bims-meprid Biomed News
on Metabolic-dependent epigenetic reprogramming in differentiation and disease
Issue of 2021‒04‒25
six papers selected by
Alessandro Carrer
Veneto Institute of Molecular Medicine

  1. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 624914
      Histone crotonylation is a newly identified epigenetic modification that has a pronounced ability to regulate gene expression. It belongs to an expanding group of short chain lysine acylations that also includes the extensively studied mark histone acetylation. Emerging evidence suggests that histone crotonylation is functionally distinct from histone acetylation and that competition for sites of modification, which reflects the cellular metabolic status, could be an important epigenetic mechanism that regulates diverse processes. Here, we discuss the enzymatic and metabolic regulation of histone crotonylation, the "reader" proteins that selectively recognise this modification and translate it into diverse functional outcomes within the cell, as well as the identified physiological roles of histone crotonylation, which range from signal-dependent gene activation to spermatogenesis and tissue injury.
    Keywords:  chromatin; crotonylation; epigenetics; gene regulation; histone post-translational modification
  2. Nat Commun. 2021 Apr 23. 12(1): 2398
      Arginine plays diverse roles in cellular physiology. As a semi-essential amino acid, arginine deprivation has been used to target cancers with arginine synthesis deficiency. Arginine-deprived cancer cells exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction, transcriptional reprogramming and eventual cell death. In this study, we show in prostate cancer cells that arginine acts as an epigenetic regulator to modulate histone acetylation, leading to global upregulation of nuclear-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes. TEAD4 is retained in the nucleus by arginine, enhancing its recruitment to the promoter/enhancer regions of OXPHOS genes and mediating coordinated upregulation in a YAP1-independent but mTOR-dependent manner. Arginine also activates the expression of lysine acetyl-transferases and increases overall levels of acetylated histones and acetyl-CoA, facilitating TEAD4 recruitment. Silencing of TEAD4 suppresses OXPHOS functions and prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Given the strong correlation of TEAD4 expression and prostate carcinogenesis, targeting TEAD4 may be beneficially used to enhance arginine-deprivation therapy and prostate cancer therapy.
  3. Adv Nutr. 2021 Apr 19. pii: nmab038. [Epub ahead of print]
      With the increasing maternal age and the use of assisted reproductive technology in various countries worldwide, the influence of epigenetic modification on embryonic development is increasingly notable and prominent. Epigenetic modification disorders caused by various nutritional imbalance would cause embryonic development abnormalities and even have an indelible impact on health in adulthood. In this scoping review, we summarize the main epigenetic modifications in mammals and the synergies among different epigenetic modifications, especially DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and histone methylation. We performed an in-depth analysis of the regulation of various epigenetic modifications on mammals from zygote formation to cleavage stage and blastocyst stage, and reviewed the modifications of key sites and their potential molecular mechanisms. In addition, we discuss the effects of nutrition (protein, lipids, and one-carbon metabolism) on epigenetic modification in embryos and emphasize the importance of various nutrients in embryonic development and epigenetics during pregnancy. Failures in epigenetic regulation have been implicated in mammalian and human early embryo loss and disease. With the use of reproductive technologies, it is becoming even more important to establish developmentally competent embryos. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate the extent to which embryos are sensitive to these epigenetic modifications and nutrition status. Understanding the epigenetic regulation of early embryo development will help us make better use of reproductive technologies and nutrition regulation to improve reproductive health in mammals.
    Keywords:  DNA methylation; blastocyst; early embryo; epigenetics; fat; histone modification; imprinting; nutrition; one-carbon metabolism; protein
  4. BMC Genomics. 2021 Apr 17. 22(1): 280
      BACKGROUND: Methionine (Met) supply during late-pregnancy enhances fetal development in utero and leads to greater rates of growth during the neonatal period. Due to its central role in coordinating nutrient and one-carbon metabolism along with immune responses of the newborn, the liver could be a key target of the programming effects induced by dietary methyl donors such as Met. To address this hypothesis, liver biopsies from 4-day old calves (n = 6/group) born to Holstein cows fed a control or the control plus ethyl-cellulose rumen-protected Met for the last 28 days prepartum were used for DNA methylation, transcriptome, metabolome, proteome, and one-carbon metabolism enzyme activities.RESULTS: Although greater withers and hip height at birth in Met calves indicated better development in utero, there were no differences in plasma systemic physiological indicators. RNA-seq along with bioinformatics and transcription factor regulator analyses revealed broad alterations in 'Glucose metabolism', 'Lipid metabolism, 'Glutathione', and 'Immune System' metabolism due to enhanced maternal Met supply. Greater insulin sensitivity assessed via proteomics, and efficiency of transsulfuration pathway activity suggested beneficial effects on nutrient metabolism and metabolic-related stress. Maternal Met supply contributed to greater phosphatidylcholine synthesis in calf liver, with a role in very low density lipoprotein secretion as a mechanism to balance metabolic fates of fatty acids arising from the diet or adipose-depot lipolysis. Despite a lack of effect on hepatic amino acid (AA) transport, a reduction in metabolism of essential AA within the liver indicated an AA 'sparing effect' induced by maternal Met.
    CONCLUSIONS: Despite greater global DNA methylation, maternal Met supply resulted in distinct alterations of hepatic transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome profiles after birth. Data underscored an effect on maintenance of calf hepatic Met homeostasis, glutathione, phosphatidylcholine and taurine synthesis along with greater efficiency of nutrient metabolism and immune responses. Transcription regulators such as FOXO1, PPARG, E2F1, and CREB1 appeared central in the coordination of effects induced by maternal Met. Overall, maternal Met supply induced better immunometabolic status of the newborn liver, conferring the calf a physiologic advantage during a period of metabolic stress and suboptimal immunocompetence.
    Keywords:  Calf; Epigenetics; Methyl donor; Nutritional programming
  5. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 646214
      Meiosis is essential for genetic stability and diversity during sexual reproduction in most eukaryotes. Chromatin structure and gene expression are drastically changed during meiosis, and various histone modifications have been reported to participate in this unique process. However, the dynamic of histone modifications during meiosis is still not well investigated. Here, by using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) based LC-MS/MS, we detected dynamic changes of histone H3 lysine post-translational modifications (PTMs). We firstly quantified the precise percentage of H3 modifications on different lysine sites during mouse and yeast meiosis, and found H3 acetylation and methylation were dramatically changed. To further study the potential functions of H3 acetylation and methylation in meiosis, we performed histone H3 lysine mutant screening in yeast, and found that yeast strains lacking H3K18 acetylation (H3K18ac) failed to initiate meiosis due to insufficient IME1 expression. Further studies showed that the absence of H3K18ac impaired respiration, leading to the reduction of Rim101p, which further upregulated a negative regulator of IME1 transcription, Smp1p. Together, our studies reveal a novel meiosis initiation pathway mediated by histone H3 modifications.
    Keywords:  H3K18 acetylation; RIM101; SMP1; histone modifications; meiosis initiation
  6. Cell Cycle. 2021 Apr 20. 1-17
      The DNA damage response (DDR) consists of multiple specialized pathways that recognize different insults sustained by DNA and repairs them where possible to avoid the accumulation of mutations. While loss of activity of genes in the DDR has been extensively associated with cancer predisposition and progression, in recent years it has become evident that there is a relationship between the DDR and cellular metabolism. The activity of the metabolic pathways can influence the DDR by regulating the availability of substrates required for the repair process and the function of its players. Additionally, proteins of the DDR can regulate the metabolic flux through the major pathways such as glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This newly discovered connection bears great importance in the biology of cancer and represents a new therapeutic opportunity. Here we describe the nature of the relationship between DDR and metabolism and its potential application in the treatment of cancer. Keywords: DNA repair, metabolism, mitochondria.
    Keywords:  DNA repair; metabolism; mitochondria