bims-mesote Biomed News
on Mesothelioma
Issue of 2022‒05‒29
eight papers selected by
Laura Mannarino
Humanitas Research

  1. Cancer Discov. 2022 May 27. OF1
      The primary endpoint of disease control rate at 12 weeks was met with a partial response in two patients.
  2. Semin Nucl Med. 2022 May 24. pii: S0001-2998(22)00039-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare type of cancer, whose incidence, however, is increasing and will presumably continue to rise in the coming years. Key features of this disease comprise its mantle-shaped, pleura-associated, often multifocal growth, which cause diagnostic challenges. A growing number of mesotheliomas are being treated with novel immunotherapies for which no image derived general response criteria have been established. However, recent studies indicate that FDG-PET/CT could be superior for response assessment compared to CT-based criteria. This article aims at providing an overview of response assessment criteria dedicated to malignant pleural mesothelioma, such as mRECIST, iRECIST, and PERCIST. In addition, the potential future role of PET/CT in the management of malignant pleural mesothelioma will also be discussed.
  3. Cancers (Basel). 2022 May 20. pii: 2527. [Epub ahead of print]14(10):
      The lack of effective therapies remains one of the main challenges for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In this perspective, drug repositioning could accelerate the identification of novel treatments. We screened 1170 FDA-approved drugs on a SV40-immortalized mesothelial (MeT-5A) and five MPM (Mero-14, Mero-25, IST-Mes2, NCI-H28 and MSTO-211H) cell lines. Biological assays were carried out for 41 drugs, showing the highest cytotoxicity and for whom there were a complete lack of published literature in MPM. Cytotoxicity and caspase activation were evaluated with commercially available kits and cell proliferation was assayed using MTT assay and by clonogenic activity with standard protocols. Moreover, the five most effective drugs were further evaluated on patient-derived primary MPM cell lines. The most active molecules were cephalomannine, ouabain, alexidine, thonzonium bromide, and emetine. Except for alexidine, these drugs inhibited the clonogenic ability and caspase activation in all cancer lines tested. The proliferation was inhibited also on an extended panel of cell lines, including primary MPM cells. Thus, we suggest that cephalomannine, ouabain, thonzonium bromide, and emetine could represent novel candidates to be repurposed for improving the arsenal of therapeutic weapons in the fight against MPM.
    Keywords:  alexidine; cephalomannine; drug repositioning; emetine; malignant pleural mesothelioma; ouabain; thonzonium bromide
  4. Front Oncol. 2022 ;12 851785
      Introduction: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a lethal cancer for which early-stage diagnosis remains a major challenge. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath proved to be potential biomarkers for MPM diagnosis, but translational studies are needed to elucidate which VOCs originate from the tumor itself and thus are specifically related to MPM cell metabolism.Methods: An in vitro model was set-up to characterize the headspace VOC profiles of six MPM and two lung cancer cell lines using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A comparative analysis was carried out to identify VOCs that could discriminate between MPM and lung cancer, as well as between the histological subtypes within MPM (epithelioid, sarcomatoid and biphasic).
    Results: VOC profiles were identified capable of distinguishing MPM (subtypes) and lung cancer cells with high accuracy. Alkanes, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols represented many of the discriminating VOCs. Discrepancies with clinical findings were observed, supporting the need for studies examining breath and tumor cells of the same patients and studying metabolization and kinetics of in vitro discovered VOCs in a clinical setting.
    Conclusion: While the relationship between in vitro and in vivo VOCs is yet to be established, both could complement each other in generating a clinically useful breath model for MPM.
    Keywords:  biomarkers; headspace analysis; lung cancer; mesothelioma; volatile organic compounds
  5. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2022 May 20. pii: rapm-2022-103688. [Epub ahead of print]
      INTRODUCTION: A curative-intent surgical procedure, pleurectomy/decortication, for malignant pleural mesothelioma is accompanied by a high incidence of major postoperative complications. Although epidural block, which suppresses nociception during and after surgery, reportedly has both benefits and disadvantages in terms of outcomes after thoracic surgery for other diseases, the effects of epidural block on major complications after pleurectomy/decortication have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between epidural block and major postoperative complications following pleurectomy/decortication.METHODS: In a single-institutional observational study, consecutive adult patients undergoing pleurectomy/decortication under general anesthesia were enrolled from March 2019 to December 2021. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between perioperative variables and major complications. Next, patients were divided into two groups: general anesthesia with and without epidural block. Incidences of major postoperative complications, defined as Clavien-Dindo grades≥III, were compared between groups.
    RESULTS: In all patients enrolled with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status II or III (n=99), general anesthesia without epidural block was identified as a sole risk factor for major complications among perioperative variables. The incidence of major complications was 32.3% (95% CI 19.1% to 49.2%) in patients with epidural block (n=34), which was significantly lower than 63.1% (95% CI 50.9% to 73.8%) in patients with epidural block (n=65). In sensitivity analysis in patients with ASA physical status II alone, the same results were obtained.
    CONCLUSION: Epidural block is likely associated with reduction of the incidence of major complications after pleurectomy/decortication for malignant pleural mesothelioma under general anesthesia.
    Keywords:  analgesia; outcome assessment, health care; postoperative complications; regional anesthesia
  6. Sci Rep. 2022 May 23. 12(1): 8634
      Gene therapy using vectors has attracted attention in recent years for the treatment of cancers caused by gene mutations. Besides, new treatments are imperative for lung cancer, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), due to its high mortality. We developed a minimally invasive and orally inhalable tumor suppressor gene drug (SFD-p16 and SFD-p53) with non-viral vectors for lung cancer treatment by combining tumor suppressor genes with an inhalant powder that can deliver active ingredients directly to the lung. We used NSCLC (A549 and H1299) and MPM (H2052) cell lines in an air-liquid interface culture. Transfection of A549 and H2052 cells with SFD-p16 significantly increased p16 mRNA expression levels and decreased cell proliferation in both cell lines. Similar results were obtained with transfection of H1299 with the inhalable gene drug SFD-p53. In an in vivo experiment, a mouse model of lung cancer with orthotopically transplanted luciferase-expressing A549 cells was subjected to intratracheal insufflation of SFD-p16. Consequently, SFD-p16 effectively and directly affected lung cancer. This study suggests that inhalable gene drugs are effective treatments for NSCLC and MPM. We expect inhalable gene drugs to present a novel gene therapy agent for lung cancer that patients can self-administer.
  7. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 May 21. pii: 5786. [Epub ahead of print]23(10):
      Pleural mesothelioma (PM) is an aggressive tumor with few therapeutic options. Although patients with epithelioid PM (ePM) survive longer than non-epithelioid PM (non-ePM), heterogeneity of tumor response in ePM is observed. The role of the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) in the development and progression of PM is currently considered a promising biomarker. A few studies have used high-throughput technologies correlated with TIME evaluation and morphologic and clinical data. This study aimed to identify different morphological, immunohistochemical, and transcriptional profiles that could potentially predict the outcome. A retrospective multicenter cohort of 129 chemonaive PM patients was recruited. Tissue slides were reviewed by dedicated pathologists for histotype classification and immunophenotype of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and lymphoid aggregates or tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS). ePM (n = 99) survivors were further classified into long (>36 months) or short (<12 months) survivors. RNAseq was performed on a subset of 69 samples. Distinct transcriptional profiling in long and short ePM survivors was found. An inflammatory background with a higher number of B lymphocytes and a prevalence of TLS formations were detected in long compared to short ePM survivors. These results suggest that B cell infiltration could be important in modulating disease aggressiveness, opening a pathway for novel immunotherapeutic approaches.
    Keywords:  B cells; CD20; long survivors; mesothelioma; tertiary lymphoid structures; transcriptomics