isocitrate was abolished in the presence of rotenone. Together, these results show that Aco2 sustains normal adipogenesis through mediating ATP production, revealing a potential mechanistic link between TCA cycle enzyme and lipid synthesis. Our work suggest that regulation of adipose tissue mitochondria function may be a potential way for combating abnormal adipogenesis related diseases such as obesity and lipodystrophy.
    Keywords:  TCA cycle; cell differentiation; mitochondrial metabolism
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.201903224RR
  5. Redox Biol. 2020 Mar 16. pii: S2213-2317(20)30125-7. [Epub ahead of print]32 101507
    Fernando R, Wardelmann K, Deubel S, Kehm R, Jung T, Mariotti M, Vasilaki A, Gladyshev VN, Kleinridders A, Grune T, Castro JP.
      Adipogenesis is a fundamental process of white adipose tissue function, supporting lipid storage and release, while avoiding its spillover and ectopic accumulation in tissues and organs. During aging adipogenesis is impaired and among other factors, oxidative stress contributes to this process. Adipogenesis requires functional and dynamic mitochondria; however, this organelle itself becomes dysfunctional during aging and accounts for most of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here, we evaluated whether oxidative stress impairs adipogenesis through functional impairment of mitodynamics by utilizing hyperoxia as a continuous source of oxidative stress while maintaining cellular viability. This negatively impacted mitochondrial function, including respiration and dynamics and ultimately blocked adipogenesis. Interestingly, this state was reversible by using the antidiabetic drug, Rosiglitazone, which reduced oxidative stress, restored mitochondrial dynamics and respiration and augmented adipogenesis. Moreover, in vitro results were in agreement with in vivo models of oxidative stress and aging, in which mice depleted of the superoxide dismutase enzyme 1 (SOD1) and old wild-type C57BL/6JRj mice demonstrated the same trend of adipogenic potential. Importantly, in humans the results follow the same pattern, showing a downregulation of adipogenic markers during aging. Since the levels of oxidative stress and peripheral insulin resistance increase with age, while adipogenesis decreases during aging, our model helps to understand a possible way to overcome physiologically low, steady stress conditions and restore adipogenesis, avoiding accumulation of deleterious hypertrophic adipocytes in favor of beneficial hyperplasia.
    Keywords:  Adipogenesis; Hyperoxia; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Oxidative stress; Rosiglitazone
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2020.101507
  6. Nutrients. 2020 Mar 24. pii: E871. [Epub ahead of print]12(3):
    Hayes P, Fergus C, Ghanim M, Cirzi C, Burtnyak L, McGrenaghan CJ, Tuorto F, Nolan DP, Kelly VP.
      Queuine is a eukaryotic micronutrient, derived exclusively from eubacteria. It is incorporated into both cytosolic and mitochondrial transfer RNA to generate a queuosine nucleotide at position 34 of the anticodon loop. The transfer RNA of primary tumors has been shown to be hypomodified with respect to queuosine, with decreased levels correlating with disease progression and poor patient survival. Here, we assess the impact of queuine deficiency on mitochondrial bioenergetics and substrate metabolism in HeLa cells. Queuine depletion is shown to promote a Warburg type metabolism, characterized by increased aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis, concomitant with increased ammonia and lactate production and elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity but in the absence of significant changes to proliferation. In intact cells, queuine deficiency caused an increased rate of mitochondrial proton leak and a decreased rate of ATP synthesis, correlating with an observed reduction in cellular ATP levels. Data from permeabilized cells demonstrated that the activity of individual complexes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain were not affected by the micronutrient. Notably, in queuine free cells that had been adapted to grow in galactose medium, the re-introduction of glucose permitted the mitochondrial F1FO-ATP synthase to operate in the reverse direction, acting to hyperpolarize the mitochondrial membrane potential; a commonly observed but poorly understood cancer trait. Together, our data suggest that queuosine hypomodification is a deliberate and advantageous adaptation of cancer cells to facilitate the metabolic switch between oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis.
    Keywords:  Queuine; RNA modification; Warburg metabolism; aerobic glycolysis; microbiome; micronutrient; queuosine
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030871
  7. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020 Apr 07. 9(7): e014501
    Ali Pour P, Kenney MC, Kheradvar A.
      Background Mitochondrial transplantation has been recently explored for treatment of very ill cardiac patients. However, little is known about the intracellular consequences of mitochondrial transplantation. This study aims to assess the bioenergetics consequences of mitochondrial transplantation into normal cardiomyocytes in the short and long term. Methods and Results We first established the feasibility of autologous, non-autologous, and interspecies mitochondrial transplantation. Then we quantitated the bioenergetics consequences of non-autologous mitochondrial transplantation into cardiomyocytes up to 28 days using a Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Compared with the control, we observed a statistically significant improvement in basal respiration and ATP production 2-day post-transplantation, accompanied by an increase in maximal respiration and spare respiratory capacity, although not statistically significantly. However, these initial improvements were short-lived and the bioenergetics advantages return to the baseline level in subsequent time points. Conclusions This study, for the first time, shows that transplantation of non-autologous mitochondria from healthy skeletal muscle cells into normal cardiomyocytes leads to short-term improvement of bioenergetics indicating "supercharged" state. However, over time these improved effects disappear, which suggests transplantation of mitochondria may have a potential application in settings where there is an acute stress.
    Keywords:  mitochondria; mitochondrial cardiomyopathy; mitochondrial transfer; mitochondrial transplantation; mitochontrial respiratory chain disease
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.014501
  8. Nat Commun. 2020 Mar 24. 11(1): 1533
    Commander R, Wei C, Sharma A, Mouw JK, Burton LJ, Summerbell E, Mahboubi D, Peterson RJ, Konen J, Zhou W, Du Y, Fu H, Shanmugam M, Marcus AI.
      Phenotypic heterogeneity exists within collectively invading packs of tumor cells, suggesting that cellular subtypes cooperate to drive invasion and metastasis. Here, we take a chemical biology approach to probe cell:cell cooperation within the collective invasion pack. These data reveal metabolic heterogeneity within invasive chains, in which leader cells preferentially utilize mitochondrial respiration and trailing follower cells rely on elevated glucose uptake. We define a pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) dependency in leader cells that can be therapeutically exploited with the mitochondria-targeting compound alexidine dihydrochloride. In contrast, follower cells highly express glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which sustains an elevated level of glucose uptake required to maintain proliferation. Co-targeting of both leader and follower cells with PDH and GLUT1 inhibitors, respectively, inhibits cell growth and collective invasion. Taken together, our work reveals metabolic heterogeneity within the lung cancer collective invasion pack and provides rationale for co-targeting PDH and GLUT1 to inhibit collective invasion.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15219-7
  9. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2020 Mar 23. pii: glaa071. [Epub ahead of print]
    Zampino M, Semba RD, Adelnia F, Spencer RG, Fishbein KW, Schrack JA, Simonsick EM, Ferrucci L.
      BACKGROUND: Resting metabolic rate (RMR) tends to decline with aging. The age-trajectory of decline in RMR is similar to changes that occur in muscle mass, muscle strength and fitness but while the decline in these phenotypes have been related to changes of mitochondrial function and oxidative capacity, whether lower RMR is associated with poorer mitochondrial oxidative capacity is unknown.METHODS: In 619 participants of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, we analyzed the cross-sectional association between RMR (kcal/day), assessed by indirect calorimetry, and skeletal muscle maximal oxidative phosphorylation capacity, assessed as post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery time constant (τPCr), by phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between τPCr and RMR, adjusting for potential confounders.
    RESULTS: Independent of age, sex, lean body mass, muscle density and fat mass, higher RMR was significantly associated with shorter τPCr, indicating greater mitochondrial oxidative capacity.
    CONCLUSION: Higher RMR is associated with a higher mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle. This association may reflect a relationship between better muscle quality and greater mitochondrial health.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glaa071
  10. J Biol Chem. 2020 Mar 23. pii: jbc.RA119.012420. [Epub ahead of print]
    Bradley MC, Yang K, Fernández-Del-Río L, Ngo J, Ayer A, Tsui HS, Novales NA, Stocker R, Shirihai OS, Barros MH, Clarke CF.
      Coenzyme Q (Qn) is a vital lipid component of the electron transport chain that functions in cellular energy metabolism and as a membrane antioxidant. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, coq1-coq9 deletion mutants are respiratory incompetent, sensitive to lipid peroxidation stress, and unable to synthesize Q6 The yeast coq10 deletion mutant is also respiratory deficient and sensitive to lipid peroxidation, yet continues to produce Q6 at an impaired rate. Thus, Coq10 is required for the function of Q6 in respiration and as an antioxidant and is believed to chaperone Q6 from its site of synthesis to the respiratory complexes. In several fungi, Coq10 is encoded as a fusion polypeptide with Coq11, a recently identified protein of unknown function required for efficient Q6 biosynthesis. Because "fused" proteins are often involved in similar biochemical pathways, here we examined the putative functional relationship between Coq10 and Coq11 in yeast. We used plate growth and Seahorse assays and LC-MS/MS analysis to show that COQ11 deletion rescues respiratory deficiency, sensitivity to lipid peroxidation, and decreased Q6 biosynthesis of the coq10Δ mutant. Additionally, immunoblotting indicated that yeast coq11Δ mutants accumulate increased amounts of certain Coq polypeptides and display a stabilized CoQ synthome. These effects suggest that Coq11 modulates Q6 biosynthesis, and that its absence increases mitochondrial Q6 content in the coq10Δcoq11Δ double mutant. This augmented mitochondrial Q6 content counteracts the respiratory deficiency and lipid peroxidation sensitivity phenotypes of the coq10Δ mutant. This study further clarifies the intricate connection between Q6 biosynthesis, trafficking, and function in mitochondrial metabolism.
    Keywords:  CoQ synthome; Coenzyme Q; Coq10; Coq11; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; lipid; mitochondrial metabolism; ubiquinone; yeast
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA119.012420
  11. Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg. 2020 Mar 19. pii: S0005-2728(20)30043-8. [Epub ahead of print] 148193
    Stuchebrukhov A, Schäfer J, Berg J, Brzezinski P.
      Components of respiratory chains in mitochondria and some aerobic bacteria assemble into larger, multiprotein membrane-bound supercomplexes. Here, we address the functional significance of supercomplexes composed of respiratory-chain complexes III and IV. Complex III catalyzes oxidation of quinol and reduction of water-soluble cytochrome c (cyt c), while complex IV catalyzes oxidation of the reduced cyt c and reduction of dioxygen to water. We focus on two questions: (i) under which conditions does diffusion of cyt c become rate limiting for electron transfer between these two complexes? (ii) is there a kinetic advantage of forming a supercomplex composed of complexes III and IV? To answer these questions, we use a theoretical approach and assume that cyt c diffuses in the water phase while complexes III and IV either diffuse independently in the two dimensions of the membrane or form supercomplexes. The analysis shows that the electron flux between complexes III and IV is determined by the equilibration time of cyt c within the volume of the intermembrane space, rather than the cyt c diffusion time constant. Assuming realistic relative concentrations of membrane-bound components and cyt c and that all components diffuse independently, the data indicate that electron transfer between complexes III and IV can become rate limiting. Hence, there is a kinetic advantage of bringing complexes III and IV together in the membrane to form supercomplexes.
    Keywords:  Cytochrome aa(3); Electron transfer; Kinetics; Ligand; Mechanism; Membrane protein; Proton transfer
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbabio.2020.148193
  12. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Mar 19. pii: E2122. [Epub ahead of print]21(6):
    Song X, Hu W, Yu H, Wang H, Zhao Y, Korngold R, Zhao Y.
      Mitochondria are usually located in the cytoplasm of cells where they generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to empower cellular functions. However, we found circulating mitochondria in human and animal blood. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of mitochondria in adult human blood plasma. Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated that circulating mitochondria from the plasma of human cord blood and adult peripheral blood displayed the immune tolerance-associated membrane molecules such as CD270 and PD-L1 (programmed cell death-ligand 1). Similar data were obtained from fetal bovine serum (FBS) and horse serum of different vendors. Mitochondria remained detectable even after 56 °C heat inactivation. A real-time PCR array revealed purified mitochondria from animal sera expressed several genes that contribute to human T- and B-cell activation. Transwell experiments confirmed the migration capability of mitochondria through their expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in responses to its ligand stromal-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α). Functional analysis established that human plasma mitochondria stimulated the proliferation of anti-CD3/CD28 bead-activated PBMC, up-regulated the percentage of activated CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells, and reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines. These findings suggested that the existence of circulating mitochondria in blood may function as a novel mediator for cell-cell communications and maintenance of homeostasis. Plasma-related products should be cautiously utilized in cell cultures due to the mitochondrial contamination.
    Keywords:  Blood; Immune cells; Mitochondria; Plasma; Serum
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062122
  13. Cell Metab. 2020 Mar 16. pii: S1550-4131(20)30119-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Kurniawan H, Franchina DG, Guerra L, Bonetti L, -Baguet LS, Grusdat M, Schlicker L, Hunewald O, Dostert C, Merz MP, Binsfeld C, Duncan GS, Farinelle S, Nonnenmacher Y, Haight J, Das Gupta D, Ewen A, Taskesen R, Halder R, Chen Y, Jäger C, Ollert M, Wilmes P, Vasiliou V, Harris IS, Knobbe-Thomsen CB, Turner JD, Mak TW, Lohoff M, Meiser J, Hiller K, Brenner D.
      Regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain immune homeostasis and prevent autoimmunity. Serine stimulates glutathione (GSH) synthesis and feeds into the one-carbon metabolic network (1CMet) essential for effector T cell (Teff) responses. However, serine's functions, linkage to GSH, and role in stress responses in Tregs are unknown. Here, we show, using mice with Treg-specific ablation of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclc), that GSH loss in Tregs alters serine import and synthesis and that the integrity of this feedback loop is critical for Treg suppressive capacity. Although Gclc ablation does not impair Treg differentiation, mutant mice exhibit severe autoimmunity and enhanced anti-tumor responses. Gclc-deficient Tregs show increased serine metabolism, mTOR activation, and proliferation but downregulated FoxP3. Limitation of cellular serine in vitro and in vivo restores FoxP3 expression and suppressive capacity of Gclc-deficient Tregs. Our work reveals an unexpected role for GSH in restricting serine availability to preserve Treg functionality.
    Keywords:  FoxP3; ROS; Treg; autoimmunity; cancer; diet; glutamate cysteine ligase; glutathione; one carbon metabolism; serine metabolism
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.03.004
  14. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Mar 23. pii: E755. [Epub ahead of print]12(3):
    Raghav L, Chang YH, Hsu YC, Li YC, Chen CY, Yang TY, Chen KC, Hsu KH, Tseng JS, Chuang CY, Lee MH, Wang CL, Chen HW, Yu SL, Su SF, Yuan SS, Chen JJW, Ho SY, Li KC, Yang PC, Chang GC, Chen HY.
      Risk factors including genetic effects are still being investigated in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Mitochondria play an important role in controlling imperative cellular parameters, and anomalies in mitochondrial function might be crucial for cancer development. The mitochondrial genomic aberrations found in lung adenocarcinoma and their associations with cancer development and progression are not yet clearly characterized. Here, we identified a spectrum of mitochondrial genome mutations in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma and explored their association with prognosis and clinical outcomes. Next-generation sequencing was used to reveal the mitochondrial genomes of tumor and conditionally normal adjacent tissues from 61 Stage 1 LUADs. Mitochondrial somatic mutations and clinical outcomes including relapse-free survival (RFS) were analyzed. Patients with somatic mutations in the D-loop region had longer RFS (adjusted hazard ratio, adjHR = 0.18, p = 0.027), whereas somatic mutations in mitochondrial Complex IV and Complex V genes were associated with shorter RFS (adjHR = 3.69, p = 0.012, and adjHR = 6.63, p = 0.002, respectively). The risk scores derived from mitochondrial somatic mutations were predictive of RFS (adjHR = 9.10, 95%CI: 2.93-28.32, p < 0.001). Our findings demonstrated the vulnerability of the mitochondrial genome to mutations and the potential prediction ability of somatic mutations. This research may contribute to improving molecular guidance for patient treatment in precision medicine.
    Keywords:  EGFR-activating mutations; lung adenocarcinoma; mitochondria; prognosis; somatic mutations
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030755
  15. FASEB J. 2020 Mar 23.
    Leermakers PA, Remels AHV, Zonneveld MI, Rouschop KMA, Schols AMWJ, Gosker HR.
      Iron homeostasis is essential for mitochondrial function, and iron deficiency has been associated with skeletal muscle weakness and decreased exercise capacity in patients with different chronic disorders. We hypothesized that iron deficiency-induced loss of skeletal muscle mitochondria is caused by increased mitochondrial clearance. To study this, C2C12 myotubes were subjected to the iron chelator deferiprone. Mitochondrial parameters and key constituents of mitophagy pathways were studied in presence or absence of pharmacological autophagy inhibition or knockdown of mitophagy-related proteins. Furthermore, it was explored if mitochondria were present in extracellular vesicles (EV). Iron chelation resulted in an increase in BCL2/Adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) and BNIP3-like gene and protein levels, and the appearance of mitochondria encapsulated by lysosome-like vesicular structures in myotubes. Moreover, mitochondria were secreted via EV. These changes were associated with cellular mitochondrial impairments. These impairments were unaltered by autophagy inhibition, knockdown of mitophagy-related proteins BNIP3 and BNIP3L, or knockdown of their upstream regulator hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha. In conclusion, mitophagy is not essential for development of iron deficiency-induced reductions in mitochondrial proteins or respiratory capacity. The secretion of mitochondria-containing EV could present an additional pathway via which mitochondria can be cleared from iron chelation-exposed myotubes.
    Keywords:  extracellular vesicles; iron depletion; mitochondrial clearance; myotubes
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.201901815R
  16. Cell Rep. 2020 Mar 24. pii: S2211-1247(20)30296-5. [Epub ahead of print]30(12): 4281-4291.e4
    Oemer G, Koch J, Wohlfarter Y, Alam MT, Lackner K, Sailer S, Neumann L, Lindner HH, Watschinger K, Haltmeier M, Werner ER, Zschocke J, Keller MA.
      Cardiolipin (CL) is a phospholipid specific for mitochondrial membranes and crucial for many core tasks of this organelle. Its acyl chain configurations are tissue specific, functionally important, and generated via post-biosynthetic remodeling. However, this process lacks the necessary specificity to explain CL diversity, which is especially evident for highly specific CL compositions in mammalian tissues. To investigate the so far elusive regulatory origin of CL homeostasis in mice, we combine lipidomics, integrative transcriptomics, and data-driven machine learning. We demonstrate that not transcriptional regulation, but cellular phospholipid compositions are closely linked to the tissue specificity of CL patterns allowing artificial neural networks to precisely predict cross-tissue CL compositions in a consistent mechanistic specificity rationale. This is especially relevant for the interpretation of disease-related perturbations of CL homeostasis, by allowing differentiation between specific aberrations in CL metabolism and changes caused by global alterations in cellular (phospho-)lipid metabolism.
    Keywords:  LC-MS/MS; artificial neural network; cardiolipin; lipidomics; machine learning; membrane lipids; mitochondria; mouse tissue-specificity; phospholipids; structural diversity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.02.115
  17. Mol Metab. 2020 Feb 15. pii: S2212-8778(20)30008-9. [Epub ahead of print] 100942
    Wiese M, Bannister AJ.
      BACKGROUND: Virtually all eukaryotic cells contain spatially distinct genomes, a single nuclear genome that harbours the vast majority of genes and much smaller genomes found in mitochondria present at thousands of copies per cell. To generate a coordinated gene response to various environmental cues, the genomes must communicate with each another. Much of this bi-directional crosstalk relies on epigenetic processes, including DNA, RNA, and histone modification pathways. Crucially, these pathways, in turn depend on many metabolites generated in specific pools throughout the cell, including the mitochondria. They also involve the transport of metabolites as well as the enzymes that catalyse these modifications between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes.SCOPE OF REVIEW: This study examines some of the molecular mechanisms by which metabolites influence the activity of epigenetic enzymes, ultimately affecting gene regulation in response to metabolic cues. We particularly focus on the subcellular localisation of metabolite pools and the crosstalk between mitochondrial and nuclear proteins and RNAs. We consider aspects of mitochondrial-nuclear communication involving histone proteins, and potentially their epigenetic marks, and discuss how nuclear-encoded enzymes regulate mitochondrial function through epitranscriptomic pathways involving various classes of RNA molecules within mitochondria.
    MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Epigenetic communication between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes occurs at multiple levels, ultimately ensuring a coordinated gene expression response between different genetic environments. Metabolic changes stimulated, for example, by environmental factors, such as diet or physical activity, alter the relative abundances of various metabolites, thereby directly affecting the epigenetic machinery. These pathways, coupled to regulated protein and RNA transport mechanisms, underpin the coordinated gene expression response. Their overall importance to the fitness of a cell is highlighted by the identification of many mutations in the pathways we discuss that have been linked to human disease including cancer.
    Keywords:  Chromatin; Enzymes; Epigenetics; Histones; Metabolites; Mitochondria; RNA modification
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2020.01.006