bims-meprid Biomed News
on Metabolic-dependent epigenetic reprogramming in differentiation and disease
Issue of 2022‒03‒06
seven papers selected by
Alessandro Carrer
Veneto Institute of Molecular Medicine

  1. EMBO J. 2022 Mar 01. e109463
      In order to support bone marrow regeneration after myeloablation, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) actively divide to provide both stem and progenitor cells. However, the mechanisms regulating HSC function and cell fate choice during hematopoietic recovery remain unclear. We herein provide novel insights into HSC regulation during regeneration by focusing on mitochondrial metabolism and ATP citrate lyase (ACLY). After 5-fluorouracil-induced myeloablation, HSCs highly expressing endothelial protein C receptor (EPCRhigh ) were enriched within the stem cell fraction at the expense of more proliferative EPCRLow HSCs. These EPCRHigh HSCs were initially more primitive than EPCRLow HSCs and enabled stem cell expansion by enhancing histone acetylation, due to increased activity of ACLY in the early phase of hematopoietic regeneration. In the late phase of recovery, HSCs enhanced differentiation potential by increasing the accessibility of cis-regulatory elements in progenitor cell-related genes, such as CD48. In conditions of reduced mitochondrial metabolism and ACLY activity, these HSCs maintained stem cell phenotypes, while ACLY-dependent histone acetylation promoted differentiation into CD48+ progenitor cells. Collectively, these results indicate that the dynamic control of ACLY-dependent metabolism and epigenetic alterations is essential for HSC regulation during hematopoietic regeneration.
    Keywords:  Acly; bone marrow regeneration; hematopoietic stem cells; mitochondrial metabolism
  2. Cell Metab. 2022 Mar 01. pii: S1550-4131(22)00047-X. [Epub ahead of print]34(3): 378-395
      Productive T cell responses to infection and cancer rely on coordinated metabolic reprogramming and epigenetic remodeling among the immune cells. In particular, T cell effector and memory differentiation, exhaustion, and senescence/aging are tightly regulated by the metabolism-epigenetics axis. In this review, we summarize recent advances of how metabolic circuits combined with epigenetic changes dictate T cell fate decisions and shape their functional states. We also discuss how the metabolic-epigenetic axis orchestrates T cell exhaustion and explore how physiological factors, such as diet, gut microbiota, and the circadian clock, are integrated in shaping T cell epigenetic modifications and functionality. Furthermore, we summarize key features of the senescent/aged T cells and discuss how to ameliorate vaccination- and COVID-induced T cell dysfunctions by metabolic modulations. An in-depth understanding of the unexplored links between cellular metabolism and epigenetic modifications in various physiological or pathological contexts has the potential to uncover novel therapeutic strategies for fine-tuning T cell immunity.
    Keywords:  CD8; COVID; aging; epigenetic; exhaustion; immunometabolism
  3. Nat Metab. 2022 Feb;4(2): 225-238
      Many types of cancer feature TP53 mutations with oncogenic properties. However, whether the oncogenic activity of mutant p53 is affected by the cellular metabolic state is unknown. Here we show that cancer-associated mutant p53 protein is stabilized by 2-hydroxyglutarate generated by malic enzyme 2. Mechanistically, malic enzyme 2 promotes the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate by adjusting glutaminolysis, as well as through a reaction that requires pyruvate and NADPH. Malic enzyme 2 depletion decreases cellular 2-hydroxyglutarate levels in vitro and in vivo, whereas elevated malic enzyme 2 expression increases 2-hydroxyglutarate production. We further show that 2-hydroxyglutarate binds directly to mutant p53, which reduces Mdm2-mediated mutant p53 ubiquitination and degradation. 2-Hydroxyglutarate supplementation is sufficient for maintaining mutant p53 protein stability in malic enzyme 2-depleted cells, and restores tumour growth of malic enzyme 2-ablated cells, but not of cells that lack mutant p53. Our findings reveal the previously unrecognized versatility of malic enzyme 2 catalytic functions, and uncover a role for mutant p53 in sensing cellular 2-hydroxyglutarate levels, which contribute to the stabilization of mutant p53 and tumour growth.
  4. Cell Rep. 2022 Mar 01. pii: S2211-1247(22)00180-2. [Epub ahead of print]38(9): 110453
      Inherited pathogenic succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) gene mutations cause the hereditary pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma tumor syndrome. Syndromic tumors exhibit elevated succinate, an oncometabolite that is proposed to drive tumorigenesis via DNA and histone hypermethylation, mitochondrial expansion, and pseudohypoxia-related gene expression. To interrogate this prevailing model, we disrupt mouse adrenal medulla SDHB expression, which recapitulates several key molecular features of human SDHx tumors, including succinate accumulation but not 5hmC loss, HIF accumulation, or tumorigenesis. By contrast, concomitant SDHB and the neurofibromin 1 tumor suppressor disruption yields SDHx-like pheochromocytomas. Unexpectedly, in vivo depletion of the 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) dioxygenase cofactor ascorbate reduces SDHB-deficient cell survival, indicating that SDHx loss may be better tolerated by tissues with high antioxidant capacity. Contrary to the prevailing oncometabolite model, succinate accumulation and 2-OG-dependent dioxygenase inhibition are insufficient for mouse pheochromocytoma tumorigenesis, which requires additional growth-regulatory pathway activation.
    Keywords:  SDHB; adrenal gland; ascorbate; cancer; mouse model; neuroendocrine; oncometabolite; pheochromocytoma; succinate dehydrogenase; tumor
  5. Hepatology. 2022 Feb 28.
      Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) are the most frequently mutated metabolic genes across human cancers. These hot-spot gain-of-function mutations cause the IDH enzyme to aberrantly generate high levels of the oncometabolite, R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG), which competitively inhibits enzymes that regulate epigenetics, DNA repair, metabolism, and other processes. Among epithelial malignancies, IDH mutations are particularly common in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of mIDH1 delays progression of mIDH1 iCCA, indicating a role for this oncogene in tumor maintenance. However, not all patients receive clinical benefit and those who do typically show stable disease rather than significant tumor regressions. The elucidation of the oncogenic functions of mIDH is needed to inform strategies that can more effectively harness mIDH as a therapeutic target. This review will discuss the biology of mIDH iCCA, including roles of mIDH in blocking cell differentiation programs and suppressing anti-tumor immunity, and the potential relevance of these effects to mIDH1 targeted therapy. We also cover opportunities for synthetic lethal therapeutic interactions that harness the altered cell state provoked by mIDH1, rather than inhibiting the mutant enzyme. Finally, we highlight key outstanding questions in the biology of this fascinating and incompletely understood oncogene.
  6. Sci Immunol. 2022 Mar 04. 7(69): eabo6765
      MTHFD2 is a metabolic checkpoint of T cell fate and function.
  7. Mol Cell. 2022 Mar 03. pii: S1097-2765(22)00108-3. [Epub ahead of print]82(5): 1066-1077.e7
      The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) translocates into the nucleus, facilitating histone acetylation by producing acetyl-CoA. We describe a noncanonical pathway for nuclear PDC (nPDC) import that does not involve nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Mitochondria cluster around the nucleus in response to proliferative stimuli and tether onto the nuclear envelope (NE) via mitofusin-2 (MFN2)-enriched contact points. A decrease in nuclear MFN2 levels decreases mitochondria tethering and nPDC levels. Mitochondrial PDC crosses the NE and interacts with lamin A, forming a ring below the NE before crossing through the lamin layer into the nucleoplasm, in areas away from NPCs. Effective blockage of NPC trafficking does not decrease nPDC levels. The PDC-lamin interaction is maintained during cell division, when lamin depolymerizes and disassembles before reforming daughter nuclear envelopes, providing another pathway for nPDC entry during mitosis. Our work provides a different angle to understanding mitochondria-to-nucleus communication and nuclear metabolism.
    Keywords:  acetylation; cell cycle; lamin; metabolism; mitochondria; mitofusin; nucleus; protein trafficking; pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; tethering