bims-meluca Biomed News
on Metabolism of non-small cell lung carcinoma
Issue of 2021‒01‒10
nine papers selected by
Cristina Muñoz Pinedo
L’Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge


  1. J Clin Invest. 2021 Jan 04. pii: 133081. [Epub ahead of print]131(1):
    Amoedo ND, Sarlak S, Obre E, Esteves P, Bégueret H, Kieffer Y, Rousseau B, Dupis A, Izotte J, Bellance N, Dard L, Redonnet-Vernhet I, Punzi G, Rodrigues MF, Dumon E, Mafhouf W, Guyonnet-Dupérat V, Gales L, Palama T, Bellvert F, Dugot-Senan N, Claverol S, Baste JM, Lacombe D, Rezvani HR, Pierri CL, Mechta-Grigoriou F, Thumerel M, Rossignol R.
      Metabolic reprogramming is a common hallmark of cancer, but a large variability in tumor bioenergetics exists between patients. Using high-resolution respirometry on fresh biopsies of human lung adenocarcinoma, we identified 2 subgroups reflected in the histologically normal, paired, cancer-adjacent tissue: high (OX+) mitochondrial respiration and low (OX-) mitochondrial respiration. The OX+ tumors poorly incorporated [18F]fluorodeoxy-glucose and showed increased expression of the mitochondrial trifunctional fatty acid oxidation enzyme (MTP; HADHA) compared with the paired adjacent tissue. Genetic inhibition of MTP altered OX+ tumor growth in vivo. Trimetazidine, an approved drug inhibitor of MTP used in cardiology, also reduced tumor growth and induced disruption of the physical interaction between the MTP and respiratory chain complex I, leading to a cellular redox and energy crisis. MTP expression in tumors was assessed using histology scoring methods and varied in negative correlation with [18F]fluorodeoxy-glucose incorporation. These findings provide proof-of-concept data for preclinical, precision, bioenergetic medicine in oxidative lung carcinomas.
    Keywords:  Bioenergetics; Metabolism; Oncology
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI133081
  2. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2021 Jan 06. 40(1): 12
    Sun J, Xiong Y, Jiang K, Xin B, Jiang T, Wei R, Zou Y, Tan H, Jiang T, Yang A, Jia L, Wang L.
      BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the hypoxia-related cancer process and play pivotal roles in enabling malignant cells to survive under hypoxic stress. However, the molecular crosstalk between lncRNAs and hypoxia signaling cascades in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains largely elusive.METHODS: Firstly, we identified differentially expressed lncRNA cancer susceptibility candidate 15 (CASC15) as associated with NSCLC based on bioinformatic data. The clinical significance of CASC15 in lung cancer was investigated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Then, we modulated CASC15 expression in NSCLC cell lines by RNAi. CCK-8 and transwell assays were carried out to examine the effects of CASC15 on proliferation and migration of NSCLC cells. Upstream activator and downstream targets of CASC15 were validated by luciferase reporter assay, qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Lastly, RNA in situ hybridization (RNA-ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed to confirm the genetic relationships between CASC15 and related genes in clinical samples.
    RESULTS: CASC15 was highly expressed in NSCLC tissues and closely associated with poor prognosis. Loss-of-function analysis demonstrated that CASC15 was essential for NSCLC cell migration and growth. Mechanistic study revealed that CASC15 was transcriptionally activated by hypoxia signaling in NSCLC cells. Further analysis showed that hypoxia-induced CASC15 transactivation was mainly dependent on hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and hypoxia response elements (HREs) located in CASC15 promoter. CASC15 promotes the expression of its chromosomally nearby gene, SOX4. Then SOX4 functions to stabilize β-catenin protein, thereby enhancing the proliferation and migration of NSCLC cells. HIF-1α/CASC15/SOX4/β-catenin pathway was activated in a substantial subset of NSCLC patients.
    CONCLUSIONS: HIF-1α/CASC15/SOX4/β-catenin axis plays an essential role in the development and progression of NSCLC. The present work provides new evidence that lncRNA CASC15 holds great promise to be used as novel biomarkers for NSCLC. Blocking the HIF-1α/CASC15/SOX4/β-catenin axis can serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating NSCLC.
    Keywords:  CASC15; Hypoxia signaling; Long noncoding RNA; Non-small cell lung cancer; SOX4
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13046-020-01806-5
  3. Int J Mol Med. 2020 Dec 15.
    Cao X, Chen XM, Xiao WZ, Li B, Zhang B, Wu Q, Xue Q.
      Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) epigenetic modification has been linked to specific sequences of CpG islands and plays roles in the progression of lung cancer. In this study, it was found that peroxiredoxin‑5 (PRDX5) was highly expressed in non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues; however, its specific regulatory mechanisms and functions in NSCLC remain unknown. The present study therefore explored the regulatory mechanism of PRDX5 under conditions of oxidative stress (OS) in NSCLC. The results revealed that 79 of 121 NSCLC patients exhibited demethylation in the PRDX5 promoter region, which was related to the tumor, node and metastasis (TNM) stage (P=0.027). PRDX5 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression positively correlated with the demethylation status of the promoter region. The results of bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP) revealed lower demethylation frequencies in H1299 cells treated with 0 µM H2O2, but maximum demethylation following treatment with 100 µM H2O2. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase detection assays, the effective binding of STAT3 to the transcriptional binding sites of the PRDX5 promoter region was confirmed (2 sites confirmed: Site 1, ‑444 to ‑434 bp; and site 4, ‑1,417 to ‑1,407 bp). STAT3 knockdown significantly decreased the protein expression of PRDX5, while the overexpression of STAT3 significantly increased the protein levels of PRDX5. When PRDX5 was overexpressed in lung cancer cells under conditions of OS, the levels of the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) biomarkers, E‑cadherin and vimentin, were significantly decreased and increased, respectively. By contrast, PRDX5 knockdown resulted in significantly increased E‑cadherin and decreased vimentin protein expression levels. Ultimately, when PRDX5‑small interfering RNA (siRNA) or pcDNA3.1‑PRDX5 expression vector were constructed and transfected into H1299 cells pre‑treated with 100 µM H2O2, the nuclear factor (erythroid‑derived 2)‑like 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway was inhibited or activated. All these results suggested that the reactive oxygen species (ROS)‑mediated hypomethylation of PRDX5 enhanced STAT3 binding affinity with the promoter region, and resulted in the promotion of cell migration and invasion, as well as in the activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway in NSCLC. The demethylation status of the PRDX5 promoter may thus be used as an epigenetic biomarker in NSCLC. STAT3/PRDX5 signaling may also prove to be a potential strategy for the treatment of this type of cancer.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2020.4819
  4. J Cancer. 2021 ;12(3): 885-898
    Yao J, Li R, Liu X, Zhou X, Li J, Liu T, Huo C, Qu Y.
      Abnormal glycolysis is one of the hallmarks of cancer and plays an important role in its development. This study was devoted to identify glycolysis related genes as prognostic biomarkers for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The mRNA expression profile and clinical follow-up data were obtained using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The validation set was obtained by bootstrap method of random repeated sampling. A total of 200 glycolysis-related genes were obtained from Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and 46 genes were significantly associated with overall survival (OS). Five genes (PKP2, LDHA, HMMR, COL5A1 and B3GNT3) were eventually identified to calculate risk score of NSCLC patients. The univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the risk score was an independent prognostic factor (training set: HR=2.126, 95% CI [1.605, 2.815], p<0.001; validation set: HR=2.298, 95%CI [1.450, 3.640], p<0.001). Patients assigned to the high-risk group were associated with poor OS compared with patients in the low-risk group (training set: P=7.946e-06; validation set: P=6.368e-07). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and stratification analysis also demonstrated the potential prognostic performance. In conclusion, we constructed a novel glycolysis related risk signature which might contribute to predicting the prognosis of NSCLC.
    Keywords:  TCGA; glycolysis; non-small cell lung cancer; prognosis; risk score
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7150/jca.50274
  5. Cell Metab. 2021 Jan 05. pii: S1550-4131(20)30665-3. [Epub ahead of print]33(1): 160-173.e6
    Wang K, Huang W, Chen R, Lin P, Zhang T, Ni YF, Li H, Wu J, Sun XX, Geng JJ, Zhu YM, Nan G, Zhang W, Chen X, Zhu P, Bian H, Chen ZN.
      CD147 is a tumor-associated glycoprotein that regulates cell metabolism. However, CD147 methylation and its subsequent role in cancer cell metabolism remain unclear. Here, we detect CD147 di-methylation in 16 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. CD147 is di-methylated to CD147-K234me2 by lysine methyltransferase 5A (KMT5A). The increase in KMT5A expression boosts the levels of CD147-K234me2, further promoting the interaction between CD147 and monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), which enhances the translocation of MCT4 from the cytoplasm to the membrane. Overexpression of CD147-K234me2 and KMT5A enhances glycolysis and lactate export in NSCLC cells. Clinical analysis shows that high CD147-K234me2 expression is significantly related to cancer progression and overall survival, and has prognostic significance in individuals with NSCLC, especially for those in the early stages. Our findings indicate that CD147-K234me2 plays a critical role in cancer metabolism, and it can be a highly promising therapeutic target for NSCLC.
    Keywords:  CD147; KMT5A; MCT4; NSCLC; di-methylation; lactate
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.12.010
  6. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Dec 31. pii: E99. [Epub ahead of print]13(1):
    Molfino A, Amabile MI, Imbimbo G, Rizzo V, Pediconi F, Catalano C, Emiliani A, Belli R, Ramaccini C, Parisi C, Nigri G, Muscaritoli M.
      The pathophysiology of cancer anorexia is complex and serum biomarkers, including growth and differentiation factor(s) (GDF), may be modulated. We explored the association(s) between GDF-15 serum levels and anorexia and, secondarily, with low muscle mass and body weight loss in cancer patients. We considered gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients (CP) and healthy BMI-matched controls. The FAACT-questionnaire was administered to diagnose anorexia and we calculated the L3-SMI by CT scan to assess low muscularity, setting their cutoff values at the lowest tertile. GDF-15 serum levels were assessed by ELISA. We enrolled 59 CP and 30 controls; among CP, 25 were affected by gastrointestinal and 34 by lung cancer. Anorexia was present in 36% of CP. Gastrointestinal CP resulted more anorexic compared to lung CP (p = 0.0067). Low muscle mass was present in 33.9% of CP and L3-SMI was lower in gastrointestinal compared to lung CP (p = 0.049). The GDF-15 levels were higher in CP vs. controls (p = 0.00016), as well as in anorexic vs. non-anorexic CP (p = 0.005) and vs. controls (p < 0.0001). Gastrointestinal CP showed higher GDF-15 levels vs. lung CP (p = 0.0004). No difference was found in GDF-15 between CP with low muscle mass and those with moderate/high muscularity and between patients with body weight loss and those with stable weight. Our data support the involvement of GDF-15 in the pathogenesis of cancer anorexia. The mechanisms of action of GDF-15 in cancer should be further clarified also regarding the changes in muscularity.
    Keywords:  GDF-15; anorexia; body weight loss; cancer; muscularity; skeletal muscle; tumor-secreted factors; wasting
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13010099
  7. J Cancer. 2021 ;12(2): 562-570
    Hendriks AM, Brouwers AH, Giannopoulos P, Lefrandt JD, Timens W, Groen HJM, de Bock GH, Jalving M.
      Background: Reprogrammed glucose metabolism is a hallmark of cancer making it an attractive therapeutic target, especially in cancers with high glucose uptake such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tools to select patients with high glucose uptake in the majority of tumor lesions are essential in the development of anti-cancer drugs targeting glucose metabolism. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients may have tumors highly dependent on glucose uptake. Surprisingly, this has not been systematically studied. Therefore, we aimed to determine which patient and tumor characteristics, including concurrent T2DM, are related to high glucose uptake in the majority of tumor lesions in NSCLC patients as measured by 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods: Routine primary diagnostic 18F-FDG PET/CT scans of consecutive NSCLC patients were included. Mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) of 18F-FDG was determined for all evaluable tumor lesions and corrected for serum glucose levels according to the European Association of Nuclear Medicine Research Ltd guidelines. Patient characteristics potentially determining degree of tumor lesion glucose uptake in the majority of tumor lesions per patient were investigated. Results: The cohort consisted of 102 patients, 28 with T2DM and 74 without T2DM. The median SUVmean per patient ranged from 0.8 to 35.2 (median 4.2). T2DM patients had higher median glucose uptake in individual tumor lesions and per patient compared to non-diabetic NSCLC patients (SUVmean 4.3 vs 2.8, P < 0.001 and SUVmean 5.4 vs 3.7, P = 0.009, respectively). However, in multivariable analysis, high tumor lesion glucose uptake was only independently determined by number of tumor lesions ≥1 mL per patient (odds ratio 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.7-0.9). Conclusions: 18F-FDG PET/CT scans can identify sub-groups of NSCLC patients with high glucose uptake in the majority of their tumor lesions. T2DM patients had higher tumor lesion glucose uptake than non-diabetic patients. However, this was not independent of other factors such as the histological subtype and number of tumor lesions per patient.
    Keywords:  18F-FDG PET/CT; glycolysis; non-small cell lung cancer; type 2 diabetes mellitus
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7150/jca.45899
  8. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2021 Jan 06.
    Panieri E, Saso L.
      The NRF2/KEAP1 pathway is a crucial and highly conserved defensive system required to maintain or restore the intracellular homeostasis in response to oxidative, electrophilic and other types of stress conditions. The tight control of NRF2 function is maintained by a complex network of biological interactions between positive and negative regulators that ultimately ensure context specific activation, culminating in the NRF2-driven transcription of cytoprotective genes. Recent studies indicate that deregulated NRF2 activation is a frequent event in malignant tumors wherein it is associated with metabolic reprogramming, increased antioxidant capacity, chemoresistance and poor clinical outcome. On the other hand, the growing interest in the modulation of the cancer cells redox balance, identified NRF2 as an ideal therapeutic target. For this reason, many efforts have been made to identify potent and selective NRF2 inhibitors that might be used as single agents or adjuvants of anticancer drugs with redox disrupting properties. In this review we will briefly describe the structure and function of the NRF2/KEAP1 system and some of the most promising NRF2 inhibitors, with a particular emphasis on natural compounds and drug repurposing.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1089/ars.2020.8146
  9. Cancer Cell Int. 2021 Jan 06. 21(1): 18
    Zhang W, Zhang Y, Zhou W, Qian F, Hu M, Chen Y, Lu J, Lou Y, Han B.
      BACKGROUND: Angiogenic placental growth factor (PlGF) plays a role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Here, we aimed to investigate the biological roles of PlGF in cell proliferation and glycolysis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and the underlying molecular mechanisms.METHODS: PlGF was knocked down in H358 and H1975 cells by lentiviruses, which were then cultured under hypoxia (90% N2, 5%CO2 and 5%O2) for 24 h. PlGF was overexpressed in PC9 cells treated with XAV939, inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PlGF-silencing H1975 cells were implanted into mice, and tumor xenografts were harvested and analyzed.
    RESULTS: Hypoxia treatment led to up-regulation of PlGF, C-myc, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), and β-catenin, promotion of cell proliferation and glycolysis in H358 and H1975 cells, which were obviously reversed by knocking down PlGF. In tumors, PlGF knockdown significantly prohibited cell proliferation and glycolysis, and decreased expression of C-myc, LDHA, and β-catenin. PlGF overexpression markedly strengthened cell proliferation, which was inhibited by β-catenin knockdown. Consistently, XAV939, inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, also inhibited PlGF-induced cell proliferation, glycolysis, and β-catenin expression in PC9 cells.
    CONCLUSION: PlGF knockdown inhibited the stimulatory effect of hypoxia on cell proliferation and glycolysis of LUAD through deactivating Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
    Keywords:  C-myc; Cell proliferation; Glycolysis; Hypoxia; β-catenin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12935-020-01714-w