bims-lysosi Biomed News
on Lysosomes and signaling
Issue of 2020‒12‒20
thirty-one papers selected by
Stephanie Fernandes
Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing

  1. Dev Cell. 2020 Dec 07. pii: S1534-5807(20)30925-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Lysosomes promote cellular homeostasis through macromolecular hydrolysis within their lumen and metabolic signaling by the mTORC1 kinase on their limiting membranes. Both hydrolytic and signaling functions require precise regulation of lysosomal cholesterol content. In Niemann-Pick type C (NPC), loss of the cholesterol exporter, NPC1, causes cholesterol accumulation within lysosomes, leading to mTORC1 hyperactivation, disrupted mitochondrial function, and neurodegeneration. The compositional and functional alterations in NPC lysosomes and nature of aberrant cholesterol-mTORC1 signaling contribution to organelle pathogenesis are not understood. Through proteomic profiling of NPC lysosomes, we find pronounced proteolytic impairment compounded with hydrolase depletion, enhanced membrane damage, and defective mitophagy. Genetic and pharmacologic mTORC1 inhibition restores lysosomal proteolysis without correcting cholesterol storage, implicating aberrant mTORC1 as a pathogenic driver downstream of cholesterol accumulation. Consistently, mTORC1 inhibition ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction in a neuronal model of NPC. Thus, cholesterol-mTORC1 signaling controls organelle homeostasis and is a targetable pathway in NPC.
    Keywords:  ESCRT; NPC1; autophagy; cholesterol; lysosome; mTORC1; mitochondria; proteolysis; proteomics
  2. Glia. 2020 Dec 14.
      Vacuolar ATPase (v-ATPase) is the main proton pump that acidifies vesicles such as lysosomes. Disruption in the lysosomal localization of v-ATPase leads to lysosomal dysfunction, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of lysosomal storage disorders and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies showed that increases in cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels acidify lysosomes and consequently enhance autophagy flux. Although the upregulation of v-ATPase function may be the key mechanism underlying the cAMP-mediated lysosomal acidification, it is unknown whether a mechanism independent of v-ATPase may be contributing to this phenomenon. In the present study, we modeled v-ATPase dysfunction in brain cells by blocking lysosomal acidification in cortical astrocytes through treatment with bafilomycin A1, a selective v-ATPase inhibitor. We observed that cAMP reversed the pH changes via the activation of protein kinase A; interestingly, cAMP also increased autophagy flux even in the presence of bafilomycin A1, suggesting the presence of an alternative route of proton entry. Notably, pharmacological inhibitors and siRNAs of H+ /K+ -ATPase markedly shifted the lysosomal pH toward more alkaline values in bafilomycin A1/cAMP-treated astrocytes, suggesting that H+ /K+ -ATPase may be the alternative route of proton entry for lysosomal acidification. Furthermore, the cAMP-mediated reversal of lysosomal pH was nullified in the absence of ZnT3 that interacts with H+ /K+ -ATPase. Our results suggest that the H+ /K+ -ATPase/ZnT3 complex is recruited to lysosomes in a cAMP-dependent manner and functions as an alternative proton pump for lysosomes when the v-ATPase function is downregulated, thus providing insight into the potential development of a new class of lysosome-targeted therapeutics in neurodegenerative diseases.
    Keywords:  H+/K+-ATPase; astrocytes; autophagy; bafilomycin A1; cAMP; lysosome; zinc transport 3
  3. Membranes (Basel). 2020 Dec 09. pii: E406. [Epub ahead of print]10(12):
      Lysosomes are acidic cell compartments containing a large set of hydrolytic enzymes. These lysosomal hydrolases degrade proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids into their constituents. Materials to be degraded can reach lysosomes either from inside the cell, by autophagy, or from outside the cell, by different forms of endocytosis. In addition to their degradative functions, lysosomes are also able to extracellularly release their contents by lysosomal exocytosis. These organelles move from the perinuclear region along microtubules towards the proximity of the plasma membrane, then the lysosomal and plasma membrane fuse together via a Ca2+-dependent process. The fusion of the lysosomal membrane with plasma membrane plays an important role in plasma membrane repair, while the secretion of lysosomal content is relevant for the remodelling of extracellular matrix and release of functional substrates. Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) and age-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, share as a pathological feature the accumulation of undigested material within organelles of the endolysosomal system. Recent studies suggest that lysosomal exocytosis stimulation may have beneficial effects on the accumulation of these unprocessed aggregates, leading to their extracellular elimination. However, many details of the molecular machinery required for lysosomal exocytosis are only beginning to be unravelled. Here, we are going to review the current literature on molecular mechanisms and biological functions underlying lysosomal exocytosis, to shed light on the potential of lysosomal exocytosis stimulation as a therapeutic approach.
    Keywords:  TFEB; TRPLML1; cellular clearance; lysosomal exocytosis; lysosomes; mTOR
  4. J Cell Sci. 2020 Dec 16. pii: jcs.248658. [Epub ahead of print]
      Pharmacological manipulation of lysosome membrane integrity or ionic movements is a key strategy for probing lysosomal involvement in cellular processes. However, we have found an unexpected inhibition of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) by these agents. Dipeptides (GPN and LLOMe) that are inducers of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) uncoupled ER Ca2+-store depletion from SOCE by interfering with Stim1 oligomerization and/or Stim1 activation of Orai. Similarly, the K+/H+ ionophore, nigericin, that rapidly elevates lysosomal pH, also inhibited SOCE in a Stim1-dependent manner. In contrast, other strategies for manipulating lysosomes (bafilomycin A1, lysosomal re-positioning) had no effect upon SOCE. Finally, the effects of GPN on SOCE and Stim1 was reversed by a dynamin inhibitor, dynasore. Our data show that lysosomal agents not only release Ca2+ from stores but also uncouple this release from the normal recruitment of Ca2+ influx.
    Keywords:  Ca2+; GPN; LMP; Lysosome; Orai1; Stim1
  5. Sci Adv. 2020 Dec;pii: eabb0385. [Epub ahead of print]6(50):
      Enzyme replacement therapy, in which a functional copy of an enzyme is injected either systemically or directly into the brain of affected individuals, has proven to be an effective strategy for treating certain lysosomal storage diseases. The inefficient uptake of recombinant enzymes via the mannose-6-phosphate receptor, however, prohibits the broad utility of replacement therapy. Here, to improve the efficiency and efficacy of lysosomal enzyme uptake, we exploited the strategy used by diphtheria toxin to enter into the endolysosomal network of cells by creating a chimera between the receptor-binding fragment of diphtheria toxin and the lysosomal hydrolase TPP1. We show that chimeric TPP1 binds with high affinity to target cells and is efficiently delivered into lysosomes. Further, we show superior uptake of chimeric TPP1 over TPP1 alone in brain tissue following intracerebroventricular injection in mice lacking TPP1, demonstrating the potential of this strategy for enhancing lysosomal storage disease therapy.
  6. Mol Biol Rep. 2020 Dec 15.
      Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a mutation in the IDUA gene, which codes α-L-iduronidase (IDUA), a lysosomal hydrolase that degrades two glycosaminoglycans (GAGs): heparan sulfate (HS) and dermatan sulfate (DS). GAGs are macromolecules found mainly in the extracellular matrix and have important signaling and structural roles which are essential to the maintenance of cell and tissue physiology. Nondegraded GAGs accumulate in various cell types, which characterizes MPS I as a multisystemic progressive disease. Many tissues and vital organs have been described in MPS I models, but there is a lack of studies focused on their effects on the reproductive tract. Our previous studies indicated lower sperm production and morphological damage in the epididymis and accessory glands in male MPS I mice, despite their ability to copulate and to impregnate females. Our aim was to improve the testicular characterization of the MPS I model, with a specific focus on ultrastructural observation of the different cell types that compose the seminiferous tubules and interstitium. We investigated the testicular morphology of 6-month-old male C57BL/6 wild-type (Idua+/+) and MPS I (Idua-/-) mice. We found vacuolated cells widely present in the interstitium and important signs of damage in myoid, Sertoli and Leydig cells. In the cytoplasmic region of Sertoli cells, we found an increased number of vesicles with substrates under digestion and a decreased number of electron-dense vesicles similar to lysosomes, suggesting an impaired flux of substrate degradation. Conclusions: Idua exerts an important role in the morphological maintenance of the seminiferous tubules and the testicular interstitium, which may influence the quality of spermatogenesis, having a greater effect with the progression of the disease.
    Keywords:  Interstitium; Lysosome; Mucopolysaccharidosis; Myoid; Sertoli; Testis
  7. Cell Death Dis. 2020 Dec 12. 11(12): 1059
      Recent studies on developing three-dimensional (3D) brain organoids from stem cells have allowed the generation of in vitro models of neural disease and have enabled the screening of drugs because these organoids mimic the complexity of neural tissue. Niemann-Pick disease, type C (NPC) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 or NPC2. The pathological features underlying NPC are characterized by the abnormal accumulation of cholesterol in acidic compartments, including late endosomes and lysosomes. Due to the inaccessibility of brain tissues from human NPC patients, we developed NPC brain organoids with induced neural stem cells from NPC patient-derived fibroblasts. NPC organoids exhibit significantly reduced size and proliferative ability, which are accompanied by accumulation of cholesterol, impairment in neuronal differentiation, and autophagic flux and dysfunction of lysosomes; therefore, NPC organoids can recapitulate the main phenotypes of NPC patients. Furthermore, these pathological phenotypes observed in NPC organoids were reversed by treatment with valproic acid and HPBCD, which are known to be an effective treatment for several neurodegenerative diseases. Our data present patient-specific phenotypes in 3D organoid-based models of NPC and highlight the application of this model to drug screening in vitro.
  8. Mol Genet Metab Rep. 2020 Dec;25 100667
      Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in GBA1, which encodes for the lysosomal hydrolase enzyme, β-glucocerebrosidase. The resulting misfolded protein can trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress and an unfolded protein response within the affected cells. The enzyme deficiency leads to accumulation of its substrates, glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine, within macrophage lysosomes and with prominent disease manifestations in macrophage rich tissues. Resultant lysosomal pathology and impaired autophagy leads to redox imbalance, mitochondrial dysfunction and intracellular oxidative stress. Here we have systematically examined a role for oxidative stress in individuals affected by Gaucher disease. We compared multiple oxidative stress biomarkers in plasma and red blood cell samples from patients who are currently untreated, with those who are stable on standard-of-care therapy, and with healthy controls. We found significant differences in key oxidative stress biomarkers in untreated patients compared to healthy control. In treated patients, results generally fell between the controls and the untreated patients. Interestingly, even asymptomatic and minimally symptomatic untreated patients had evidence of significant systemic oxidative stress. We conclude that underlying oxidative stress may contribute to Gaucher disease pathophysiology including long-term adverse outcomes such as Parkinsonism and malignancies. Therapies targeting oxidative stress may prove useful as adjuvant treatments for Gaucher disease and other lysosomal storage disorders.
    Keywords:  ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; Antioxidants; CHITO, chitotriosidase; CNS, central nervous system; ERT, enzyme replacement therapy; GCase, glucocerebrosidase; GD, Gaucher disease; GD1, Type 1 Gaucher disease; GD2, Type 2 Gaucher disease; GD3, Type 3 Gaucher disease; GPG, Glycine-Proline-Glutamate; GPx, glutathione peroxidase; GSH, glutathione; GSSG, inactive, oxidized form of glutathione; Gaucher disease; Glutathione; HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; Lipid peroxidation; Lyso-GL1, glucosylsphingosine; MDA, malondialdehyde; NYU, New York University; Oxidative stress; RBC, red blood cell; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SOD, superoxide dismutase; SRT, substrate reduction therapy; TAC, total antioxidant capacity; TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TRAP, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase; UMN, University of Minnesota
  9. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 583801
      Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) serves as positive regulator of placental nutrient transport and mitochondrial respiration. The role of mTORC1 signaling in modulating other placental functions is largely unexplored. We used gene array following silencing of raptor to identify genes regulated by mTORC1 in primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells. Seven hundred and thirty-nine genes were differentially expressed; 487 genes were down-regulated and 252 up-regulated. Bioinformatic analyses demonstrated that inhibition of mTORC1 resulted in decreased expression of genes encoding ribosomal proteins in the 60S and 40S ribosome subunits. Furthermore, down-regulated genes were functionally enriched in genes involved in eIF2, sirtuin and mTOR signaling, mitochondrial function, and glutamine and zinc transport. Stress response genes were enriched among up-regulated genes following mTORC1 inhibition. The protein expression of ribosomal proteins RPL26 (RPL26) and Ribosomal Protein S10 (RPS10) was decreased and positively correlated to mTORC1 signaling and System A amino acid transport in human placentas collected from pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In conclusion, mTORC1 signaling regulates the expression of trophoblast genes involved in ribosome and protein synthesis, mitochondrial function, lipid metabolism, nutrient transport, and angiogenesis, representing novel links between mTOR signaling and multiple placental functions critical for normal fetal growth and development.
    Keywords:  energy metabolism; gene array; human; maternal–fetal exchange; nutrient sensor; placenta
  10. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2020 ;10 595502
      Lysosomes are an integral part of the intracellular defense system against microbes. Lysosomal homeostasis in the host is adaptable and responds to conditions such as infection or nutritional deprivation. Pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and Salmonella avoid lysosomal targeting by actively manipulating the host vesicular trafficking and reside in a vacuole altered from the default lysosomal trafficking. In this review, the mechanisms by which the respective pathogen containing vacuoles (PCVs) intersect with lysosomal trafficking pathways and maintain their distinctness are discussed. Despite such active inhibition of lysosomal targeting, emerging literature shows that different pathogens or pathogen derived products exhibit a global influence on the host lysosomal system. Pathogen mediated lysosomal enrichment promotes the trafficking of a sub-set of pathogens to lysosomes, indicating heterogeneity in the host-pathogen encounter. This review integrates recent advancements on the global lysosomal alterations upon infections and the host protective role of the lysosomes against these pathogens. The review also briefly discusses the heterogeneity in the lysosomal targeting of these pathogens and the possible mechanisms and consequences.
    Keywords:  M. tuberculosis; Salmonella; heterogeneity; lysosomal homeostasis; lysosomes; transcription factor EB
  11. Biol Cell. 2020 Dec 11.
      The regulation of nutrient uptake into cells is important, as it allows to either increase biomass for cell growth or to preserve homeostasis. A key strategy to adjust cellular nutrient uptake is the reconfiguration of the nutrient transporter repertoire at the plasma membrane by the addition of nutrient transporters through the secretory pathway and by their endocytic removal. In this review we focus on the mechanisms that regulate selective nutrient transporter endocytosis, which is mediated by the α-arrestin protein family. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 14 different α-arrestins (also named arrestin-related trafficking adaptors, ARTs) function as adaptors for the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5. They instruct Rsp5 to ubiquitinate subsets of nutrient transporters to orchestrate their endocytosis. The ART proteins are under multilevel control of the major nutrient sensing systems, including amino acid sensing by the general amino acid control (GAAC) and target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways, and energy sensing by 5'-adenosine-monophosphate-dependent kinase (AMPK). The function of the six human α-arrestins is comparably under-characterized. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about the function, regulation and substrates of yeast ARTs and human α-arrestins, and highlight emerging communalities and general principles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  Arrestin; Endocytosis; Metabolism; Nutrient transporter; Ubiquitin; Ubiquitin ligase; α-arrestin
  12. iScience. 2020 Dec 18. 23(12): 101863
      Persistent activation of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) in diabetes increases the vulnerability of the heart to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We show here that infusion of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) at reperfusion following ischemia reduced myocardial infarct size and apoptosis with restoration of cardiac function in type 1 diabetic rabbits. Likewise, treatment with rapamycin protected hyperglycemic human-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived cardiomyocytes (HG-hiPSC-CMs) following simulated ischemia (SI) and reoxygenation (RO). Phosphorylation of S6 (mTORC1 marker) was increased, whereas AKT phosphorylation (mTORC2 marker) and microRNA-302a were reduced with concomitant increase of its target, PTEN, following I/R injury in diabetic heart and HG-hiPSC-CMs. Rapamycin inhibited mTORC1 and PTEN, but augmented mTORC2 with restoration of miRNA-302a under diabetic conditions. Inhibition of miRNA-302a blocked mTORC2 and abolished rapamycin-induced protection against SI/RO injury in HG-hiPSC-CMs. We conclude that rapamycin attenuates reperfusion injury in diabetic heart through inhibition of PTEN and mTORC1 with restoration of miR-302a-mTORC2 signaling.
    Keywords:  Human Metabolism; Molecular Biology
  13. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2020 Dec 11. pii: S0006-291X(20)32178-1. [Epub ahead of print]534 107-113
      Measurement of autophagic flux in vivo is critical to understand how autophagy can be used to combat disease. Neurodegenerative diseases have a special relationship with autophagy, which makes measurement of autophagy in the brain a significant research priority. Currently, measurement of autophagic flux is possible through use of transgenic constructs, or application of a lysosomal inhibitor such as chloroquine. Unfortunately, chloroquine is not useful for measuring autophagic flux in the brain and the use of transgenic animals necessitates cross-breeding of transgenic strains and maintenance of lines, which is costly. To find a drug that could block lysosomal function in the brain for the measurement of autophagic flux, we selected compounds from the literature that appeared to have similar properties to chloroquine and tested their ability to inhibit autophagic flux in cell culture and in mice. These chemicals included chloroquine, quinacrine, mefloquine, promazine and trifluoperazine. As expected, chloroquine blocked lysosomal degradation of the autophagic protein LC3B-II in cell culture. Quinacrine also inhibited autophagic flux in cell culture. Other compounds tested were not effective. When injected into mice, chloroquine caused accumulation of LC3B-II in heart tissue, and quinacrine was effective at blocking LC3B-II degradation in male, but not female skeletal muscle. None of the compounds tested were useful for measuring autophagic flux in the brain. During this study we also noted that the vehicle DMSO powerfully up-regulated LC3B-II abundance in tissues. This study shows that chloroquine and quinacrine can both be used to measure autophagic flux in cells, and in some peripheral tissues. However, measurement of flux in the brain using lysosomal inhibitors remains an unresolved research challenge.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Brain; Chloroquine; LC3; Lysosome; Quinacrine
  14. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2020 Dec 19.
      Members of the Tre2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC), lysin motif (LysM), domain catalytic (TLDc) protein family are associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, although their exact roles in disease remain unclear. For example, nuclear receptor coactivator 7 (NCOA7) has been associated with autism, although almost nothing is known regarding the mode-of-action of this TLDc protein in the nervous system. Here we investigated the molecular function of NCOA7 in neurons and generated a novel mouse model to determine the consequences of deleting this locus in vivo. We show that NCOA7 interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of the vacuolar (V)-ATPase in the brain and demonstrate that this protein is required for normal assembly and activity of this critical proton pump. Neurons lacking Ncoa7 exhibit altered development alongside defective lysosomal formation and function; accordingly, Ncoa7 deletion animals exhibited abnormal neuronal patterning defects and a reduced expression of lysosomal markers. Furthermore, behavioural assessment revealed anxiety and social defects in mice lacking Ncoa7. In summary, we demonstrate that NCOA7 is an important V-ATPase regulatory protein in the brain, modulating lysosomal function, neuronal connectivity and behaviour; thus our study reveals a molecular mechanism controlling endolysosomal homeostasis that is essential for neurodevelopment.
    Keywords:  Autism; Behaviour; Lysosome; Mouse; Neurodevelopment; Neuron; V-ATPase
  15. Sci Adv. 2020 Dec;pii: eabc7209. [Epub ahead of print]6(51):
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises morphologically and functionally distinct domains: sheets and interconnected tubules. These domains undergo dynamic reshaping in response to changes in the cellular environment. However, the mechanisms behind this rapid remodeling are largely unknown. Here, we report that ER remodeling is actively driven by lysosomes, following lysosome repositioning in response to changes in nutritional status: The anchorage of lysosomes to ER growth tips is critical for ER tubule elongation and connection. We validate this causal link via the chemo- and optogenetically driven repositioning of lysosomes, which leads to both a redistribution of the ER tubules and a change of its global morphology. Therefore, lysosomes sense metabolic change in the cell and regulate ER tubule distribution accordingly. Dysfunction in this mechanism during axonal extension may lead to axonal growth defects. Our results demonstrate a critical role of lysosome-regulated ER dynamics and reshaping in nutrient responses and neuronal development.
  16. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(12): e0243746
      Niemann-Pick disease type C is a rare, fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by massive intracellular accumulation of cholesterol. In most cases, loss-of-function mutations in the NPC1 gene that encodes lysosomal cholesterol transporter NPC1 are responsible for the disease, and more than half of the mutations are considered to interfere with the biogenesis or folding of the protein. We previously identified a series of oxysterol derivatives and phenanthridine-6-one derivatives as pharmacological chaperones, i.e., small molecules that can rescue folding-defective phenotypes of mutated NPC1, opening up an avenue to develop chaperone therapy for Niemann-Pick disease type C. Here, we present an improved image-based screen for NPC1 chaperones and we describe its application for drug-repurposing screening. We identified some azole antifungals, including itraconazole and posaconazole, and a kinase inhibitor, lapatinib, as probable pharmacological chaperones. A photo-crosslinking study confirmed direct binding of itraconazole to a representative folding-defective mutant protein, NPC1-I1061T. Competitive photo-crosslinking experiments suggested that oxysterol-based chaperones and itraconazole share the same or adjacent binding site(s), and the sensitivity of the crosslinking to P691S mutation in the sterol-sensing domain supports the hypothesis that their binding sites are located near this domain. Although the azoles were less effective in reducing cholesterol accumulation than the oxysterol-derived chaperones or an HDAC inhibitor, LBH-589, our findings should offer new starting points for medicinal chemistry efforts to develop better pharmacological chaperones for NPC1.
  17. Brain Sci. 2020 Dec 09. pii: E958. [Epub ahead of print]10(12):
      O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is a ubiquitous enzyme that regulates the addition of β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to serine and threonine residues of target proteins. Autophagy is a cellular process of self-digestion, in which cytoplasmic resources, such as aggregate proteins, toxic compounds, damaged organelles, mitochondria, and lipid molecules, are degraded and recycled. Here, we examined how three different OGT inhibitors, alloxan, BXZ2, and OSMI-1, modulate O-GlcNAcylation in rat cortical neurons, and their autophagic effects were determined by immunoblot and immunofluorescence assays. We found that the treatment of cortical neurons with an OGT inhibitor decreased O-GlcNAcylation levels and increased LC3-II expression. Interestingly, the pre-treatment with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, further increased the expression levels of LC3-II induced by OGT inhibition, implicating the involvement of mTOR signaling in O-GlcNAcylation-dependent autophagy. In contrast, OGT inhibitor-mediated autophagy was significantly attenuated by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), a blocker of autophagosome formation. However, when pre-treated with chloroquine (CQ), a lysosomotropic agent and a late-stage autophagy inhibitor, OGT inhibitors significantly increased LC3-II levels along with LC3 puncta formation, indicating the stimulation of autophagic flux. Lastly, we found that OGT inhibitors significantly decreased the levels of the autophagy substrate p62/SQSTM1 while increasing the expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1). Together, our study reveals that the modulation of O-GlcNAcylation by OGT inhibition regulates mTOR-dependent autophagy in rat cortical neurons.
    Keywords:  LC3 puncta; O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT); O-GlcNAcylation; autophagy; cortical neuron; mTOR
  18. Life Sci Alliance. 2021 Feb;pii: e202000965. [Epub ahead of print]4(2):
      Hunger drives food-seeking behaviour and controls adaptation of organisms to nutrient availability and energy stores. Lipids constitute an essential source of energy in the cell that can be mobilised during fasting by autophagy. Selective degradation of proteins by autophagy is made possible essentially by the presence of LIR and KFERQ-like motifs. Using in silico screening of Drosophila proteins that contain KFERQ-like motifs, we identified and characterized the adaptor protein Arouser, which functions to regulate fat storage and mobilisation and is essential during periods of food deprivation. We show that hypomorphic arouser mutants are not satiated, are more sensitive to food deprivation, and are more aggressive, suggesting an essential role for Arouser in the coordination of metabolism and food-related behaviour. Our analysis shows that Arouser functions in the fat body through nutrient-related signalling pathways and is degraded by endosomal microautophagy. Arouser degradation occurs during feeding conditions, whereas its stabilisation during non-feeding periods is essential for resistance to starvation and survival. In summary, our data describe a novel role for endosomal microautophagy in energy homeostasis, by the degradation of the signalling regulatory protein Arouser.
  19. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 602574
      Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), has been demonstrated to alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Increasing evidence suggests that autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. In this study, we examined whether liraglutide could alleviate hepatic steatosis through autophagy-dependent lipid degradation and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Herein, the effects of liraglutide on NAFLD were evaluated in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model of NAFLD as well as in mouse primary and HepG2 hepatocytes exposed to palmitic acid (PA). The expression of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) was measured in vivo and in vitro. Oil red O staining was performed to detect lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. Electron microscopy was used to observe the morphology of autophagic vesicles and autolysosomes. Autophagic flux activity was measured by infecting HepG2 cells with mRFP-GFP-LC3 adenovirus. The roles of GLP-1R and transcription factor EB (TFEB) in autophagy-lysosomal activation were explored using small interfering RNA. Liraglutide treatment alleviated hepatic steatosis in vivo and in vitro. In models of hepatic steatosis, microtubule-associated protein 1B light chain-3-II (LC3-II) and SQSTM1/P62 levels were elevated in parallel to blockade of autophagic flux. Liraglutide treatment restored autophagic activity by improving lysosomal function. Furthermore, treatment with autophagy inhibitor chloroquine weakened liraglutide-induced autophagy activation and lipid degradation. TFEB has been identified as a key regulator of lysosome biogenesis and autophagy. The protein levels of nuclear TFEB and its downstream targets CTSB and LAMP1 were decreased in hepatocytes treated with PA, and these decreases were reversed by liraglutide treatment. Knockdown of TFEB expression compromised the effects of liraglutide on lysosome biogenesis and hepatic lipid accumulation. Mechanistically, GLP-1R expression was decreased in HFD mouse livers as well as PA-stimulated hepatocytes, and liraglutide treatment reversed the downregulation of GLP-1R expression in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, GLP-1R inhibition could mimic the effect of the TFEB downregulation-mediated decrease in lysosome biogenesis. Thus, our findings suggest that liraglutide attenuated hepatic steatosis via restoring autophagic flux, specifically the GLP-1R-TFEB-mediated autophagy-lysosomal pathway.
    Keywords:  TFEB; autophagy-lysosome; liraglutide; lysosomal biogenesis; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  20. Nature. 2020 Dec 16.
      Autophagy, a process of degradation that occurs via the lysosomal pathway, has an essential role in multiple aspects of immunity, including immune system development, regulation of innate and adaptive immune and inflammatory responses, selective degradation of intracellular microorganisms, and host protection against infectious diseases1,2. Autophagy is known to be induced by stimuli such as nutrient deprivation and suppression of mTOR, but little is known about how autophagosomal biogenesis is initiated in mammalian cells in response to viral infection. Here, using genome-wide short interfering RNA screens, we find that the endosomal protein sorting nexin 5 (SNX5)3,4 is essential for virus-induced, but not for basal, stress- or endosome-induced, autophagy. We show that SNX5 deletion increases cellular susceptibility to viral infection in vitro, and that Snx5 knockout in mice enhances lethality after infection with several human viruses. Mechanistically, SNX5 interacts with beclin 1 and ATG14-containing class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3KC3) complex 1 (PI3KC3-C1), increases the lipid kinase activity of purified PI3KC3-C1, and is required for endosomal generation of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) and recruitment of the PtdIns(3)P-binding protein WIPI2 to virion-containing endosomes. These findings identify a context- and organelle-specific mechanism-SNX5-dependent PI3KC3-C1 activation at endosomes-for initiation of autophagy during viral infection.
  21. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol. 2020 Dec 13. e1684
      Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are a group of rare diseases in which the defect of a lysosomal protein results in a pathogenic accumulation of nonmetabolized products within the cells. The main treatment for LSDs is enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), consisting in the exogenous administration a recombinant protein to replace the defective one. Although several diseases such as Gaucher, Fabry, and Pompe are treated following this approach, ERT is limited to LSDs without severe neuronal affectation because recombinant enzymes do not cross the blood-brain barrier. Moreover, ERT shows additional drawbacks, including enzyme low half-life, poor bioavailability, and immunogenic responses. In this scenario, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems (DDS) have been proposed as solution to overcome these limitations and improve the efficacy of ERT. The present review summarizes distinct approaches followed by our group and collaborators on the use of DDS for restoring lysosomal enzymes in disease-affected cells. During the last decade, we have been exploring different synthetic nanoparticles, from electrolytic complexes, to liposomes and aggresomes, for the delivery of α-galactosidase A (GLA) enzyme. Studies were mainly conducted on Fabry disease models, but results can be also extrapolated to other LSDs, as well as to other diseases treated with alternative therapeutic proteins. The advantages and disadvantages of different DDS, the difficulties from working with very labile and highly glycosylated enzymes and the relevance of using appropriate targeting moieties is thoroughly discussed. Finally, the use of natural DDS, namely extracellular vesicles (EVs) is also introduced. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Neurological Disease Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Cardiovascular Disease Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies.
    Keywords:  Fabry disease; enzyme replacement therapy; lysosomal storage disorders; nanomedicine
  22. Front Microbiol. 2020 ;11 573844
      Phagosome- and xenophagosome-lysosome systems play a critical role in the defense of pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella and S. aureus, in macrophages. A great part of the bacteria escapes from the digestion and can survive through some mechanisms that are still poorly understood and which require further exploration. Here we identified that Salmonella inhibited the expression and activation of TFEB to blunt the functions of lysosomes and defense of clearance by activating caspase-1. The expression and activation of TFEB were enhanced early under the infection of S. aureus, which was followed by shrinkage to weaken lysosomal functions due to the delayed activation of ERK, mTOR, and STAT3. Thus, we have identified novel escape mechanisms for Salmonella and S. aureus to deepen and strengthen our strategies fighting with pathogens.
    Keywords:  S. aureus; Salmonella; TFEB; escape; lysosome
  23. Nucleic Acids Res. 2020 Dec 17. pii: gkaa1189. [Epub ahead of print]
      The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical regulator of cell growth, integrating multiple signalling cues and pathways. Key among the downstream activities of mTOR is the control of the protein synthesis machinery. This is achieved, in part, via the co-ordinated regulation of mRNAs that contain a terminal oligopyrimidine tract (TOP) at their 5'ends, although the mechanisms by which this occurs downstream of mTOR signalling are still unclear. We used RNA-binding protein (RBP) capture to identify changes in the protein-RNA interaction landscape following mTOR inhibition. Upon mTOR inhibition, the binding of LARP1 to a number of mRNAs, including TOP-containing mRNAs, increased. Importantly, non-TOP-containing mRNAs bound by LARP1 are in a translationally-repressed state, even under control conditions. The mRNA interactome of the LARP1-associated protein PABPC1 was found to have a high degree of overlap with that of LARP1 and our data show that PABPC1 is required for the association of LARP1 with its specific mRNA targets. Finally, we demonstrate that mRNAs, including those encoding proteins critical for cell growth and survival, are translationally repressed when bound by both LARP1 and PABPC1.
  24. Cancer Discov. 2020 Dec 16. pii: CD-20-0652. [Epub ahead of print]
      KRAS-mutant colorectal cancers (CRC) are resistant to therapeutics, presenting a significant problem for ~40% of cases. Rapalogs, which inhibit mTORC1 and thus protein synthesis, are significantly less potent in KRAS-mutant CRC. Using Kras-mutant mouse models and mouse- and patient-derived organoids we demonstrate that KRAS with G12D mutation fundamentally rewires translation to increase both bulk and mRNA-specific translation initiation. This occurs via the MNK/eIF4E pathway culminating in sustained expression of c-MYC. By genetic and small molecule targeting of this pathway, we acutely sensitize KRASG12D models to rapamycin via suppression of c-MYC. We show that 45% of CRCs have high signaling through mTORC1 and the MNKs, with this signature correlating with a 3.5-year shorter cancer-specific survival in a subset of patients. This work provides a c-MYC-dependent co-targeting strategy with remarkable potency in multiple Kras-mutant mouse models and metastatic human organoids and identifies a patient population who may benefit from its clinical application.
  25. Sci Rep. 2020 Dec 16. 10(1): 22086
      Effective phagocytosis is crucial for host defense against pathogens. Macrophages entrap pathogens into a phagosome and subsequently acidic lysosomes fuse to the phagosome. Previous studies showed the pivotal role of actin-remodeling mediated by phosphoinositide-related signaling in phagosome formation, but the mechanisms of phagosome-lysosome fusion remain unexplored. Here we show that in complement-mediated phagocytosis, phagosome-lysosome fusion requires the disappearance of F-actin structure surrounding the phagosome and a tyrosine kinase Syk plays a key role in this process. Using macrophage-like differentiated HL60 and Syk-knockout (Syk-KO) HL60 cells, we found that Syk-KO cells showed insufficient phagosome acidification caused by impaired fusion with lysosomes and permitted the survival of Candida albicans in complement-mediated phagocytosis. Phagosome tracking analysis showed that during phagosome internalization process, F-actin surrounding phagosomes disappeared in both parental and Syk-KO cells but this structure was reconstructed immediately only in Syk-KO cells. In addition, F-actin-stabilizing agent induced a similar impairment of phagosome-lysosome fusion. Collectively, Syk-derived signaling facilitates phagosome-lysosome fusion by regulating actin-remodeling.
  26. Nature. 2020 Dec 16.
      Effective pharmacotherapy for major depressive disorder remains a major challenge, as more than 30% of patients are resistant to the first line of treatment (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)1. Sub-anaesthetic doses of ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist2,3, provide rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects in these patients4-6, but the molecular mechanism of these effects remains unclear7,8. Ketamine has been proposed to exert its antidepressant effects through its metabolite (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine ((2R,6R)-HNK)9. The antidepressant effects of ketamine and (2R,6R)-HNK in rodents require activation of the mTORC1 kinase10,11. mTORC1 controls various neuronal functions12, particularly through cap-dependent initiation of mRNA translation via the phosphorylation and inactivation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs)13. Here we show that 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 are key effectors of the antidepressant activity of ketamine and (2R,6R)-HNK, and that ketamine-induced hippocampal synaptic plasticity depends on 4E-BP2 and, to a lesser extent, 4E-BP1. It has been hypothesized that ketamine activates mTORC1-4E-BP signalling in pyramidal excitatory cells of the cortex8,14. To test this hypothesis, we studied the behavioural response to ketamine and (2R,6R)-HNK in mice lacking 4E-BPs in either excitatory or inhibitory neurons. The antidepressant activity of the drugs is mediated by 4E-BP2 in excitatory neurons, and 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 in inhibitory neurons. Notably, genetic deletion of 4E-BP2 in inhibitory neurons induced a reduction in baseline immobility in the forced swim test, mimicking an antidepressant effect. Deletion of 4E-BP2 specifically in inhibitory neurons also prevented the ketamine-induced increase in hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission, and this effect concurred with the inability of ketamine to induce a long-lasting decrease in inhibitory neurotransmission. Overall, our data show that 4E-BPs are central to the antidepressant activity of ketamine.
  27. Sci Rep. 2020 Dec 17. 10(1): 22184
      MAPK pathways regulate different responses yet can share common components. Although core regulators of MAPK pathways are well known, new pathway regulators continue to be identified. Overexpression screens can uncover new roles for genes in biological processes and are well suited to identify essential genes that cannot be evaluated by gene deletion analysis. In this study, a genome-wide screen was performed to identify genes that, when overexpressed, induce a reporter (FUS1-HIS3) that responds to ERK-type pathways (Mating and filamentous growth or fMAPK) but not p38-type pathways (HOG) in yeast. Approximately 4500 plasmids overexpressing individual yeast genes were introduced into strains containing the reporter by high-throughput transformation. Candidate genes were identified by measuring growth as a readout of reporter activity. Fourteen genes were identified and validated by re-testing: two were metabolic controls (HIS3, ATR1), five had established roles in regulating ERK-type pathways (STE4, STE7, BMH1, BMH2, MIG2) and seven represent potentially new regulators of MAPK signaling (RRN6, CIN5, MRS6, KAR2, TFA1, RSC3, RGT2). MRS6 encodes a Rab escort protein and effector of the TOR pathway that plays a role in nutrient signaling. MRS6 overexpression stimulated invasive growth and phosphorylation of the ERK-type fMAPK, Kss1. Overexpression of MRS6 reduced the osmotolerance of cells and phosphorylation of the p38/HOG MAPK, Hog1. Mrs6 interacted with the PAK kinase Ste20 and MAPKK Ste7 by two-hybrid analysis. Based on these results, Mrs6 may selectively propagate an ERK-dependent signal. Identifying new regulators of MAPK pathways may provide new insights into signal integration among core cellular processes and the execution of pathway-specific responses.
  28. J Biol Chem. 2020 Dec 17. pii: jbc.RA120.015992. [Epub ahead of print]
      Once internalized, receptors reach the sorting endosome (SE) and are either targeted for degradation or recycled to the plasma membrane, a process mediated at least in part by tubular recycling endosomes (TRE). TRE may be efficient for sorting due to the ratio of large surface membrane area to luminal volume; following receptor segregation, TRE fission likely releases receptor-laden tubules and vesicles for recycling. Despite the importance of TRE networks for recycling, these unique structures remain poorly understood, and unresolved questions relate to their lipid and protein composition, and biogenesis. Our previous studies have depicted the endocytic protein MICAL-L1 as an essential TRE constituent, and newer studies show a similar localization for the GTP-binding protein Rab10. We demonstrate that TRE are enriched in both phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), supporting the idea of MICAL-L1 recruitment by PA and Rab10 recruitment via PI(4,5)P2. Using siRNA knock-down, we demonstrate that Rab10-marked TRE remain prominent in cells upon MICAL-L1 or Syndapin2 depletion. However, depletion of Rab10 or its interaction partner, EHBP1, led to loss of MICAL-L1-marked TRE. We next used phospholipase D inhibitors to decrease PA synthesis, acutely disrupt TRE, and enable monitoring of TRE regeneration after inhibitor washout. Rab10 depletion prevented TRE regeneration, whereas MICAL-L1 knock-down did not. Surprisingly, EHBP1 depletion did not affect TRE regeneration under these conditions. Overall, our study supports a primary role for Rab10 and the requirement for PA and PI(4,5)P2 in TRE biogenesis and regeneration, with Rab10 likely linking SE to motor proteins and the microtubule network.
    Keywords:  EHBP1; EHD1; MICAL-L1; Phospholipase D; Rab10; Syndapin2; endosome; microscopic imaging; phosphatidic acid; phosphatidylinositol; receptor recycling; small interfering RNA (siRNA); sorting
  29. Nat Metab. 2020 12;2(12): 1472-1481
      Leigh syndrome is a fatal neurometabolic disorder caused by defects in mitochondrial function. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition with rapamycin attenuates disease progression in a mouse model of Leigh syndrome (Ndufs4 knock-out (KO) mouse); however, the mechanism of rescue is unknown. Here we identify protein kinase C (PKC) downregulation as a key event mediating the beneficial effects of rapamycin treatment of Ndufs4 KO mice. Assessing the impact of rapamycin on the brain proteome and phosphoproteome of Ndufs4 KO mice, we find that rapamycin restores mitochondrial protein levels, inhibits signalling through both mTOR complexes and reduces the abundance and activity of multiple PKC isoforms. Administration of PKC inhibitors increases survival, delays neurological deficits, prevents hair loss and decreases inflammation in Ndufs4 KO mice. Thus, PKC may be a viable therapeutic target for treating severe mitochondrial disease.
  30. EMBO J. 2020 Dec 14. e105793
      Mammalian TFEB and TFE3, as well as their ortholog in Caenorhabditis elegans HLH-30, play an important role in mediating cellular response to a variety of stress conditions, including nutrient deprivation, oxidative stress, and pathogen infection. In this study, we identify a novel mechanism of TFEB/HLH-30 regulation through a cysteine-mediated redox switch. Under stress conditions, TFEB-C212 undergoes oxidation, allowing the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds that result in TFEB oligomerization. TFEB oligomers display increased resistance to mTORC1-mediated inactivation and are more stable under prolonged stress conditions. Mutation of the only cysteine residue present in HLH-30 (C284) significantly reduced its activity, resulting in developmental defects and increased pathogen susceptibility in worms. Therefore, cysteine oxidation represents a new type of TFEB post-translational modification that functions as a molecular switch to link changes in redox balance with expression of TFEB/HLH-30 target genes.
    Keywords:  HLH-30; TFE3; TFEB; glutathionylation; lysosomes
  31. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 580814
      The structure and organization of cellular membranes have received intense interest, particularly in investigations of the raft hypothesis. The vast majority of these investigations have focused on the plasma membrane of mammalian cells, yielding significant progress in understanding membrane heterogeneity in terms of lipid composition, molecular structure, dynamic regulation, and functional relevance. In contrast, investigations on lipid organization in other membrane systems have been comparatively scarce, despite the likely relevance of membrane domains in these contexts. In this review, we summarize recent observations on lipid organization in organellar membranes, including endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, endo-lysosomes, lipid droplets, and secreted membranes like lung surfactant, milk fat globule membranes, and viral membranes. Across these non-plasma membrane systems, it seems that the biophysical principles underlying lipid self-organization contribute to lateral domains.
    Keywords:  Golgi; endoplasmic reticulum; lipid raft; membrane domain; organelle