bims-lysosi Biomed News
on Lysosomes and signaling
Issue of 2021‒02‒14
forty-five papers selected by
Stephanie Fernandes
Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing


  1. EMBO Rep. 2021 Feb 08. e50815
    Spits M, Heesterbeek IT, Voortman LM, Akkermans JJ, Wijdeven RH, Cabukusta B, Neefjes J.
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest organelle contacting virtually every other organelle for information exchange and control of processes such as transport, fusion, and fission. Here, we studied the role of the other organelles on ER network architecture in the cell periphery. We show that the co-migration of the ER with other organelles, called ER hitchhiking facilitated by late endosomes and lysosomes is a major mechanism controlling ER network architecture. When hitchhiking occurs, emerging ER structures may fuse with the existing ER tubules to alter the local ER architecture. This couples late endosomal/lysosomal positioning and mobility to ER network architecture. Conditions restricting late endosomal movement-including cell starvation-or the depletion of tether proteins that link the ER to late endosomes reduce ER dynamics and limit the complexity of the peripheral ER network architecture. This indicates that among many factors, the ER is controlled by late endosomal movement resulting in an alteration of the ER network architecture.
    Keywords:  endoplasmic reticulum; late endosomes; membrane contact sites; organelle hitchhiking; starvation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.15252/embr.202050815
  2. J Cell Biol. 2021 Apr 05. pii: e201912060. [Epub ahead of print]220(4):
    Chang Y, Lim G, Huh WK.
      The target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is mainly localized to the vacuolar membrane and regulates eukaryotic cell growth in response to nutrient availability. To obtain deeper insights into the functional roles of TORC1, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the TORC1 interactome in yeast using the bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. We found that while most of the BiFC signals are observed at the vacuolar membrane, a fraction of them are detected at cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) granules. Moreover, mRNA-binding proteins are enriched in the TORC1 interactome, suggesting a functional relationship between TORC1 and mRNA metabolism. We show that a portion of TORC1 is consistently associated with mRNP complexes and interacts with a specific subset of mRNAs. We also demonstrate that TORC1 directly targets a translational repressor Scd6 and that the activity of Scd6 is inhibited by TORC1-dependent phosphorylation. Collectively, our data suggest that TORC1 plays a novel role in posttranscriptional regulation by controlling the activity of Scd6.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201912060
  3. Dev Cell. 2021 Feb 08. pii: S1534-5807(21)00038-1. [Epub ahead of print]56(3): 251-252
    Henne WM.
      Niemann-Pick type C is a neurological disorder caused by mutations in the lysosome cholesterol exporter NPC1. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Davis et al. dissect how NPC1 loss elevates mTORC1 signaling, and demonstrate that suppression of mTORC1 signaling can rescue disease pathology in NPC1-deficient cell models.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2021.01.007
  4. Cell Death Discov. 2020 May 01. 6(1): 32
    Zhang W, Li X, Wang S, Chen Y, Liu H.
      The transcription factor EB (TFEB) regulates the expression of target genes bearing the Coordinated Lysosomal Expression and Regulation (CLEAR) motif, thereby modulating autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis. Furthermore, TFEB can bind to the promoter of autophagy-associated genes and induce the formation of autophagosomes, autophagosome-lysosome fusion, and lysosomal cargo degradation. An increasing number of studies have shown that TFEB stimulates the intracellular clearance of pathogenic factors by enhancing autophagy and lysosomal function in multiple kidney diseases, such as cystinosis, acute kidney injury, and diabetic nephropathy. Taken together, this highlights the importance of developing novel therapeutic strategies against kidney diseases based on TFEB regulation. In this review, we present an overview of the current data on TFEB and its implication in kidney disease.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-020-0265-4
  5. Cells. 2021 Feb 10. pii: 365. [Epub ahead of print]10(2):
    Pierzynowska K, Rintz E, Gaffke L, Węgrzyn G.
      Ferroptosis is one of the recently described types of cell death which is dependent on many factors, including the accumulation of iron and lipid peroxidation. Its induction requires various signaling pathways. Recent discovery of ferroptosis induction pathways stimulated by autophagy, so called autophagy-dependent ferroptosis, put our attention on the role of ferroptosis in lysosomal storage diseases (LSD). Lysosome dysfunction, observed in these diseases, may influence ferroptosis efficiency, with as yet unknown consequences for the function of cells, tissues, and organisms, due to the effects of ferroptosis on physiological and pathological metabolic processes. Modulation of levels of ferrous ions and enhanced oxidative stress, which are primary markers of ferroptosis, are often described as processes associated with the pathology of LSD. Inhibition of autophagy flux and resultant accumulation of autophagosomes in neuronopathic LSD may induce autophagy-dependent ferroptosis, indicating a considerable contribution of this process in neurodegeneration. In this review article, we describe molecular mechanisms of ferroptosis in light of LSD, underlining the modulation of levels of ferroptosis markers in these diseases. Furthermore, we propose a hypothesis about the possible involvement of autophagy-dependent ferroptosis in these disorders.
    Keywords:  autophagy-dependent ferroptosis; ferroptosis; lysosomal storage diseases; programmed cell death
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020365
  6. Cell Death Discov. 2020 Jun 08. 6(1): 45
    Obergasteiger J, Frapporti G, Lamonaca G, Pizzi S, Picard A, Lavdas AA, Pischedda F, Piccoli G, Hilfiker S, Lobbestael E, Baekelandt V, Hicks AA, Corti C, Pramstaller PP, Volta M.
      The Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated kinase Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a crucial modulator of the autophagy-lysosome pathway, but unclarity exists on the precise mechanics of its role and the direction of this modulation. In particular, LRRK2 is involved in the degradation of pathological alpha-synuclein, with pathogenic mutations precipitating neuropathology in cellular and animal models of PD, and a significant proportion of LRRK2 patients presenting Lewy neuropathology. Defects in autophagic processing and lysosomal degradation of alpha-synuclein have been postulated to underlie its accumulation and onset of neuropathology. Thus, it is critical to obtain a comprehensive knowledge on LRRK2-associated pathology. Here, we investigated a G2019S-LRRK2 recombinant cell line exhibiting accumulation of endogenous, phosphorylated alpha-synuclein. We found that G2019S-LRRK2 leads to accumulation of LC3 and abnormalities in lysosome morphology and proteolytic activity in a kinase-dependent fashion, but independent from constitutively active Rab10. Notably, LRRK2 inhibition was ineffective upon upstream blockade of autophagosome-lysosome fusion events, highlighting this step as critical for alpha-synuclein clearance.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-020-0279-y
  7. Cells. 2021 Feb 05. pii: 333. [Epub ahead of print]10(2):
    Chen M, Dai Y, Liu S, Fan Y, Ding Z, Li D.
      Autophagy is a critical regulator of cellular survival, differentiation, development, and homeostasis, dysregulation of which is associated with diverse diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master transcriptional regulator of autophagy and lysosome, can enhance autophagic and lysosomal biogenesis and function. TFEB has attracted a lot of attention owing to its ability to induce the intracellular clearance of pathogenic factors in a variety of disease models, suggesting that novel therapeutic strategies could be based on the modulation of TFEB activity. Therefore, TFEB agonists are a promising strategy to ameliorate diseases implicated with autophagy dysfunction. Recently, several TFEB agonists have been identified and preclinical or clinical trials are applied. In this review, we present an overview of the latest research on TFEB biology and TFEB agonists.
    Keywords:  TFEB agonists; autophagy; lysosome; rapamycin; resveratrol
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020333
  8. Biomolecules. 2021 Jan 29. pii: 191. [Epub ahead of print]11(2):
    Manzoli R, Badenetti L, Rubin M, Moro E.
      Axonal trajectories and neural circuit activities strongly rely on a complex system of molecular cues that finely orchestrate the patterning of neural commissures. Several of these axon guidance molecules undergo continuous recycling during brain development, according to incompletely understood intracellular mechanisms, that in part rely on endocytic and autophagic cascades. Based on their pivotal role in both pathways, lysosomes are emerging as a key hub in the sophisticated regulation of axonal guidance cue delivery, localization, and function. In this review, we will attempt to collect some of the most relevant research on the tight connection between lysosomal function and axon guidance regulation, providing some proof of concepts that may be helpful to understanding the relation between lysosomal storage disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.
    Keywords:  axon guidance; lysosomal storage disorders; neuronal circuit
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020191
  9. Cell Discov. 2020 Feb 11. 6(1): 6
    Yim WW, Mizushima N.
      Autophagy is a major intracellular degradation system that derives its degradative abilities from the lysosome. The most well-studied form of autophagy is macroautophagy, which delivers cytoplasmic material to lysosomes via the double-membraned autophagosome. Other forms of autophagy, namely chaperone-mediated autophagy and microautophagy, occur directly on the lysosome. Besides providing the means for degradation, lysosomes are also involved in autophagy regulation and can become substrates of autophagy when damaged. During autophagy, they exhibit notable changes, including increased acidification, enhanced enzymatic activity, and perinuclear localization. Despite their importance to autophagy, details on autophagy-specific regulation of lysosomes remain relatively scarce. This review aims to provide a summary of current understanding on the behaviour of lysosomes during autophagy and outline unexplored areas of autophagy-specific lysosome research.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0141-7
  10. Cell Death Discov. 2021 Feb 08. 7(1): 29
    Desideri E, Ciriolo MR.
      Alteration of lysosomal homeostasis is common in cancer cells, which often feature an enlarged and peripheral distributed lysosomal compartment and the overexpression of cathepsins. These alterations accelerate the production of building blocks for the de novo synthesis of macromolecules and contribute to the degradation of the extracellular matrix, thus contributing to tumor growth and invasion. At the same time, they make lysosomes more fragile and more prone to lysosomal membrane permeabilization, a condition that can cause the release of proteases into the cytosol and the activation of cell death. Therefore, lysosomes represent a weak spot of cancer cells that can be targeted for therapeutic purposes. Here, we identify a novel role of the kinase JNK as keeper of lysosomal stability in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. JNK inhibition reduces the stability of LAMP2A, a lysosomal membrane protein responsible for the stability of the lysosomal membrane, promoting its degradation by the proteasome. LAMP2A decrease enhances the lysosomal damage induced by lysosomotropic agents, ultimately leading to cell death. The effect is cancer-specific, as JNK inhibition does not decrease LAMP2A in non-tumoral liver cells and does not alter their sensitivity to lysosomotropic drugs. Our finding on the new role of JNK as cancer-specific keeper of lysosomal homeostasis lays the ground for future evaluation of the efficacy of the combination of JNK inhibition and lysosomotropic agents as a potential therapeutic strategy in hepatocellular carcinoma.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00408-0
  11. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Feb 09. pii: 1743. [Epub ahead of print]22(4):
    Popova NV, Jücker M.
      The aim of this review was to summarize current available information about the role of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in cancer as a potential target for new therapy options. The mTOR and PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1) signaling are critical for the regulation of many fundamental cell processes including protein synthesis, cell growth, metabolism, survival, catabolism, and autophagy, and deregulated mTOR signaling is implicated in cancer, metabolic dysregulation, and the aging process. In this review, we summarize the information about the structure and function of the mTOR pathway and discuss the mechanisms of its deregulation in human cancers including genetic alterations of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway components. We also present recent data regarding the PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors in clinical studies and the treatment of cancer, as well the attendant problems of resistance and adverse effects.
    Keywords:  AKT; PI3K; cancer; mTOR; mutation; therapy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041743
  12. Biochem Cell Biol. 2021 Feb 09.
    Liu Z, Wang X, Shi Z, Xu J, Lin J, Li D, Zhang X, Li Y, Zhao Q, Tao L, Diao A.
      Autophagy plays a key role in the metabolism of macromolecules by the lysosomal degradative machinery. The transcription factor EB (TFEB) regulates autophagosome biogenesis and lysosome function, and promoting TFEB activity has emerged as a potential strategy for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Here, we describe that cetrimonium bromide (CTAB), a quaternary ammonium compound, promotes autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis by inducing the nuclear translocation of TFEB in hepatic cells. shRNA-mediated TFEB knockdown inhibits CTAB-induced autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis. Mechanistically, CTAB treatment inhibits the Akt-mTORC1 signaling pathway. Moreover, CTAB treatment markedly promotes lipid metabolism in both palmitate and oleate-treated HepG2 cells, and this promotion was attenuated by the depletion of TFEB. Altogether, our results indicate that CTAB activates the autophagy-lysosome pathway by inducing the nuclear translocation of TFEB via the inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. These results deepen our understanding of TFEB function and provide new insights into CTAB-mediated lipid metabolism.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1139/bcb-2020-0570
  13. mBio. 2021 02 09. pii: e03458-20. [Epub ahead of print]12(1):
    Vaughn B, Voth K, Price CT, Jones S, Ozanic M, Santic M, Cygler M, Abu Kwaik Y.
      Diversion of the Legionella pneumophila-containing vacuole (LCV) from the host endosomal-lysosomal degradation pathway is one of the main virulence features essential for manifestation of Legionnaires' pneumonia. Many of the ∼350 Dot/Icm-injected effectors identified in L. pneumophila have been shown to interfere with various host pathways and processes, but no L. pneumophila effector has ever been identified to be indispensable for lysosomal evasion. While most single effector mutants of L. pneumophila do not exhibit a defective phenotype within macrophages, we show that the MavE effector is essential for intracellular growth of L. pneumophila in human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs) and amoebae and for intrapulmonary proliferation in mice. The mavE null mutant fails to remodel the LCV with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vesicles and is trafficked to the lysosomes where it is degraded, similar to formalin-killed bacteria. During infection of hMDMs, the MavE effector localizes to the poles of the LCV membrane. The crystal structure of MavE, resolved to 1.8 Å, reveals a C-terminal transmembrane helix, three copies of tyrosine-based sorting motifs, and an NPxY eukaryotic motif, which binds phosphotyrosine-binding domains present on signaling and adaptor eukaryotic proteins. Two point mutations within the NPxY motif result in attenuation of L. pneumophila in both hMDMs and amoeba. The substitution defects of P78 and D64 are associated with failure of vacuoles harboring the mutant to be remodeled by the ER and results in fusion of the vacuole to the lysosomes leading to bacterial degradation. Therefore, the MavE effector of L. pneumophila is indispensable for phagosome biogenesis and lysosomal evasion.IMPORTANCE Intracellular proliferation of Legionella pneumophila within a vacuole in human alveolar macrophages is essential for manifestation of Legionnaires' pneumonia. Intravacuolar growth of the pathogen is totally dependent on remodeling the L. pneumophila-containing vacuole (LCV) by the ER and on its evasion of the endosomal-lysosomal degradation pathway. The pathogen has evolved to inject ∼350 protein effectors into the host cell where they modulate various host processes, but no L. pneumophila effector has ever been identified to be indispensable for lysosomal evasion. We show that the MavE effector localizes to the poles of the LCV membrane and is essential for lysosomal evasion and intracellular growth of L. pneumophila and for intrapulmonary proliferation in mice. The crystal structure of MavE shows an NPxY eukaryotic motif essential for ER-mediated remodeling and lysosomal evasion by the LCV. Therefore, the MavE effector of L. pneumophila is indispensable for phagosome biogenesis and lysosomal evasion.
    Keywords:  Legionnaires’; MavE; NPxY; lysosomal evasion; trafficking
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.03458-20
  14. Autophagy. 2021 Feb 08. 1-3
    Vats S, Galli T.
      Together with the proteasome, macroautophagy is a main pathway for the degradation of intracellular elements. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-autophagy i.e. reticulophagy/ER-phagy leads to the encapsulation of pieces of the ER in forming autophagosomes. This is generally followed by fusion with lysosomes and degradation of these ER components by lysosomal hydrolases. Recent work by our group shows that ER elements could also be incorporated into late endosomes and later be released by a secretory mechanism which we will herein refer to as secretory reticulophagy/ER-phagy (SERP). In the absence of macroautophagy, such as by knocking out Atg5, SERP is more efficient, leading to an increased secretion of MAP1LC3B-II and LC3-interacting region (LIR)-containing proteins of the ER, reticulons and atlastins. In this scenario, neurites grow longer and neuronal polarity is altered. In the absence of SERP, such as by knocking out Vamp7, secretion of MAP1LC3B-II, ER-LIR containing proteins and neurite growth are severely inhibited. We argue that SERP might be a main secretory mechanism bypassing the Golgi apparatus, and that it is particularly active and important in neurite growth.
    Keywords:  ATG5; ER-phagy; VAMP7; atlastins; autophagy; extracellular vesicles; late-endosome; reticulons; secretion
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1883886
  15. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2021 Feb 04. pii: S0925-4439(21)00022-3. [Epub ahead of print] 166089
    Yañez MJ, Campos F, Marín T, Klein AD, Futerman AH, Alvarez AR, Zanlungo S.
      Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by homozygous mutations in the GBA1 gene, which encodes the lysosomal β-glucosidase (GBA) enzyme. GD affects several organs and tissues, including the brain in certain variants of the disease. Heterozygous GBA1 variants are a major genetic risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease. The RIPK3 kinase is relevant in GD and its deficiency improves the neurological and visceral symptoms in a murine GD model. RIPK3 mediates necroptotic-like cell death: it is unknown whether the role of RIPK3 in GD is the direct induction of necroptosis or if it has a more indirect function by mediating necrosis-independent. Also, the mechanisms that activate RIPK3 in GD are currently unknown. In this study, we show that c-Abl tyrosine kinase participates upstream of RIPK3 in GD. We found that the active, phosphorylated form of c-Abl is increased in several GD models, including patient's fibroblasts and GBA null mice. Furthermore, its pharmacological inhibition with the FDA-approved drug Imatinib decreased RIPK3 signaling. We found that c-Abl interacts with RIPK3, that RIPK3 is phosphorylated at a tyrosine site, and that this phosphorylation is reduced when c-Abl is inhibited. Genetic ablation of c-Abl in neuronal GD and GD mice models significantly reduced RIPK3 activation and MLKL downstream signaling. These results showed that c-Abl signaling is a new upstream pathway that activates RIPK3 and that its inhibition is an attractive therapeutic approach for the treatment of GD.
    Keywords:  Death; Gaucher disease (GD); Lysosomal Storage Disorders (LSD); Necroptosis; Receptor Interacting Serine/Threonine Kinase 3 (RIPK3); Tyrosine kinase c-Abl
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2021.166089
  16. Cell Death Discov. 2020 Jun 15. 6(1): 52
    Fang Y, Li F, Qi C, Mao X, Wang F, Zhao Z, Chen JK, Zhang Z, Wu H.
      Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is characterized by hamartomatous lesions in multiple organs, with most patients developing polycystic kidney disease and leading to a decline of renal function. TSC is caused by loss-of-function mutations in either Tsc1 or Tsc2 gene, but currently, there is no effective treatment for aberrant kidney growth in TSC patients. By generating a renal proximal tubule-specific Tsc1 gene-knockout (Tsc1ptKO) mouse model, we observed that Tsc1ptKO mice developed aberrantly enlarged kidneys primarily due to hypertrophy and proliferation of proximal tubule cells, along with some cystogenesis, interstitial inflammation, and fibrosis. Mechanistic studies revealed inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation at Thr-172 and activation of Akt phosphorylation at Ser-473 and Thr-308. We therefore treated Tsc1ptKO mice with the AMPK activator, metformin, by daily intraperitoneal injection. Our results indicated that metformin increased the AMPK phosphorylation, but decreased the Akt phosphorylation. These signaling modulations resulted in inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in the renal proximal tubule cells of Tsc1ptKO mice. Importantly, metformin treatment effectively prevented aberrant kidney enlargement and cyst growth, inhibited inflammatory response, attenuated interstitial fibrosis, and protected renal function. The effects of metformin were further confirmed by in vitro experiments. In conclusion, this study indicates a potential therapeutic effect of metformin on Tsc1 deletion-induced kidney pathology, although currently metformin is primarily prescribed to treat patients with type 2 diabetes.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-020-0285-0
  17. Neuromolecular Med. 2021 Feb 07.
    Lee JY, Marian OC, Don AS.
      Dementia poses an ever-growing burden to health care and social services as life expectancies have grown across the world and populations age. The most common forms of dementia are Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Lewy body dementia, which includes Parkinson's disease (PD) dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Genomic studies over the past 3 decades have identified variants in genes regulating lipid transporters and endosomal processes as major risk determinants for AD, with the most significant being inheritance of the ε4 allele of the APOE gene, encoding apolipoprotein E. A recent surge in research on lipid handling and metabolism in glia and neurons has established defective lipid clearance from endolysosomes as a central driver of AD pathogenesis. The most prevalent genetic risk factors for DLB are the APOE ε4 allele, and heterozygous loss of function mutations in the GBA gene, encoding the lysosomal catabolic enzyme glucocerebrosidase; whilst heterozygous mutations in the GRN gene, required for lysosomal catabolism of sphingolipids, are responsible for a significant proportion of FTD cases. Homozygous mutations in the GBA or GRN genes produce the lysosomal storage diseases Gaucher disease and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Research from mouse and cell culture models, and neuropathological evidence from lysosomal storage diseases, has established that impaired cholesterol or sphingolipid catabolism is sufficient to produce the pathological hallmarks of dementia, indicating that defective lipid catabolism is a common mechanism in the etiology of dementia.
    Keywords:  APOE; Alzheimer’s disease; Dementia; Dementia with Lewy bodies; Frontotemporal dementia; Glucocerebrosidase; Granulin; Lipid; Parkinson’s disease
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12017-021-08644-4
  18. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2021 Feb 06. pii: S0006-291X(21)00121-2. [Epub ahead of print]545 183-188
    Kaur H, Moreau R.
      The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is the prototypical pathway regulating protein synthesis and cell proliferation. The level of mTORC1 activity is high in intestinal stem cells located at the base of the crypts and thought to gradually decrease as transit-amplifying cells migrate out of the crypts and differentiate into enterocytes, goblet cells or enteroendocrine cells along the epithelium. The unknown mechanism responsible for the silencing of intestinal epithelium mTORC1 during cell differentiation was investigated in Caco-2 cells, which spontaneously differentiate into enterocytes in standard growth medium. The results show that TSC2, an upstream negative regulator of mTORC1 was central to mTORC1 silencing in differentiated Caco-2 cells. AMPK-mediated activation of TSC2 (Ser1387) and repression of Raptor (Ser792), an essential component of mTORC1, were stimulated in differentiated Caco-2 cells. ERK1/2-mediated repression of TSC2 (Ser664) seen in undifferentiated Caco-2 cells was lifted in differentiated cells. IRS-1-mediated activation of AKT (Thr308) phosphorylation was stimulated in differentiated Caco-2 cells and may be involved in cross-pathway repression of ERK1/2. Additionally, PRAS40 (Thr246) phosphorylation was decreased in differentiated Caco-2 cells compared to undifferentiated cells allowing dephosphorylated PRAS40 to displace Raptor thereby repressing mTORC1 kinase activity.
    Keywords:  AKT; ERK; Enterocyte; PRAS40; Raptor; Tight junction protein
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.01.070
  19. Oncogene. 2021 Feb 09.
    Ye Z, Wang D, Lu Y, He Y, Yu J, Wei W, Chen C, Wang R, Zhang L, Zhang L, Le MTN, Cho WC, Yang M, Zhang H, Yue J.
      Metastasis is the fundamental cause of cancer mortality, but there are still very few anti-metastatic drugs available. Endosomal trafficking has been implicated in tumor metastasis, and we have previously found that small chemical vacuolin-1 (V1) potently inhibits autophagosome-lysosome fusion and general endosomal-lysosomal degradation. Here, we assessed the anti-metastatic activity of V1 both in vitro and in vivo. V1 significantly inhibits colony formation, migration, and invasion of various cancer cells in vitro. It also compromises the assembly-disassembly dynamics of focal adhesions (FAs) by inhibiting the recycling and degradation of integrins. In various experimental or transgenic mouse models, V1 significantly suppresses the metastasis and/or tumor growth of breast cancer or melanoma. We further identified capping protein Zβ (CapZβ) as a V1 binding protein and showed that it is required for the V1-mediated inhibition of migration and metastasis of cancer cells. Collectively, our results indicate that V1 targets CapZβ to inhibit endosomal trafficking and metastasis.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01662-3
  20. Cells. 2021 Jan 29. pii: 262. [Epub ahead of print]10(2):
    Rippin I, Eldar-Finkelman H.
      Neurodegenerative disorders are spreading worldwide and are one of the greatest threats to public health. There is currently no adequate therapy for these disorders, and therefore there is an urgent need to accelerate the discovery and development of effective treatments. Although neurodegenerative disorders are broad ranging and highly complex, they may share overlapping mechanisms, and thus potentially manifest common targets for therapeutic interventions. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is now acknowledged to be a central player in regulating mood behavior, cognitive functions, and neuron viability. Indeed, many targets controlled by GSK-3 are critically involved in progressing neuron deterioration and disease pathogenesis. In this review, we focus on three pathways that represent prominent mechanisms linking GSK-3 with neurodegenerative disorders: cytoskeleton organization, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/autophagy axis, and mitochondria. We also consider the challenges and opportunities in the development of GSK-3 inhibitors for treating neurodegeneration.
    Keywords:  GSK-3; GSK-3 inhibitors; autophagy; lysosome; mTOR; microtubules; mitochondria; neurodegeneration
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020262
  21. J Lipid Res. 2020 Jun;pii: S0022-2275(20)43595-3. [Epub ahead of print]61(6): 830-839
    Magro Dos Reis I, Houben T, Oligschläger Y, Bücken L, Steinbusch H, Cassiman D, Lütjohann D, Westerterp M, Prickaerts J, Plat J, Shiri-Sverdlov R.
      Niemann-Pick type C (NPC)1 disease is a rare genetic condition in which the function of the lysosomal cholesterol transporter NPC1 protein is impaired. Consequently, sphingolipids and cholesterol accumulate in lysosomes of all tissues, triggering a cascade of pathological events that culminate in severe systemic and neurological symptoms. Lysosomal cholesterol accumulation is also a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis and NASH. In these two metabolic diseases, the administration of plant stanol esters has been shown to ameliorate cellular cholesterol accumulation and inflammation. Given the overlap of pathological mechanisms among atherosclerosis, NASH, and NPC1 disease, we sought to investigate whether dietary supplementation with plant stanol esters improves the peripheral features of NPC1 disease. To this end, we used an NPC1 murine model featuring a Npc1-null allele (Npc1nih), creating a dysfunctional NPC1 protein. Npc1nih mice were fed a 2% or 6% plant stanol ester-enriched diet over the course of 5 weeks. During this period, hepatic and blood lipid and inflammatory profiles were assessed. Npc1nih mice fed the plant stanol-enriched diet exhibited lower hepatic cholesterol accumulation, damage, and inflammation than regular chow-fed Npc1nih mice. Moreover, plant stanol consumption shifted circulating T-cells and monocytes in particular toward an anti-inflammatory profile. Overall, these effects were stronger following dietary supplementation with 6% stanols, suggesting a dose-dependent effect. The findings of our study highlight the potential use of plant stanols as an affordable complementary means to ameliorate disorders in hepatic and blood lipid metabolism and reduce inflammation in NPC1 disease.
    Keywords:  atherosclerosis; cholesterol metabolism; diet; dietary lipids; inflammation; liver; lysosomal storage disease; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.RA120000632
  22. Mol Cancer Res. 2021 Feb 11. pii: molcanres.MCR-20-0637-E.2020. [Epub ahead of print]
    Sato T, Mukai S, Ikeda H, Mishiro-Sato E, Akao K, Kobayashi T, Hino O, Shimono W, Shibagaki Y, Hattori S, Sekido Y.
      Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive tumor that typically develops after a long latency following asbestos exposure. Although mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation enhances MM cell growth, the mTORC1 inhibitor everolimus has shown limited efficacy in clinical trials of MM patients. We explored the mechanism underlying mTORC1 activation in MM cells and its effects on cell proliferation and progression. Analysis of the expression profiles of 87 MMs from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that 40 samples (46%) displayed altered expression of RPTOR (mTORC1 component) and genes immediately upstream that activate mTORC1. Among them, we focused on RHEB and RHEBL1, which encode direct activators of mTORC1. Exogenous RHEBL1 expression enhanced MM cell growth, indicating that RHEB-mTORC1 signaling acts as a pro-oncogenic cascade. We investigated molecules that directly activate RHEBs, identifying SmgGDS as a novel RHEB-binding protein. SmgGDS knockdown reduced mTORC1 activation and inhibited the proliferation of MM cells with mTORC1 activation. Interestingly, SmgGDS displayed high binding affinity with inactive GDP-bound RHEBL1, and its knockdown reduced cytosolic RHEBL1 without affecting its activation. These findings suggest that SmgGDS retains GDP-bound RHEBs in the cytosol, whereas GTP-bound RHEBs are localized on intracellular membranes to promote mTORC1 activation. We revealed a novel role for SmgGDS in the RHEB-mTORC1 pathway and its potential as a therapeutic target in MM with aberrant mTORC1 activation. Implications: Our data showing that SmgGDS regulates RHEB localization to activate mTORC1 indicate that SmgGDS can be used as a new therapeutic target for MM exhibiting mTORC1 activation.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-20-0637
  23. Cell Death Discov. 2020 Mar 11. 6(1): 12
    Zhao B, Dierichs L, Gu JN, Trajkovic-Arsic M, Axel Hilger R, Savvatakis K, Vega-Rubin-de-Celis S, Liffers ST, Peña-Llopis S, Behrens D, Hahn S, Siveke JT, Lueong SS.
      Oncogenic KRAS mutations are encountered in more than 90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. MEK inhibition has failed to procure any clinical benefits in mutant RAS-driven cancers including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). To identify potential resistance mechanisms underlying MEK inhibitor (MEKi) resistance in PDAC, we investigated lysosomal drug accumulation in PDAC models both in vitro and in vivo. Mouse PDAC models and human PDAC cell lines as well as human PDAC xenografts treated with the MEK inhibitor trametinib or refametinib led to an enhanced expression of lysosomal markers and enrichment of lysosomal gene sets. A time-dependent, increase in lysosomal content was observed upon MEK inhibition. Strikingly, there was a strong activation of lysosomal biogenesis in cell lines of the classical compared to the basal-like molecular subtype. Increase in lysosomal content was associated with nuclear translocation of the Transcription Factor EB (TFEB) and upregulation of TFEB target genes. siRNA-mediated depletion of TFEB led to a decreased lysosomal biogenesis upon MEK inhibition and potentiated sensitivity. Using LC-MS, we show accumulation of MEKi in the lysosomes of treated cells. Therefore, MEK inhibition triggers lysosomal biogenesis and subsequent drug sequestration. Combined targeting of MEK and lysosomal function may improve sensitivity to MEK inhibition in PDAC.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-020-0246-7
  24. EMBO Rep. 2021 Feb 08. e51436
    Pathria G, Verma S, Yin J, Scott DA, Ronai ZA.
      Amino acid restriction is among promising potential cancer treatment strategies. However, cancer cells employ a multitude of mechanisms to mount resistance to amino acid restriction, which impede the latter's clinical development. Here we show that MAPK signaling activation in asparagine-restricted melanoma cells impairs GSK3-β-mediated c-MYC degradation. In turn, elevated c-MYC supports ATF4 translational induction by enhancing the expression of the amino acid transporter SLC7A5, increasing the uptake of essential amino acids, and the subsequent maintenance of mTORC1 activity in asparagine-restricted melanoma cells. Blocking the MAPK-c-MYC-SLC7A5 signaling axis cooperates with asparagine restriction to effectively suppress melanoma cell proliferation. This work reveals a previously unknown axis of cancer cell adaptation to asparagine restriction and informs mechanisms that may be targeted for enhanced therapeutic efficacy of asparagine limiting strategies.
    Keywords:  ATF4; MAPK; c-MYC; mTORC1; melanoma
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.15252/embr.202051436
  25. Cell Death Discov. 2020 Apr 22. 6(1): 27
    Leprivier G, Rotblat B.
      Glucose is a major requirement for biological life. Its concentration is constantly sensed at the cellular level, allowing for adequate responses to any changes of glucose availability. Such responses are mediated by key sensors and signaling pathway components that adapt cellular metabolism to glucose levels. One of the major hubs of these responses is mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, which forms the mTORC1 and mTORC2 protein complexes. Under physiological glucose concentrations, mTORC1 is activated and stimulates a number of proteins and enzymes involved in anabolic processes, while restricting the autophagic process. Conversely, when glucose levels are low, mTORC1 is inhibited, in turn leading to the repression of numerous anabolic processes, sparing ATP and antioxidants. Understanding how mTORC1 activity is regulated by glucose is not only important to better delineate the biological function of mTOR, but also to highlight potential therapeutic strategies for treating diseases characterized by deregulated glucose availability, as is the case of cancer. In this perspective, we depict the different sensors and upstream proteins responsible of controlling mTORC1 activity in response to changes in glucose concentration. This includes the major energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as well as other independent players. The impact of such modes of regulation of mTORC1 on cellular processes is also discussed.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-020-0260-9
  26. J Biol Chem. 2021 Feb 09. pii: S0021-9258(21)00177-0. [Epub ahead of print] 100405
    Jia R, Bonifacino JS.
      Components of the autophagy machinery are subject to regulation by various post-translational modifications. Previous studies have shown that monoubiquitination of LC3B catalyzed by the ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA6 and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme/ubiquitin ligase BIRC6 targets LC3B for proteasomal degradation, thus reducing LC3B levels and autophagic activity under conditions of stress. However, mechanisms capable of counteracting this process are not known. Herein, we report that LC3B ubiquitination is reversed by the action of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP10. We identified USP10 in a CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screen for ubiquitination-related genes that regulate LC3B levels. Biochemical analyses showed that silencing of USP10 reduces the levels of both the LC3B-I and LC3B-II forms of LC3B through increased ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In turn, the reduced LC3B levels result in slower degradation of the autophagy receptors SQSTM1 and NBR1, and an increased accumulation of puromycin-induced aggresome-like structures. Taken together, these findings indicate that the levels of LC3B and autophagic activity are controlled through cycles of LC3B ubiquitination and deubiquitination.
    Keywords:  CRISPR/Cas; LC3; USP10; autophagy; deubiquitination; protein aggregation; ubiquitin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100405
  27. Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 12. 11(1): 3765
    Stone KP, Ghosh S, Kovalik JP, Orgeron M, Wanders D, Sims LC, Gettys TW.
      The initial sensing of dietary methionine restriction (MR) occurs in the liver where it activates an integrated stress response (ISR) that quickly reduces methionine utilization. The ISR program is regulated in part by ATF4, but ATF4's prototypical upstream regulator, eIF2α, is not acutely activated by MR. Bioinformatic analysis of RNAseq and metabolomics data from liver samples harvested 3 h and 6 h after initiating MR shows that general translation is inhibited at the level of ternary complex formation by an acute 50% reduction of hepatic methionine that limits formation of initiator methionine tRNA. The resulting ISR is induced by selective expression of ATF4 target genes that mediate adaptation to reduced methionine intake and return hepatic methionine to control levels within 4 days of starting the diet. Complementary in vitro experiments in HepG2 cells after knockdown of ATF4, or inhibition of mTOR or Erk1/2 support the conclusion that the early induction of genes by MR is partially dependent on ATF4 and regulated by both mTOR and Erk1/2. Taken together, these data show that initiation of dietary MR induces an mTOR- and Erk1/2-dependent stress response that is linked to ATF4 by the sharp, initial drop in hepatic methionine and resulting repression of translation pre-initiation.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83380-0
  28. Mol Cell Oncol. 2021 Jan 10. 8(1): 1856621
    Tao T, Shi H, Durbin AD, Look AT.
      We recently identified activated protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) as a tumorigenic driver in childhood ganglioneuroma. Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine kinase downstream of AKT, effectively reduced the tumor burden in zebrafish with ganglioneuroma. We propose a clinical trial of mTOR inhibitors as a means to shrink large ganglioneuromas prior to surgical resection.
    Keywords:  AKT; Ganglioneuroma; mTOR inhibitor; zebrafish model
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/23723556.2020.1856621
  29. Cell Death Dis. 2021 Feb 10. 12(2): 169
    Luo L, Sun W, Zhu W, Li S, Zhang W, Xu X, Fang D, Grahn THM, Jiang L, Zheng Y.
      Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapy drugs and is widely used in the treatment of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cervical cancer, but its therapeutic benefit is limited by the development of resistance. Our previous studies demonstrated that BCAT1 promoted cell proliferation and decreased cisplatin sensitivity in HCC cells. However, the exact role and mechanism of how BCAT1 is involved in cisplatin cytotoxicity remain undefined. In this study, we revealed that cisplatin triggered autophagy in cancer cells, with an increase in BCAT1 expression. The cisplatin-induced up-regulation of BCAT1 decreased the cisplatin sensitivity by regulating autophagy through the mTOR signaling pathway. In addition, branched-chain amino acids or leucine treatment inhibited cisplatin- or BCAT1-mediated autophagy and increased cisplatin sensitivity by activating mTOR signaling in cancer cells. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine increased cisplatin sensitivity in vivo. Also, the knockdown of BCAT1 or the administration of leucine activated mTOR signaling, inhibited autophagy, and increased cisplatin sensitivity in cancer cells in vivo. These findings demonstrate a new mechanism, revealing that BCAT1 decreases cisplatin sensitivity in cancer cells by inducing mTOR-mediated autophagy via branched-chain amino acid leucine metabolism, providing an attractive pharmacological target to improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03456-7
  30. Mol Cell Biochem. 2021 Feb 11.
    Mallela K, Kumar A.
      Since its initial discovery as the gene altered in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), an autosomal dominant disorder, the interest in TSC1 (Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1) has steadily risen. TSC1, an essential component of the pro-survival PI3K/AKT/MTOR signaling pathway, plays an important role in processes like development, cell growth and proliferation, survival, autophagy and cilia development by co-operating with a variety of regulatory molecules. Recent studies have emphasized the tumor suppressive role of TSC1 in several human cancers including liver, lung, bladder, breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancers. TSC1 perceives inputs from various signaling pathways, including TNF-α/IKK-β, TGF-β-Smad2/3, AKT/Foxo/Bim, Wnt/β-catenin/Notch, and MTOR/Mdm2/p53 axis, thereby regulating cancer cell proliferation, metabolism, migration, invasion, and immune regulation. This review provides a first comprehensive evaluation of TSC1 and illuminates its diverse functions apart from its involvement in TSC genetic disorder. Further, we have summarized the physiological functions of TSC1 in various cellular events and conditions whose dysregulation may lead to several pathological manifestations including cancer.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Cell proliferation; Hamartin; Migration; PI3K/AKT/MTOR; TSC; TSC1; miRNAs
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-021-04088-3
  31. J Pediatr Genet. 2021 Mar;10(1): 74-76
    Elmas M, Gogus B, Kılıçarslan F, Bukulmez A, Solak M.
      Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (Sanfilippo's B; OMIM no.: 252920) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by defective degradation of heparan sulfate. The enzyme that has decreased function in this disease is α-N acetylglucosaminidase. This enzyme is encoded by the NAGLU gene. A 9-year-old male patient was referred to us with speech disability, developmental delay, hepatomegaly, mild learning disability, and otitis media with effusion complaints. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed because of consanguinity between the parents of the patient and the lack of specific prediagnosis. As a result of the patient's WES analysis, a homozygous mutation was detected in the NAGLU gene. The leukocyte enzyme activity was then evaluated to confirm the diagnosis. Alpha-N acetylglucosaminidase deficiency was found. Alpha-N acetylglucosaminidase activity was 0.2 nmol/mLh. WES is a successful diagnostic method in the diagnosis of the mild clinical diseases with recessive inheritance. In addition, our case is a good example of genotype to phenotype diagnosis. Because in storage diseases, the diagnosis is made by leukocyte enzyme analysis first, and then the result is confirmed by gene analysis. The opposite situation occurred in our case.
    Keywords:  Sanfilippo's syndrome B; consanguineous marriage; mucopolysaccharidosis III; whole exome sequencing
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1708555
  32. Clin Genet. 2021 Jan 28.
    Carli D, Ferrero GB, Fusillo A, Coppo P, La Selva R, Zinali F, Cardaropoli S, Ranieri C, Iacoviello M, Resta N, Mussa A.
      Smith-Kingsmore syndrome (SKS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygous germline activating pathogenic variants in mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) on chromosome 1p36. A few patients with disseminated mosaicism have been described so far and they seem to display a different phenotype when compared to germline cases. Here we report the sixth case with a disseminated mosaic MTOR pathogenic variant, a 7-year-old boy with hemimegalencephaly, epilepsy, developmental delay, hypomelanosis of Ito, and lateralized overgrowth. Genetic testing revealed a pathogenic variant (c.4448G > A, p.Cys1483Tyr) in MTOR with a frequency of 32% in the DNA extracted from a skin sample, 3% in saliva and 0.46% in blood. The clinical features observed in our patient further corroborate the existence of differences in phenotypic presentation of germline and mosaic SKS cases. Moreover, lateralized overgrowth, a finding never described so far in SKS, further expands the phenotypic spectrum of SKS and allows the inclusion of MTOR pathogenic variants among the several causes of asymmetric body overgrowth.
    Keywords:  MTOR gene; Smith-Kingsmore syndrome; lateralized overgrowth; mosaic MTOR pathogenic variant
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/cge.13931
  33. FASEB J. 2021 Mar;35(3): e21403
    Lee SJ, Kim SJ, Jo DH, Park KS, Kim JH.
      The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) undergoes characteristic structural changes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during normal aging, which are exacerbated in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although the pathogenic mechanisms of aging and AMD remain unclear, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is known to induce oxidative stress, morphometric changes, and EMT as a senescence-promoting factor. In this study, we examined whether intravitreal injection of TGF-β1 into the mouse eye elicits senescence-like morphological alterations in the RPE and if this can be prevented by suppressing mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) or NADPH oxidase (NOX) signaling. We verified that intravitreal TGF-β1-induced stress fiber formation and EMT in RPE cells, along with age-associated morphometric changes, including increased variation in cell size and reduced cell density. In RPE cells, exogenous TGF-β1 increased endogenous expression of TGF-β1 and upregulated Smad3-ERK1/2-mTORC1 signaling, increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and EMT. We demonstrated that inhibition of the mTORC1-NOX4 pathway by pretreatment with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), an activator of AMP-dependent protein kinase, or GKT137831, a NOX1/4 inhibitor, decreased ROS generation, prevented stress fiber formation, attenuated EMT, and improved the regularity of the RPE structure in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that intravitreal TGF-β1 injection could be used as a screening model to investigate the aging-related structural and functional changes to the RPE. Furthermore, the regulation of TGF-β-mTORC1-NOX signaling could be a potential therapeutic target for reducing pathogenic alterations in aged RPE and AMD.
    Keywords:  TGF-β1; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; mTORC1-NOX signaling; retinal pigment epithelium; senescence
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.202001939RR
  34. Cell Biosci. 2021 Feb 08. 11(1): 35
    Lu Q, Wang PS, Yang L.
      Autophagy is a conserved cellular degradation process in eukaryotes that facilitates the recycling and reutilization of damaged organelles and compartments. It plays a pivotal role in cellular homeostasis, pathophysiological processes, and diverse diseases in humans. Autophagy involves dynamic crosstalk between different stages associated with intracellular vesicle trafficking. Golgi apparatus is the central organelle involved in intracellular vesicle trafficking where Golgi-associated Rab GTPases function as important mediators. This review focuses on the recent findings that highlight Golgi-associated Rab GTPases as master regulators of autophagic flux. The scope for future research in elucidating the role and mechanism of Golgi-associated Rab GTPases in autophagy and autophagy-related diseases is discussed further.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Golgi; Rab GTPase; Vesicle trafficking
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13578-021-00543-2
  35. Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 11. 11(1): 3556
    Westermann LM, Baranowsky A, Di Lorenzo G, Danyukova T, Soul J, Schwartz JM, Hendrickx G, Amling M, Rose-John S, Garbers C, Schinke T, Pohl S.
      Severe skeletal alterations are common symptoms in patients with mucolipidosis type II (MLII), a rare lysosomal storage disorder of childhood. We have previously reported that progressive bone loss in a mouse model for MLII is caused by an increased number of bone-resorbing osteoclasts, which is accompanied by elevated expression of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the bone microenvironment. In the present study we addressed the question, if pharmacological blockade of IL-6 can prevent the low bone mass phenotype of MLII mice. Since the cellular IL-6 response can be mediated by either the membrane-bound (classic signaling) or the soluble IL-6 receptor (trans-signaling), we first performed cell culture assays and found that both pathways can increase osteoclastogenesis. We then crossed MLII mice with transgenic mice expressing the recombinant soluble fusion protein sgp130Fc, which represents a natural inhibitor of IL-6 trans-signaling. By undecalcified histology and bone-specific histomorphometry we found that high circulating sgp130Fc levels do not affect skeletal growth or remodeling in wild-type mice. Most importantly, blockade of IL-6 trans-signaling did neither reduce osteoclastogenesis, nor increase bone mass in MLII mice. Therefore, our data clearly demonstrate that the bone phenotype of MLII mice cannot be corrected by blocking the IL-6 trans-signaling.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82802-3
  36. Bioorg Med Chem. 2021 Jan 27. pii: S0968-0896(21)00049-3. [Epub ahead of print]34 116041
    Miura K, Kawano S, Suto T, Sato T, Chida N, Simizu S.
      Madangamines are marine natural products isolated from Xestospongia ingens, and madangamine A-E with a different D-ring structure have been reported. We have reported that madangamine A has strong anti-proliferative activity against various human cancer cell lines. In this study, to clarify the anti-proliferative activity of madangamine A, we searched for molecular target of the madangamine A in human cells. Treatment with madangamine A increased the levels of LC3-II and p62, autophagy-related proteins, concomitant with growth inhibition. Moreover, madangamine A resulted in lysosome enlargement and increase in lysosomal pH, which are same phenomena observed in chloroquine-treated cells. These results suggest that madangamine A is a novel lysosome inhibitor, and the anti-proliferative activity of madangamine A is due to the inhibition of lysosome function.
    Keywords:  Antiproliferative activity; Autophagy; Lysosomotropic agent; Madangamine; Marine natural product
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2021.116041
  37. Cell Death Discov. 2020 May 29. 6(1): 40
    Gui Y, Hou Q, Lu Q, Dai C, Li J.
      Our previous study demonstrated that the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling alleviates renal inflammation and protects against cisplatin-induced AKI. However, the underlying mechanisms for mTORC2 in regulating renal inflammation in AKI remain to be determined. In this study, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could activate mTORC2 signaling in NRK-52E cells, and blockage of mTORC2 signaling led to Yap/Taz degradation, which in turn activated NF-κB signaling and induced inflammatory cytokines secretion. Overexpression of constitutively active Taz (Taz-S89A) could attenuate the inflammation-amplified role of mTORC2 blockage. In mouse models, tubule-specific deletion of Rictor had higher blood urea nitrogen level, severe morphological injury as well as more inflammatory cells accumulation compared with those in their littermate controls. Overall, these results demonstrate that mTORC2 signaling protects against renal inflammation and dictates the outcome of AKI by modulating Yap/Taz degradation.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-020-0274-3
  38. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2021 Feb 09. pii: S1388-1981(21)00029-9. [Epub ahead of print] 158903
    Claude-Taupin A, Morel E.
      Phosphoinositides are key lipids in eukaryotes, regulating organelles' identity and function. Their synthesis and turnover require specific phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events that are ensured by dedicated lipid kinases and phosphatases, which modulate the structure of the inositol ring by adding or removing phosphates on positions 3, 4 or 5. Beside their implication in intracellular signalization and cytoskeleton dynamics, phosphoinositides are essential for vesicular transport along intracellular trafficking routes, by providing molecular scaffolds to membrane related events such as budding, fission or fusion. Robust and detailed literature demonstrated that some members of the phosphoinositides family are crucial for the autophagy pathway, acting as fine tuners and regulators. In this review, we discuss the known functions of phosphoinositides in autophagy canonical processes, such as during autophagosome formation, as well as the importance of phosphoinositides in organelle-based processes directly connected to the autophagic machinery, such as endosomal dynamics, ciliogenesis and innate immunity.
    Keywords:  autophagy; membranes; phosphoinositides
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2021.158903
  39. Neuropediatrics. 2021 Feb 12.
    Mastrangelo M, Commone C, Greco C, Leuzzi V.
      Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) is a rare syndrome that presents with hyperkinetic asymmetric tonic/dystonic seizures with vegetative signs, vocalization, and emotional facial expression, mainly during light non-rapid eye movement sleep stages. The role of various genes (CHRNA4, CHRNB2, CHRNA2, KCNT1, DEPDC5, NPRL2, NPRL3, and PRIMA1) has previously been reported, though genetic etiology is assessed in less than 10% of cases. We report the case of a 5-year-old female carrying the TSC1 variant c.843del p.(Ser282Glnfs*36) who presented with a mild phenotype of tuberous sclerosis, including carbamazepine-responsive SHE, normal neurocognitive functioning, hypomelanotic macules, no abnormalities outside the central nervous system, and tubers at neuroimaging. The presented case extends the list of SHE-related genes to include TSC1, thus suggesting a central pathogenic role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade dysfunction in SHE and introducing a possible use of mTOR inhibitors in this epileptic syndrome.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1722881
  40. PLoS One. 2021 ;16(2): e0239689
    Balouch B, Nagorsky H, Pham T, LaGraff JT, Chu-LaGraff Q.
      Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (INCL) is a pediatric neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive retinal and central nervous system deterioration during infancy. This lysosomal storage disorder results from a deficiency in the Palmitoyl Protein Thioesterase 1 (PPT1) enzyme-a lysosomal hydrolase which cleaves fatty acid chains such as palmitate from lipid-modified proteins. In the absence of PPT1 activity, these proteins fail to be degraded, leading to the accumulation of autofluorescence storage material in the lysosome. The underlying molecular mechanisms leading to INCL pathology remain poorly understood. A role for oxidative stress has been postulated, yet little evidence has been reported to support this possibility. Here we present a comprehensive cellular characterization of human PPT1-deficient fibroblast cells harboring Met1Ile and Tyr247His compound heterozygous mutations. We detected autofluorescence storage material and observed distinct organellar abnormalities of the lysosomal and mitochondrial structures, which supported previous postulations about the role of ER, mitochondria and oxidative stress in INCL. An increase in the number of lysosomal structures was found in INCL patient fibroblasts, which suggested an upregulation of lysosomal biogenesis, and an association with endoplasmic reticulum stress response. The mitochondrial network also displayed abnormal spherical punctate morphology instead of normal elongated tubules with extensive branching, supporting the involvement of mitochondrial and oxidative stress in INCL cell death. Autofluorescence accumulation and lysosomal pathologies can be mitigated in the presence of conditioned wild type media suggesting that a partial restoration via passive introduction of the enzyme into the cellular environment may be possible. We also demonstrated, for the first time, that human INCL fibroblasts have a heightened susceptibility to exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cell death, which suggested an elevated basal level of endogenous ROS in the mutant cell. Collectively, these findings support the role of intracellular organellar networks in INCL pathology, possibly due to oxidative stress.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0239689
  41. J Cell Sci. 2021 Feb 08. pii: jcs252023. [Epub ahead of print]134(5):
    Pernas L.
      The study of metabolic changes associated with host-pathogen interactions have largely focused on the strategies that microbes use to subvert host metabolism to support their own proliferation. However, recent reports demonstrate that changes in host cell metabolism can also be detrimental to pathogens and restrict their growth. In this Review, I present a framework to consider how the host cell exploits the multifaceted roles of metabolites to defend against microbes. I also highlight how the rewiring of metabolic processes can strengthen cellular barriers to microbial invasion, regulate microbial virulence programs and factors, limit microbial access to nutrient sources and generate toxic environments for microbes. Collectively, the studies described here support a critical role for the rewiring of cellular metabolism in the defense against microbes. Further study of host-pathogen interactions from this framework has the potential to reveal novel aspects of host defense and metabolic control, and may inform how human metabolism impacts the progression of infectious disease.
    Keywords:  Cellular defense; Host–pathogen interaction; Immunity; Metabolism; Metabolites; Microbes; Mitochondria; Nutrients
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.252023
  42. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Feb 05. pii: 1630. [Epub ahead of print]22(4):
    Fu R, Edman MC, Hamm-Alvarez SF.
      Altered lacrimal gland (LG) secretion is a feature of autoimmune dacryoadenitis in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Cathepsin S (CTSS) is increased in tears of SS patients, which may contribute to disease. Rab3D and Rab27a/b isoforms are effectors of exocytosis in LG, but Rab27a is poorly studied. To investigate whether Rab27a mediates CTSS secretion, we utilized quantitative confocal fluorescence microscopy of LG from SS-model male NOD and control male BALB/c mice, showing that Rab27a-enriched vesicles containing CTSS were increased in NOD mouse LG. Live-cell imaging of cultured lacrimal gland acinar cells (LGAC) transduced with adenovirus encoding wild-type (WT) mCFP-Rab27a revealed carbachol-stimulated fusion and depletion of mCFP-Rab27a-enriched vesicles. LGAC transduced with dominant-negative (DN) mCFP-Rab27a exhibited significantly reduced carbachol-stimulated CTSS secretion by 0.5-fold and β-hexosaminidase by 0.3-fold, relative to stimulated LGAC transduced with WT mCFP-Rab27a. Colocalization of Rab27a and endolysosomal markers (Rab7, Lamp2) with the apical membrane was increased in both stimulated BALB/c and NOD mouse LG, but the extent of colocalization was much greater in NOD mouse LG. Following stimulation, Rab27a colocalization with endolysosomal membranes was decreased. In conclusion, Rab27a participates in CTSS secretion in LGAC though the major regulated pathway, and through a novel endolysosomal pathway that is increased in SS.
    Keywords:  Cathepsin S; Rab27a; Sjögren’s syndrome; acinar cells; endolysosomal secretion; lacrimal gland; rab proteins; regulated secretion
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041630
  43. Cell Rep. 2021 Jan 26. pii: S2211-1247(20)31672-7. [Epub ahead of print]34(4): 108683
    Osei-Owusu J, Yang J, Leung KH, Ruan Z, Lü W, Krishnan Y, Qiu Z.
      During vesicular acidification, chloride (Cl-), as the counterion, provides the electrical shunt for proton pumping by the vacuolar H+ ATPase. Intracellular CLC transporters mediate Cl- influx to the endolysosomes through their 2Cl-/H+ exchange activity. However, whole-endolysosomal patch-clamp recording also revealed a mysterious conductance releasing Cl- from the lumen. It remains unknown whether CLCs or other Cl- channels are responsible for this activity. Here, we show that the newly identified proton-activated Cl- (PAC) channel traffics from the plasma membrane to endosomes via the classical YxxL motif. PAC deletion abolishes the endosomal Cl- conductance, raises luminal Cl- level, lowers luminal pH, and increases transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis. PAC overexpression generates a large endosomal Cl- current with properties similar to those of endogenous conductance, hypo-acidifies endosomal pH, and reduces transferrin uptake. We propose that the endosomal Cl- PAC channel functions as a low pH sensor and prevents hyper-acidification by releasing Cl- from the lumen.
    Keywords:  ASOR; PACC1; PAORAC; TMEM206; hPAC; organellar ion channel
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108683
  44. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 620409
    Campanario S, Ramírez-Pardo I, Hong X, Isern J, Muñoz-Cánoves P.
      The skeletal muscle tissue in the adult is relatively stable under normal conditions but retains a striking ability to regenerate by its resident stem cells (satellite cells). Satellite cells exist in a quiescent (G0) state; however, in response to an injury, they reenter the cell cycle and start proliferating to provide sufficient progeny to form new myofibers or undergo self-renewal and returning to quiescence. Maintenance of satellite cell quiescence and entry of satellite cells into the activation state requires autophagy, a fundamental degradative and recycling process that preserves cellular proteostasis. With aging, satellite cell regenerative capacity declines, correlating with loss of autophagy. Enhancing autophagy in aged satellite cells restores their regenerative functions, underscoring this proteostatic activity's relevance for tissue regeneration. Here we describe two strategies for assessing autophagic activity in satellite cells from GFP-LC3 reporter mice, which allows direct autophagosome labeling, or from non-transgenic (wild-type) mice, where autophagosomes can be immunostained. Treatment of GFP-LC3 or WT satellite cells with compounds that interfere with autophagosome-lysosome fusion enables measurement of autophagic activity by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. Thus, the methods presented permit a relatively rapid assessment of autophagy in stem cells from skeletal muscle in homeostasis and in different pathological scenarios such as regeneration, aging or disease.
    Keywords:  autophagy; flow cytometry; immunofluorescence; quiescence; regeneration; satellite cell; skeletal muscle; stem cell
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.620409