bims-meluca Biomed news
on Metabolism of non-small cell lung carcinoma
Issue of 2019‒03‒03
seven papers selected by
Cristina Muñoz Pinedo
L’Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge


  1. Lung Cancer. 2019 Mar;pii: S0169-5002(19)30020-0. [Epub ahead of print]129 41-47
    Koh YW, Lee SJ, Han JH, Haam S, Jung J, Lee HW.
      OBJECTIVES: Therapies that target programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown promising efficacy in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Hypoxia-related genes are also important regulators of PD-L1, and the role of PD-L1 in NSCLC is still not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate PD-L1 expression and its correlation with hypoxic-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) expression in NSCLC patients. The association between PD-L1 expression and survival was also determined.MATERIALS AND METHODS: PD-L1/protein expression was evaluated in 295 resected NSCLCs and its correlation with HIF1A, VEGFA, GLUT1, CAIX expression and survival was determined based on immunohistochemical and RNA sequencing data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database.
    RESULTS: PD-L1 protein expression was significantly correlated with HIF1A, VEGFA, GLUT1, and CAIX expression only in adenocarcinoma when a 10% or a 50% cut-off was used. PD-L1 mRNA expression was also significantly correlated with HIF1A, VEGFA, GLUT1, and CAIX expression in adenocarcinoma. Univariate analysis revealed that HIF1A expression was associated with poor recurrence-free survival (RFS), and GLUT1 was associated with poor overall survival (OS) and RFS. GLUT1 was an independent prognostic factor for OS in multivariate analysis of immunohistochemical and TCGA data (p = 0.024 and 0.029, respectively). Patients with low expression of both PD-L1 and GLUT1 had longer OS than other patterns in immunohistochemical and TCGA data (p = 0.003 and 0.051, respectively).
    CONCLUSIONS: PD-L1 protein and mRNA expression were correlated with HIF1A, VEGFA, GLUT1, and CAIX expression in adenocarcinoma alone. Low expression of GLUT1 and low expression of both PD-L1 and GLUT1 were associated with improved prognosis. Our findings support the rationale for co-targeting hypoxia-related genes and PD-L1 in cancer therapy. Expression of hypoxia-related genes may be helpful in selecting patients appropriate for PD-L1 therapy.
    Keywords:  Carbonic anhydrase 9; Glucose transporter 1; Hypoxic-inducible factor 1α; Non-small-cell lung cancer; Programmed death-ligand 1; Vascular endothelial growth factor A
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2019.01.004
  2. Mol Cancer Res. 2019 Feb 26. pii: molcanres.1068.2018. [Epub ahead of print]
    Pham-Danis C, Gehrke S, Danis E, Rozhok AI, Daniels MW, Gao D, Collins C, Di Paola JT, D'Alessandro A, DeGregori J.
      Mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes engender unique metabolic phenotypes crucial to the survival of tumor cells. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling has been linked to the rewiring of tumor metabolism in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We have integrated the use of a functional genomics screen and metabolomics to identify metabolic vulnerabilities induced by EGFR inhibition. These studies reveal that following EGFR inhibition, EGFR-driven NSCLC cells become dependent on the urea cycle and in particular, the urea cycle enzyme CPS1. Combining knockdown of CPS1 with EGFR inhibition further reduces cell proliferation and impedes cell cycle progression. Profiling of the metabolome demonstrates that suppression of CPS1 potentiates the effects of EGFR inhibition on central carbon metabolism, pyrimidine biosynthesis, and arginine metabolism, coinciding with reduced glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. We show that EGFR inhibition and CPS1 knockdown lead to a decrease in arginine levels and pyrimidine derivatives, and the addition of exogenous pyrimidines partially rescues the impairment in cell growth. Finally, we show that high expression of CPS1 in lung adenocarcinomas correlated with worse patient prognosis in publically available databases. These data collectively reveal that NSCLC cells have a greater dependency on the urea cycle to sustain central carbon metabolism, pyrimidine biosynthesis, and arginine metabolism to meet cellular energetics upon inhibition of EGFR. Implications: Our results reveal that the urea cycle may be a novel metabolic vulnerability in the context of EGFR inhibition, providing an opportunity to develop rational combination therapies with EGFR inhibitors for the treatment of EGFR-driven NSCLC.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-18-1068
  3. Thorac Cancer. 2019 Feb 25.
    Sun R, Bao MY, Long X, Yuan Y, Wu MM, Li X, Bao JK.
      BACKGROUND: Although cigarette smoking is considered one of the key risk factors for lung cancer, 15% of male patients and 53% of female patients with lung cancer are non-smokers. Metabolic changes are critical features of cancer. Therapeutic target identification from a metabolic perspective in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue of female non-smokers has long been ignored.RESULTS: Based on microarray data retrieved from Affymetrix expression arrays E-GEOD-19804, we found that the downregulated genes in non-smoking female NSCLC patients tended to participate in protein/amino acid and lipid metabolism, while upregulated genes were more involved in protein/amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Combining nutrient metabolic co-expression, protein-protein interaction network construction and overall survival assessment, we identified NR4A1 and TIE1 as potential therapeutic targets for NSCLC in female non-smokers. To accelerate the drug development for non-smoking female NSCLC patients, we identified nilotinib as a potential agonist targeting NR4A1 encoded protein by molecular docking and molecular dynamic stimulation. We also show that nilotinib inhibited proliferation and induced senescence of cells in non-smoking female NSCLC patients in vitro.
    CONCLUSIONS: These results not only uncover nutrient metabolic characteristics in non-smoking female NSCLC patients, but also provide a new paradigm for identifying new targets and drugs for novel therapy for such patients.
    Keywords:  Gene co-expression network; microarray data; nilotinib; non-small cell lung cancer; non-smoking female
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.12989
  4. Br J Pharmacol. 2019 Mar 01.
    Chen X, Wu Q, Chen Y, Zhang J, Li H, Yang Z, Yang Y, Deng Y, Zhang L, Liu B.
      BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for up to 80-85% of all lung cancers with a disappointing prognosis. Flavonoids exert anti-cancer properties, mostly involving stimulation of ROS production without significant toxicity to normal cells. This study was aimed to delineate the effect of diosmetin, a natural flavonoid, on NSCLC cells and the ability to enhance the anti-tumour activity of paclitaxel.EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: NSCLC cells, normal cell lines HLF-1 and BEAS-2B, as well as immunodeficient mice were chosen as a model to study the treatment effects. Changes in cell viability, apoptosis and ROS were analyzed by MTT assay, flow cytometry assay and fluorescent probe DCFH-DA. Molecule expression was determined by western blotting and real-time RT-PCR. Xenografted tumors, spleens and other vital organs were harvested and subjected to growth inhibition measurement, histological and immunohistochemical analyses.
    KEY RESULTS: Diosmetin induced selective apoptotic death in NSCLC cells, but spared normal cells, via ROS accumulation. Diosmetin induced ROS production in NSCLC cells probably via reducing Nrf2 stability through disruption of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway. The in vitro and in vivo xenograft studies showed that combined treatment of diosmetin and paclitaxel synergistically suppressed NSCLC cells. Histological analysis of vital organs showed no obvious toxicity of diosmetin, which matched our in vitro findings.
    CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Diosmetin selectively induces apoptosis and enhances the paclitaxel efficacy in NSCLC cells via ROS accumulation through disruption of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/Nrf2 pathway. Therefore, diosmetin may be a promising candidate for NSCLC adjuvant treatment.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.14652
  5. Oncol Rep. 2019 Feb 21.
    Liu W, Chen X, He Y, Tian Y, Xu L, Ma Y, Hu P, Su K, Luo Z, Wei L, Zhang J.
      Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer‑associated mortality worldwide. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF‑α) is an important cytokine in the tumor microenvironment that serves a function in the balance of cell survival and cell death pathways. Our previous studies indicated that hypoxia‑inducible factor 1α (HIF‑1α) acts downstream of TNF‑α in MCF‑7 luminal breast cancer cells. However, whether vasodilator‑stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is implicated in the direct regulation of HIF‑1α in response to TNF‑α in lung cancer remains unknown. In vitro studies were performed using A549 and H226 lung carcinoma cells and in vivo studies of tumor xenograft models were performed to investigate the effects of TNF‑α. The results demonstrated that TNF‑α decreased VASP expression by upregulating the expression of HIF‑1α to inhibit A549 cell proliferation and adhesion. Inhibition of transplanted tumor growth was associated with downregulation of VASP expression in nude mice. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that expression levels of VASP or HIF‑1α lead to differential outcomes of overall survival in lung carcinoma. These results suggest that the HIF‑1α/VASP signaling pathway serves an important function in the regulation of TNF‑α‑induced suppression of A549 cell proliferation and xenograft growth. This may improve our understanding of the antitumor effect of TNF‑α.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3892/or.2019.7026
  6. Lung Cancer. 2019 Mar;pii: S0169-5002(19)30003-0. [Epub ahead of print]129 85-91
    Überall I, Gachechiladze M, Joerger M, Anděl J, Smičková P, Kolek V, Grygárková I, Škarda J.
      OBJECTIVES: LC3A protein is associated with autophagosomes, and LC3A immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used for the detection of autophagy activity. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of LC3A expression in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used tissue microarrays (TMAs) constructed from 116 resected stage IB-III NSCLC patients. Standard immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections using antibody against LC3A autophagic potein. Stained slides were scanned by Olympus dotSlide Digital Virtual Microscopy System (Japan) and the LC3A staining was evaluated digitally. Groups were compared using the Mann Whitney U test, and correlations were assessed using Spearman's rank test. Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Primary study endpoint was overall survival (OS), secondardy study endpoint disease-free survival (DFS). Cut-off optimization for LC3A prognostic value was performed using the "cut-off finder' 'software (Charite, Berlin, Germany). In addition, the Kaplan Meier plotter (KmPlot) was used to assess the relationship between LC3A mRNA expression and clinical outcome (OS and DFS) in patients with NSCLC.
    RESULTS: From 116 patients, 88 tissue samples were available for final examination. No significant association was found between LC3A staining and other clinicopathological variables, including tumor grade, stage and histological subtype. A higher number of LC3A stone-like structures (SLSs) (>20), was significanly associated with poor OS (HR = 2.27, p = 0.011) and DFS (HR = 2.27, p = 0.003). A significant association between high LC3A mRNA and both a worse OS and worse DFS was found by KMPlot analysis in patients with stage I-III NSCLC.
    CONSLUSION: This retrospective study suggests that SLSs as assessed by LC3A IHC as well as LC3A mRNA expression has a clinically relevant negative prognostic value in patients with resected NSCLC, and should be further investigated.
    Keywords:  Cutoff finder; Disease free survival; KM plotter; LC3A; Non-small cell lung cancer; Overall survival; Prognosis; Stone-like structures
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2019.01.001
  7. J Cell Biochem. 2019 Feb 25.
    Sun Q, Zhao W, Wang L, Guo F, Song D, Zhang Q, Zhang D, Fan Y, Wang J.
      We used blood serum samples collected from 31 lung cancer (LC) patients and 29 healthy volunteers in this study. Levels of serum metabolites were qualitative quantified with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the data were analyzed by partial least-squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA). Based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, we performed pathway-based analysis utilizing metabolites presented at differential abundance between the LC serum samples and the normal healthy serum samples for systematical investigation on the metabolic alterations associated with LC pathogenesis. Finally, we analyzed the significantly enriched pathways as well as their relevant differentially expressed messenger RNAs, and drawn a correlation network plot to identify the serum metabolic biomarkers and the significantly altered metabolic pathways for LC. GC-MS analysis showed that 23 of the 169 metabolites identified were significantly different. PLS-DA model revealed that 13 of these metabolites were with variable importance > 1, and particularly five were with area under curve > 0.9. Pathway-based analysis demonstrated that five of eight enriched metabolic pathways were statistically significant with false discovery rate < 0.05. Lastly, the correlation networks between these pathways and their related genes suggested that 29 genes had correlation degree > 10, which were mainly engaged in the purine metabolism. In conclusion, we identified indole-3-lactate, erythritol, adenosine-5-phosphate, paracetamol and threitol as serum metabolic biomarkers for LC through metabolomics analysis. Besides, we identified the purine metabolism as the significantly altered metabolic pathway in LC with the help of transcriptomics analysis.
    Keywords:  lung cancer; metabolomics; serum; transcriptomics
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jcb.28482