bims-malgli Biomed News
on Biology of malignant gliomas
Issue of 2021‒08‒22
seven papers selected by
Oltea Sampetrean
Keio University

  1. Elife. 2021 Aug 17. pii: e64846. [Epub ahead of print]10
      The molecular basis underlying glioblastoma (GBM) heterogeneity and plasticity is not fully understood. Using transcriptomic data of human patient-derived brain tumor stem cell lines (BTSCs), classified based on GBM-intrinsic signatures, we identify the AP-1 transcription factor FOSL1 as a key regulator of the mesenchymal (MES) subtype. We provide a mechanistic basis to the role of the neurofibromatosis type 1 gene (NF1), a negative regulator of the RAS/MAPK pathway, in GBM mesenchymal transformation through the modulation of FOSL1 expression. Depletion of FOSL1 in NF1-mutant human BTSCs and Kras-mutant mouse neural stem cells results in loss of the mesenchymal gene signature and reduction in stem cell properties and in vivo tumorigenic potential. Our data demonstrate that FOSL1 controls GBM plasticity and aggressiveness in response to NF1 alterations.
    Keywords:  FOSL1; FRA-1; GBM; NF1; cancer biology; human; mesenchymal; mouse
  2. Neurooncol Adv. 2021 Jan-Dec;3(1):3(1): vdab003
      BACKGROUND: Currently, bevacizumab (BEV), an antiangiogenic agent, is used as an adjunctive therapy to re-irradiation and surgery in patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas (rHGG). BEV has shown to decrease enhancement on MRI, but it is often unclear if these changes are due to tumor response to BEV or treatment-induced changes in the blood brain barrier. Preliminary studies show that amino acid PET can aid in distinguishing these changes on MRI.METHODS: The authors performed a systematic review of PubMed and Embase through July 2020 with the search terms 'bevacizumab' or 'Avastin' and 'recurrent glioma' and 'PET,' yielding 38 papers, with 14 meeting inclusion criteria.
    RESULTS: Thirteen out of fourteen studies included in this review used static PET and three studies used dynamic PET to evaluate the use of BEV in rHGG. Six studies used the amino acid tracer [18F]FET, four studies used [11C]MET, and four studies used [18F]FDOPA.
    CONCLUSION: [18F]FET, [11C]MET, and [18F]FDOPA PET in combination with MRI have shown promising results for improving accuracy in diagnosing tumor recurrence, detecting early treatment failure, and distinguishing between tumor progression and treatment-induced changes in patients with rHGG treated with BEV.
    Keywords:  amino acid PET; bevacizumab; pseudoresponse; recurrent glioma
  3. JCI Insight. 2021 Aug 17. pii: 142980. [Epub ahead of print]
      Glioblastoma is a highly malignant brain tumor with no curative treatment options, and immune checkpoint blockade has not yet shown major impact. We hypothesized that drugs targeting mitosis might impact the tumor microenvironment and sensitize cancer cells to immunotherapy. We used two glioblastoma mouse models with different immunogenicity profiles, GL261 and SB28, to test the efficacy of antineoplastic and immunotherapy combinations. The spindle assembly checkpoint activator BAL101553 (lisavanbulin), agonistic anti-CD40 antibody, and double immune checkpoint blockade (anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4) were evaluated individually or in combination for treating orthotopic GL261 and SB28 tumors. Genomic and immunological analyses were used to predict and interpret therapy responsiveness. BAL101553 monotherapy increased survival in immune checkpoint blockade resistant SB28 glioblastoma tumors and synergized with anti-CD40 antibody, in a T-cell independent manner. In contrast, the more immunogenic and highly mutated GL261 model responded best to anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 therapy and more modestly to BAL101553 and anti-CD40 combination. Our results show that BAL101553 is a promising therapeutic agent for glioblastoma and could synergize with innate immune stimulation. Overall, these data strongly support immune profiling of glioblastoma patients and preclinical testing of combination therapies with appropriate models for particular patient groups.
    Keywords:  Brain cancer; Cancer immunotherapy; Immunology; Innate immunity; Oncology
  4. Sci Adv. 2021 Aug;pii: eabi9119. [Epub ahead of print]7(34):
      Many drugs show promising results in laboratory research but eventually fail clinical trials. We hypothesize that one main reason for this translational gap is that current cancer models are inadequate. Most models lack the tumor-stroma interactions, which are essential for proper representation of cancer complexed biology. Therefore, we recapitulated the tumor heterogenic microenvironment by creating fibrin glioblastoma bioink consisting of patient-derived glioblastoma cells, astrocytes, and microglia. In addition, perfusable blood vessels were created using a sacrificial bioink coated with brain pericytes and endothelial cells. We observed similar growth curves, drug response, and genetic signature of glioblastoma cells grown in our 3D-bioink platform and in orthotopic cancer mouse models as opposed to 2D culture on rigid plastic plates. Our 3D-bioprinted model could be the basis for potentially replacing cell cultures and animal models as a powerful platform for rapid, reproducible, and robust target discovery; personalized therapy screening; and drug development.
  5. Stem Cell Rev Rep. 2021 Aug 17.
      Many studies have shown that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and their secreted factors may modulate the biology of tumor cells. However, how these interactions happen in vivo remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of rat adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) and their conditioned medium (ADSC-CM) in glioma tumor growth and malignancy in vivo. Our results showed that when we co-injected C6 cells plus ADSCs into the rat brains, the tumors generated were larger and the animals exhibited shorter survival, when compared with tumors of the animals that received only C6 cells or C6 cells pre-treated with ADSC-CM. We further showed that the animals that received C6 plus ADSC did not present enhanced expression of CD73 (a gene highly expressed in ADSCs), indicating that the tumor volume observed in these animals was not a mere consequence of the higher density of cells administered in this group. Finally, we showed that the animals that received C6 + ADSC presented tumors with larger necrosis areas and greater infiltration of immune cells. These results indicate that the immunoregulatory properties of ADSCs and its contribution to tumor stroma can support tumor growth leading to larger zones of necrosis, recruitment of immune cells, thus facilitating tumor progression. Our data provide new insights into the way by which ADSCs and tumor cells interact and highlight the importance of understanding the fate and roles of MSCs in tumor sites in vivo, as well as their intricate crosstalk with cancer cells.
    Keywords:  Astrocytes; C6 glioma cell; Conditioned medium; Orthotopic glioma model in rat; Rat adipose-derived stromal cell (ADSC); Tumor microenvironment
  6. Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 18. 11(1): 16790
      With diffuse infiltrative glioma being increasingly recognized as a systemic brain disorder, the macroscopically apparent tumor lesion is suggested to impact on cerebral functional and structural integrity beyond the apparent lesion site. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity (FC) and diffusion-MRI-based structural connectivity (SC) (comprising edge-weight (EW) and fractional anisotropy (FA)) in isodehydrogenase mutated (IDHmut) and wildtype (IDHwt) patients and healthy controls. SC and FC were determined for whole-brain and the Default-Mode Network (DMN), mean intra- and interhemispheric SC and FC were compared across groups, and partial correlations were analyzed intra- and intermodally. With interhemispheric EW being reduced in both patient groups, IDHwt patients showed FA decreases in the ipsi- and contralesional hemisphere, whereas IDHmut patients revealed FA increases in the contralesional hemisphere. Healthy controls showed strong intramodal connectivity, each within the structural and functional connectome. Patients however showed a loss in structural and reductions in functional connectomic coherence, which appeared to be more pronounced in IDHwt glioma patients. Findings suggest a relative dissociation of structural and functional connectomic coherence in glioma patients at the time of diagnosis, with more structural connectomic aberrations being encountered in IDHwt glioma patients. Connectomic profiling may aid in phenotyping and monitoring prognostically differing tumor types.