bims-meprid Biomed News
on Metabolic-dependent epigenetic reprogramming in differentiation and disease
Issue of 2020‒12‒20
six papers selected by
Alessandro Carrer
Veneto Institute of Molecular Medicine

  1. Exp Mol Med. 2020 Dec 11.
      Acetylation is the most studied histone acyl modification and has been recognized as a fundamental player in metabolic gene regulation, whereas other short-chain acyl modifications have only been recently identified, and little is known about their dynamics or molecular functions at the intersection of metabolism and epigenetic gene regulation. In this study, we aimed to understand the link between nonacetyl histone acyl modification, metabolic transcriptional regulation, and cellular adaptation. Using antibodies specific for butyrylated, propionylated, and crotonylated H3K23, we analyzed dynamic changes of H3K23 acylation upon various metabolic challenges. Here, we show that H3K23 modifications were highly responsive and reversibly regulated by nutrient availability. These modifications were commonly downregulated by the depletion of glucose and recovered based on glucose or fatty acid availability. Depletion of metabolic enzymes, namely, ATP citrate lyase, carnitine acetyltransferase, and acetyl-CoA synthetase, which are involved in Ac-CoA synthesis, resulted in global loss of H3K23 butyrylation, crotonylation, propionylation, and acetylation, with a profound impact on gene expression and cellular metabolic states. Our data indicate that Ac-CoA/CoA and central metabolic inputs are important for the maintenance of histone acylation. Additionally, genome-wide analysis revealed that acyl modifications are associated with gene activation. Our study shows that histone acylation acts as an immediate and reversible metabolic sensor enabling cellular adaptation to metabolic stress by reprogramming gene expression.
  2. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 586179
      Obesity has become a serious problem in public health worldwide, causing numerous metabolic diseases. Once the differentiation to mature adipocytes is disrupted, adipocyte hypertrophy and ectopic lipid accumulation leads to the inflammation in adipose tissue and systemic metabolic disorders. Intracellular metabolic state is known to change during cell differentiation and it affects the cell fate or the differentiation through epigenetic mechanism. Although the mechanism of preadipocyte differentiation has been well established, it is unknown how metabolic state changes and how it affects the differentiation in predipocyte differentiation. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) plays crucial roles in energy metabolism as a coenzyme in multiple redox reactions in major catabolic pathways and as a substrate of sirtuins or poly(ADP-ribose)polymerases. NAD+ is mainly synthesized from salvage pathway mediated by two enzymes, Nampt and Nmnat. The manipulation to NAD+ metabolism causes metabolic change in each tissue and changes in systemic metabolism. However, the role of NAD+ and Nampt in adipocyte differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we employed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)- and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based targeted metabolomics to elucidate the metabolic reprogramming events that occur during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. We found that the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was enhanced, which correlated with upregulated NAD+ synthesis. Additionally, increased alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG) contributed to histone H3K9 demethylation in the promoter region of PPARγ, leading to its transcriptional activation. Thus, we concluded that NAD+-centered metabolic reprogramming is necessary for the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.
    Keywords:  NAD+; adipocyte; alpha-ketoglutarate; demethylation; differentiation; metabolomics; nampt; preadipocyte
  3. Nucleic Acids Res. 2020 Dec 11. pii: gkaa1176. [Epub ahead of print]
      Short-chain acylations of lysine residues in eukaryotic proteins are recognized as essential posttranslational chemical modifications (PTMs) that regulate cellular processes from transcription, cell cycle, metabolism, to signal transduction. Lysine butyrylation was initially discovered as a normal straight chain butyrylation (Knbu). Here we report its structural isomer, branched chain butyrylation, i.e. lysine isobutyrylation (Kibu), existing as a new PTM on nuclear histones. Uniquely, isobutyryl-CoA is derived from valine catabolism and branched chain fatty acid oxidation which is distinct from the metabolism of n-butyryl-CoA. Several histone acetyltransferases were found to possess lysine isobutyryltransferase activity in vitro, especially p300 and HAT1. Transfection and western blot experiments showed that p300 regulated histone isobutyrylation levels in the cell. We resolved the X-ray crystal structures of HAT1 in complex with isobutyryl-CoA that gleaned an atomic level insight into HAT-catalyzed isobutyrylation. RNA-Seq profiling revealed that isobutyrate greatly affected the expression of genes associated with many pivotal biological pathways. Together, our findings identify Kibu as a novel chemical modification mark in histones and suggest its extensive role in regulating epigenetics and cellular physiology.
  4. Intensive Care Med Exp. 2020 Dec 18. 8(Suppl 1): 28
      Immune cell activation leads to the acquisition of new functions, such as proliferation, chemotaxis, and cytokine production. These functional changes require continuous metabolic adaption in order to sustain ATP homeostasis for sufficient host defense. The bioenergetic demands are usually met by the interconnected metabolic pathways glycolysis, TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Apart from glucose, other sources, such as fatty acids and glutamine, are able to fuel the TCA cycle.Rising evidence has shown that cellular metabolism has a direct effect on the regulation of immune cell functions. Thus, quiescent immune cells maintain a basal metabolic state, which shifts to an accelerated metabolic level upon immune cell activation in order to promote key effector functions.This review article summarizes distinct metabolic signatures of key immune cell subsets from quiescence to activation and demonstrates a methodical concept of how to assess cellular metabolic pathways. It further discusses why metabolic functions are of rising interest for translational research and how they can be affected by the underlying pathophysiological condition and/or therapeutic interventions.
    Keywords:  Catecholamines; Glycolysis; Immunometabolism; Oxidative phosphorylation; Pentose phosphate pathway; Reactive oxygen species; Tricarboxylic acid cycle
  5. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Dec 16. pii: E3788. [Epub ahead of print]12(12):
      Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer, with consistent rewiring of glucose, glutamine, and mitochondrial metabolism. While these metabolic alterations are adequate to meet the metabolic needs of cell growth and proliferation, the changes in critical metabolites have also consequences for the regulation of the cell differentiation state. Cancer evolution is characterized by progression towards a poorly differentiated, stem-like phenotype, and epigenetic modulation of the chromatin structure is an important prerequisite for the maintenance of an undifferentiated state by repression of lineage-specific genes. Epigenetic modifiers depend on intermediates of cellular metabolism both as substrates and as co-factors. Therefore, the metabolic reprogramming that occurs in cancer likely plays an important role in the process of the de-differentiation characteristic of the neoplastic process. Here, we review the epigenetic consequences of metabolic reprogramming in cancer, with particular focus on the role of mitochondrial intermediates and hypoxia in the regulation of cellular de-differentiation. We also discuss therapeutic implications.
    Keywords:  cancer epigenetics; cancer metabolism; cell differentiation in cancer; mitochondrial metabolism
  6. Front Genet. 2020 ;11 605263
      Cellular identity in multicellular organisms is maintained by characteristic transcriptional networks, nutrient consumption, energy production and metabolite utilization. Integrating these cell-specific programs are epigenetic modifiers, whose activity is often dependent on nutrients and their metabolites to function as substrates and co-factors. Emerging data has highlighted the role of the nutrient-sensing enzyme O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) as an epigenetic modifier essential in coordinating cellular transcriptional programs and metabolic homeostasis. OGT utilizes the end-product of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway to modify proteins with O-linked β-D-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). The levels of the modification are held in check by the O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Studies from model organisms and human disease underscore the conserved function these two enzymes of O-GlcNAc cycling play in transcriptional regulation, cellular plasticity and mitochondrial reprogramming. Here, we review these findings and present an integrated view of how O-GlcNAc cycling may contribute to cellular memory and transgenerational inheritance of responses to parental stress. We focus on a rare human genetic disorder where mutant forms of OGT are inherited or acquired de novo. Ongoing analysis of this disorder, OGT- X-linked intellectual disability (OGT-XLID), provides a window into how epigenetic factors linked to O-GlcNAc cycling may influence neurodevelopment.
    Keywords:  DNA methylation; O-linked β-D-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc); X-linked intellectual disability (XLID); epigenetics; histone modification; nutrient-sensing