bims-malgli Biomed News
on Biology of malignant gliomas
Issue of 2021‒08‒01
ten papers selected by
Oltea Sampetrean
Keio University

  1. Front Immunol. 2021 ;12 679425
      Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults. Despite the fact that they are relatively rare, they cause significant morbidity and mortality. High-grade gliomas or glioblastomas are rapidly progressing tumors with a very poor prognosis. The presence of an intrinsic immune system in the central nervous system is now more accepted. During the last decade, there has been no major progress in glioma therapy. The lack of effective treatment for gliomas can be explained by the strategies that cancer cells use to escape the immune system. This being said, immunotherapy, which involves blockade of immune checkpoint inhibitors, has improved patients' survival in different cancer types. This novel cancer therapy appears to be one of the most promising approaches. In the present study, we will start with a review of the general concept of immune response within the brain and glioma microenvironment. Then, we will try to decipher the role of various immune checkpoint inhibitors within the glioma microenvironment. Finally, we will discuss some promising therapeutic pathways, including immune checkpoint blockade and the body's effective anti-glioma immune response.
    Keywords:  Glioblastoma; Glioma; immune checkpoint; immune response; immunotherapy
  2. J Histochem Cytochem. 2021 Jul 26. 221554211032003
      The neural stem cell niche of the ventricular-subventricular zone supports the persistence of stem and progenitor cells in the mature brain. This niche has many notable cytoarchitectural features that affect the activity of stem cells and may also support the survival and growth of invading tumor cells. Histochemical studies of the niche have revealed many proteins that, in combination, can help to reveal stem-like cells in the normal or cancer context, although many caveats persist in the quest to consistently identify these cells in the human brain. Here, we explore the complex relationship between the persistent proliferative capacity of the neural stem cell niche and the malignant proliferation of brain tumors, with a special focus on histochemical identification of stem cells and stem-like tumor cells and an eye toward the potential application of high-dimensional imaging approaches to the field.
    Keywords:  SEZ; SVZ; V-SVZ; angiogenesis; glioblastoma; glioma stem cell; image analysis; mass cytometry; multiplex imaging; neural stem cell; stemness; tumor heterogeneity; tumor immune infiltrate; tumor microenvironment
  3. Sci Rep. 2021 Jul 28. 11(1): 15384
      Determination of treatment response to immunotherapy in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a process which can take months. Detection of CD8+ T cell recruitment to the tumor with a noninvasive imaging modality such as positron emission tomography (PET) may allow for tumor characterization and early evaluation of therapeutic response to immunotherapy. In this study, we utilized 89Zr-labeled anti-CD8 cys-diabody-PET to provide proof-of-concept to detect CD8+ T cell immune response to oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) M002 immunotherapy in a syngeneic GBM model. Immunocompetent mice (n = 16) were implanted intracranially with GSC005 GBM tumors, and treated with intratumoral injection of oHSV M002 or saline control. An additional non-tumor bearing cohort (n = 4) receiving oHSV M002 treatment was also evaluated. Mice were injected with 89Zr-labeled anti-CD8 cys-diabody seven days post oHSV administration and imaged with a preclinical PET scanner. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was quantified. Ex vivo tissue analyses included autoradiography and immunohistochemistry. PET imaging showed significantly higher SUV in tumors which had been treated with M002 compared to those without M002 treatment (p = 0.0207) and the non-tumor bearing M002 treated group (p = 0.0021). Accumulation in target areas, especially the spleen, was significantly reduced by blocking with the non-labeled diabody (p < 0.001). Radioactive probe accumulation in brains was consistent with CD8+ cell trafficking patterns after oHSV treatment. This PET imaging strategy could aid in distinguishing responders from non-responders during immunotherapy of GBM.
  4. Glia. 2021 Jul 26.
      Many epigenetic modifications occur in glioma, in particular the histone-deacetylase class proteins play a pivotal role in glioma development, driving the proliferation rate and the invasiveness of tumor cells, and modulating the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we evaluated the role of the histone deacetylase HDAC8 in the regulation of the immune response in glioma and tumor growth. We found that inhibition of HDAC8 by the specific inhibitor PCI-34051 reduces tumor volume in glioma mouse models. We reported that HDAC8 modulates the viability and the migration of human and murine glioma cells. Interestingly, HDAC8 inhibition increases the acetylation of alpha-tubulin, suggesting this epigenetic modification controls glioma migration. Furthermore, we identify HDAC8 as a key molecule that supports a poorly immunogenic tumor microenvironment, modulating microglial phenotype and regulating the gene transcription of NKG2D ligands that trigger the Natural Killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity of tumor cells. Altogether, these results identify HDAC8 as a key actor in glioma growth and tumor microenvironment, and pave the way to a better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of immune escape in glioma.
    Keywords:  PCI-34051; epigenetic; glioma; histone-deacetylase 8 protein; microglia; natural killer cell; natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) ligands
  5. Cell Rep. 2021 Jul 27. pii: S2211-1247(21)00872-X. [Epub ahead of print]36(4): 109455
      In glioblastoma (GBM), the most frequent and lethal brain tumor, therapies suppressing recurrently altered signaling pathways failed to extend survival. However, in patient subsets, specific genetic lesions can confer sensitivity to targeted agents. By exploiting an integrated model based on patient-derived stem-like cells, faithfully recapitulating the original GBMs in vitro and in vivo, here, we identify a human GBM subset (∼9% of all GBMs) characterized by ERBB3 overexpression and nuclear accumulation. ERBB3 overexpression is driven by inheritable promoter methylation or post-transcriptional silencing of the oncosuppressor miR-205 and sustains the malignant phenotype. Overexpressed ERBB3 behaves as a specific signaling platform for fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), driving PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway hyperactivation, and overall metabolic upregulation. As a result, ERBB3 inhibition by specific antibodies is lethal for GBM stem-like cells and xenotransplants. These findings highlight a subset of patients eligible for ERBB3-targeted therapy.
    Keywords:  ERBB3; FGF; HER3; MM121; cancer metabolism; cancer stem cell; glioblastoma; miR-205; seribantumab; target therapy
  6. NAR Cancer. 2021 Mar;3(1): zcab009
      Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive intrinsic brain tumour in adults. Epigenetic mechanisms controlling normal brain development are often dysregulated in GBM. Among these, BMI1, a structural component of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1), which promotes the H2AK119ub catalytic activity of Ring1B, is upregulated in GBM and its tumorigenic role has been shown in vitro and in vivo. Here, we have used protein and chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to elucidate the protein composition of PRC1 in GBM and transcriptional silencing of defining interactors in primary patient-derived GIC lines to assess their functional impact on GBM biology. We identify novel regulatory functions in mRNA splicing and cholesterol transport which could represent novel targetable mechanisms in GBM.
  7. Front Oncol. 2021 ;11 712786
      Glioma is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor with significant mortality and morbidity. Despite considerable advances, the exact molecular pathways involved in tumor progression are not fully elucidated, and patients commonly face a poor prognosis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently drawn extra attention for their potential roles in different types of cancer as well as non-malignant diseases. More than 200 lncRNAs have been reported to be associated with glioma. We aimed to assess the roles of the most investigated lncRNAs in different stages of tumor progression and the mediating molecular pathways in addition to their clinical applications. lncRNAs are involved in different stages of tumor formation, invasion, and progression, including regulating the cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, tumor stemness, angiogenesis, the integrity of the blood-tumor-brain barrier, tumor metabolism, and immunological responses. The well-known oncogenic lncRNAs, which are upregulated in glioma, are H19, HOTAIR, PVT1, UCA1, XIST, CRNDE, FOXD2-AS1, ANRIL, HOXA11-AS, TP73-AS1, and DANCR. On the other hand, MEG3, GAS5, CCASC2, and TUSC7 are tumor suppressor lncRNAs, which are downregulated. While most studies reported oncogenic effects for MALAT1, TUG1, and NEAT1, there are some controversies regarding these lncRNAs. Expression levels of lncRNAs can be associated with tumor grade, survival, treatment response (chemotherapy drugs or radiotherapy), and overall prognosis. Moreover, circulatory levels of lncRNAs, such as MALAT1, H19, HOTAIR, NEAT1, TUG1, GAS5, LINK-A, and TUSC7, can provide non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic tools. Modulation of expression of lncRNAs using antisense oligonucleotides can lead to novel therapeutics. Notably, a profound understanding of the underlying molecular pathways involved in the function of lncRNAs is required to develop novel therapeutic targets. More investigations with large sample sizes and increased focus on in-vivo models are required to expand our understanding of the potential roles and application of lncRNAs in glioma.
    Keywords:  biomarker; glioblasoma; glioma; long non coding RNA; micro RNA; prognosis; survival; treatment
  8. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2021 Jul 27.
      Aim: To evaluate the antitumor efficacy of bevacizumab-functionalized nanocapsules in a rat glioblastoma model after the pretreatment with nanocapsules functionalized with a peptide-specific to the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III. Materials & methods: Nanocapsules were prepared, physicochemical characterized and intranasally administered to rats. Parameters such as tumor size, histopathological characteristics and infiltration of CD8+ T lymphocytes were evaluated. Results: The strategy of treatment resulted in a reduction of 87% in the tumor size compared with the control group and a higher infiltration of CD8+ T lymphocytes in tumoral tissue. Conclusion: The block of two different molecular targets using nose-to-brain delivery represents a new and promising approach against glioblastoma.
    Keywords:  bevacizumab; epidermal growth factor receptor variant III peptide; gold; intranasal administration; lipid-core nanocapsules
  9. NAR Cancer. 2021 Mar;3(1): zcaa041
      Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to be central players in the epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. There is an accumulation of evidence on newly discovered lncRNAs, their molecular interactions and their roles in the development and progression of human brain tumors. LncRNAs can have either tumor suppressive or oncogenic functions in different brain cancers, making them attractive therapeutic targets and biomarkers for personalized therapy and precision diagnostics. Here, we summarize the current state of knowledge of the lncRNAs that have been implicated in brain cancer pathogenesis, particularly in gliomas and medulloblastomas. We discuss their epigenetic regulation as well as the prospects of using lncRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in patients with brain tumors.
  10. STAR Protoc. 2021 Sep 17. 2(3): 100665
      Mutations in microglia may cause brain disorders. Replacement of dysfunctional microglia by allogeneic wild-type microglia from bone marrow transplantation (Mr BMT) or peripheral blood can correct the gene deficiency at the brain-wide scale but cannot achieve precise replacement at specific brain regions. Here, we introduce a strategy with potential clinical relevance-microglia replacement by microglia transplantation (Mr MT), combining tamoxifen-induced ablation of Mr BMT cells and intracranial injection of microglia to mouse brain, to achieve region-sepcific microglia replacement. The original abbreviation of this microglia replacement strategy is mrMT. We hereby change the name to Mr MT. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Xu et al. (2020).
    Keywords:  Cell Biology; Immunology; Microscopy; Model Organisms; Neuroscience; Stem Cells