bims-lysosi Biomed News
on Lysosomes and signaling
Issue of 2020‒06‒28
twenty-one papers selected by
Stephanie Fernandes
Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing

  1. J Clin Med. 2020 Jun 19. pii: E1923. [Epub ahead of print]9(6):
    Heaton RA, Heales S, Rahman K, Sexton DW, Hargreaves I.
      Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency currently represents the only treatable mitochondrial disorder, however, little is known about how it may affect other organelles. The lysosome has been found to have a large concentration of CoQ10 localised at its membrane; additionally, it has been suggested that it plays a role in the normal acidification of the lysosomal lumen. As a result, in this study we assessed the effect of CoQ10 deficiency on lysosomal acidification. In order to investigate this, a neuronal cell model of CoQ10 deficiency was established via the treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). This method works through the competitive inhibition of the CoQ10 biosynthetic pathway enzyme, CoQ2. A single 1 mM (5 days) treatment with PABA resulted in a decrease of up to 58% in cellular CoQ10 (p < 0.05). It was found that this resulted in a significant decrease in fluorescence of both the LysoSensor (23%) and LysoTracker (35%) probes used to measure lysosomal pH (p < 0.05). It was found that subsequent treatment with CoQ10 (5 µM, 3 days) was able to restore cellular CoQ10 concentration (p < 0.005), which was associated with an increase in fluorescence from both probes to around 90% of controls (p < 0.05), suggesting a restoration of lysosomal pH. This study provides insights into the association between lysosomal pH and cellular CoQ10 status and the possibility that a deficit in the status of this isoprenoid may result in an impairment of lysosomal acidification.
    Keywords:  coenzyme Q10; competitive inhibition; lysosomal pH; lysosome; mitochondrial; organelles
  2. Brain. 2020 Jun 23. pii: awaa154. [Epub ahead of print]
    Feng T, Sheng RR, Solé-Domènech S, Ullah M, Zhou X, Mendoza CS, Enriquez LCM, Katz II, Paushter DH, Sullivan PM, Wu X, Maxfield FR, Hu F.
      TMEM106B encodes a lysosomal membrane protein and was initially identified as a risk factor for frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Recently, a dominant D252N mutation in TMEM106B was shown to cause hypomyelinating leukodystrophy. However, how TMEM106B regulates myelination is still unclear. Here we show that TMEM106B is expressed and localized to the lysosome compartment in oligodendrocytes. TMEM106B deficiency in mice results in myelination defects with a significant reduction of protein levels of proteolipid protein (PLP) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), the membrane proteins found in the myelin sheath. The levels of many lysosome proteins are significantly decreased in the TMEM106B-deficient Oli-neu oligodendroglial precursor cell line. TMEM106B physically interacts with the lysosomal protease cathepsin D and is required to maintain proper cathepsin D levels in oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we found that TMEM106B deficiency results in lysosome clustering in the perinuclear region and a decrease in lysosome exocytosis and cell surface PLP levels. Moreover, we found that the D252N mutation abolished lysosome enlargement and lysosome acidification induced by wild-type TMEM106B overexpression. Instead, it stimulates lysosome clustering near the nucleus as seen in TMEM106B-deficient cells. Our results support that TMEM106B regulates myelination through modulation of lysosome function in oligodendrocytes.
    Keywords:  TMEM106B; lysosome; myelination; oligodendrocytes
  3. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jun 20. pii: E4392. [Epub ahead of print]21(12):
    Hraběta J, Belhajová M, Šubrtová H, Merlos Rodrigo MA, Heger Z, Eckschlager T.
      Resistance to chemotherapeutics and targeted drugs is one of the main problems in successful cancer therapy. Various mechanisms have been identified to contribute to drug resistance. One of those mechanisms is lysosome-mediated drug resistance. Lysosomes have been shown to trap certain hydrophobic weak base chemotherapeutics, as well as some tyrosine kinase inhibitors, thereby being sequestered away from their intracellular target site. Lysosomal sequestration is in most cases followed by the release of their content from the cell by exocytosis. Lysosomal accumulation of anticancer drugs is caused mainly by ion-trapping, but active transport of certain drugs into lysosomes was also described. Lysosomal low pH, which is necessary for ion-trapping is achieved by the activity of the V-ATPase. This sequestration can be successfully inhibited by lysosomotropic agents and V-ATPase inhibitors in experimental conditions. Clinical trials have been performed only with lysosomotropic drug chloroquine and their results were less successful. The aim of this review is to give an overview of lysosomal sequestration and expression of acidifying enzymes as yet not well known mechanism of cancer cell chemoresistance and about possibilities how to overcome this form of resistance.
    Keywords:  V-ATPase; V-ATPase inhibitors; chemoresistance of cancer cells; lysosomal sequestration; lysosomotropic agents; metallothioneins
  4. Autophagy. 2020 Jun 23. 1-18
    Almacellas E, Pelletier J, Day C, Ambrosio S, Tauler A, Mauvezin C.
      Lysosomes, as primary degradative organelles, are the endpoint of different converging pathways, including macroautophagy. To date, lysosome degradative function has been mainly studied in interphase cells, while their role during mitosis remains controversial. Mitosis dictates the faithful transmission of genetic material among generations, and perturbations of mitotic division lead to chromosomal instability, a hallmark of cancer. Heretofore, correct mitotic progression relies on the orchestrated degradation of mitotic factors, which was mainly attributed to ubiquitin-triggered proteasome-dependent degradation. Here, we show that mitotic transition also relies on lysosome-dependent degradation, as impairment of lysosomes increases mitotic timing and leads to mitotic errors, thus promoting chromosomal instability. Furthermore, we identified several putative lysosomal targets in mitotic cells. Among them, WAPL, a cohesin regulatory protein, emerged as a novel SQSTM1-interacting protein for targeted lysosomal degradation. Finally, we characterized an atypical nuclear phenotype, the toroidal nucleus, as a novel biomarker for genotoxic screenings. Our results establish lysosome-dependent degradation as an essential event to prevent chromosomal instability.ABBREVIATIONS: 3D: three-dimensional; APC/C: anaphase-promoting complex; ARL8B: ADP ribosylation factor like GTPase 8B; ATG: autophagy-related; BORC: BLOC-one-related complex; CDK: cyclin-dependent kinase; CENPE: centromere protein E; CIN: chromosomal instability; ConcA: concanamycin A; CQ: chloroquine; DAPI: 4,6-diamidino-2-penylinole; FTI: farnesyltransferase inhibitors; GFP: green fluorescent protein; H2B: histone 2B; KIF: kinesin family member; LAMP2: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MEF: mouse embryonic fibroblast; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; PDS5B: PDS5 cohesin associated factor B; SAC: spindle assembly checkpoint; PLEKHM2: pleckstrin homology and RUN domain containing M2; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; UPS: ubiquitin-proteasome system; v-ATPase: vacuolar-type H+-translocating ATPase; WAPL: WAPL cohesion release factor.
    Keywords:  Chromosomal instability; chromosomes segregation; lysosome; mitosis; selective autophagy; toroidal nucleus
  5. Sci Rep. 2020 Jun 24. 10(1): 10278
    Okarmus J, Bogetofte H, Schmidt SI, Ryding M, García-López S, Ryan BJ, Martínez-Serrano A, Hyttel P, Meyer M.
      Mutations in the PARK2 gene encoding parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, are associated with autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). While parkin has been implicated in the regulation of mitophagy and proteasomal degradation, the precise mechanism leading to neurodegeneration in both sporadic and familial PD upon parkin loss-of-function remains unknown. Cultures of isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines with and without PARK2 knockout (KO) enable mechanistic studies of the effect of parkin deficiency in human dopaminergic neurons. We used such cells to investigate the impact of PARK2 KO on the lysosomal compartment and found a clear link between parkin deficiency and lysosomal alterations. PARK2 KO neurons exhibited a perturbed lysosomal morphology with enlarged electron-lucent lysosomes and an increased lysosomal content, which was exacerbated by mitochondrial stress and could be ameliorated by antioxidant treatment. We also found decreased lysosomal enzyme activity and autophagic perturbations, suggesting an impairment of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway in parkin-deficient cells. Interestingly, activity of the GBA-encoded enzyme, β-glucocerebrosidase, was increased, suggesting the existence of a compensatory mechanism. In conclusion, our data provide a unique characterization of the morphology, content, and function of lysosomes in PARK2 KO neurons and reveal an important new connection between mitochondrial dysfunction and lysosomal dysregulation in PD pathogenesis.
  6. ACS Nano. 2020 Jun 22.
    Roy S, Zhu D, Parak WJ, Feliu N.
      Poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) is frequently used as transfection agent for delivery of nucleic acids to the cytosol. After endocytosis of complexes of PEI and nucleic acids, a fraction of them can escape endosomes/lysosomes and reach the cytosol. One proposed mechanism is the so-called proton sponge effect, which involves buffering of the lysosomal pH by PEI. There are however also reports which report absence of such buffering. In this work, the buffering capacity of poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) of the lysosomal pH was investigated in situ by combining PEI and pH-sensing ratiometric fluorophores in a single carrier particle. As carrier particles hereby capsules were used, which were composed out of polyelectrolyte walls based on layer-by-layer assembly, with the pH sensors located inside the capsule cavities. In this way, the local pH around individual particles could be monitored during the whole process of endocytosis. Results demonstrate the pH buffering capability of PEI, which prevents the strong acidification of lysosomes containing PEI. This effect was related to the presence of PEI and was not related to the overall charge of the carrier particles. In case PEI was added in molecular form, no buffering of pH could be observed by endocytosed encapsulated pH-sensing ratiometric fluorophores. Colocalization experiments demonstrated that this was due to the fact that internalized free PEI and the encapsulated pH-sensing ratiometric fluorophores were not located in the same lysosomes. Missing colocalization might explain why also in other studies no pH-buffering was found, which in case of co-delivery of PEI and the pH-sensors could be clearly observed.
  7. Sci Rep. 2020 Jun 25. 10(1): 10321
    Huang JY, Kan SH, Sandfeld EK, Dalton ND, Rangel AD, Chan Y, Davis-Turak J, Neumann J, Wang RY.
      Infantile-onset Pompe Disease (IOPD), caused by mutations in lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase (Gaa), manifests rapidly progressive fatal cardiac and skeletal myopathy incompletely attenuated by synthetic GAA intravenous infusions. The currently available murine model does not fully simulate human IOPD, displaying skeletal myopathy with late-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Bearing a Cre-LoxP induced exonic disruption of the murine Gaa gene, this model is also not amenable to genome-editing based therapeutic approaches. We report the early onset of severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a novel murine IOPD model generated utilizing CRISPR-Cas9 homology-directed recombination to harbor the orthologous Gaa mutation c.1826dupA (p.Y609*), which causes human IOPD. We demonstrate the dual sgRNA approach with a single-stranded oligonucleotide donor is highly specific for the Gaac.1826 locus without genomic off-target effects or rearrangements. Cardiac and skeletal muscle were deficient in Gaa mRNA and enzymatic activity and accumulated high levels of glycogen. The mice demonstrated skeletal muscle weakness but did not experience early mortality. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the CRISPR-Cas9 generated Gaac.1826dupA murine model recapitulates hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and skeletal muscle weakness of human IOPD, indicating its utility for evaluation of novel therapeutics.
  8. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Jun 18. pii: E1621. [Epub ahead of print]12(6):
    Beauvarlet J, Nath Das R, Alvarez-Valadez K, Martins I, Muller A, Darbo E, Richard E, Soubeyran P, Kroemer G, Guillon J, Mergny JL, Djavaheri-Mergny M.
      Lysosomes play a key role in regulating cell death in response to cancer therapies, yet little is known on the possible role of lysosomes in the therapeutic efficacy of G-quadruplex DNA ligands (G4L) in cancer cells. Here, we investigate the relationship between the modulation of lysosomal membrane damage and the degree to which cancer cells respond to the cytotoxic effects of G-quadruplex ligands belonging to the triarylpyridine family. Our results reveal that the lead compound of this family, 20A promotes the enlargement of the lysosome compartment as well as the induction of lysosome-relevant mRNAs. Interestingly, the combination of 20A and chloroquine (an inhibitor of lysosomal functions) led to a significant induction of lysosomal membrane permeabilization coupled to massive cell death. Similar effects were observed when chloroquine was added to three new triarylpyridine derivatives. Our findings thus uncover the lysosomal effects of triarylpyridines compounds and delineate a rationale for combining these compounds with chloroquine to increase their anticancer effects.
    Keywords:  G-quadruplex ligand; Lysosome; cancer; cell death; lysosomal membrane permeabilization; resistance to therapy; triarylpyridine compounds
  9. Sci Signal. 2020 Jun 23. pii: eaba1015. [Epub ahead of print]13(637):
    Thakore P, Pritchard HAT, Griffin CS, Yamasaki E, Drumm BT, Lane C, Sanders KM, Feng Earley Y, Earley S.
      TRPML1 (transient receptor potential mucolipin 1) is a Ca2+-permeable, nonselective cation channel localized to the membranes of endosomes and lysosomes and is not present or functional on the plasma membrane. Ca2+ released from endosomes and lysosomes into the cytosol through TRPML1 channels is vital for trafficking, acidification, and other basic functions of these organelles. Here, we investigated the function of TRPML1 channels in fully differentiated contractile vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In live-cell confocal imaging studies, we found that most endosomes and lysosomes in freshly isolated SMCs from cerebral arteries were essentially immobile. Using nanoscale super-resolution microscopy, we found that TRPML1 channels present in late endosomes and lysosomes formed stable complexes with type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2) on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Spontaneous Ca2+ signals resulting from the release of SR Ca2+ through RyR2s ("Ca2+ sparks") and corresponding Ca2+-activated K+ channel activity are critically important for balancing vasoconstriction. We found that these signals were essentially absent in SMCs from TRPML1-knockout (Mcoln1-/- ) mice. Using ex vivo pressure myography, we found that loss of this critical signaling cascade exaggerated the vasoconstrictor responses of cerebral and mesenteric resistance arteries. In vivo radiotelemetry studies showed that Mcoln1-/- mice were spontaneously hypertensive. We conclude that TRPML1 is crucial for the initiation of Ca2+ sparks in SMCs and the regulation of vascular contractility and blood pressure.
  10. Dis Model Mech. 2020 Jun 25. pii: dmm.044230. [Epub ahead of print]
    Mepyans M, Andrzejczuk L, Sosa J, Smith S, Herron S, DeRosa S, Slaugenhaupt S, Misko A, Grishchuk Y, Kiselyov K.
      Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a lysosomal disease caused by mutations in the MCOLN1 gene that encodes the endolysosomal transient receptor potential channel mucolipin-1, or TRPML1. MLIV results in developmental delay, motor and cognitive impairments, and vision loss. Brain abnormalities include thinning and malformation of the corpus callosum, white matter abnormalities, accumulation of undegraded intracellular "storage" material and cerebellar atrophy in older patients. Identification of the early events in the MLIV course is key to understanding the disease and deploying therapies. Mcoln1 -/- mouse model reproduces all major aspects of the human disease. We have previously reported hypomyelination in the MLIV mouse brain. Here we investigated the onset of hypomyelination and compared oligodendrocyte maturation between the cortex/forebrain and cerebellum. We found significant delays in expression of mature oligodendrocyte markers Mag, Mbp, and Mobp in the Mcoln1 -/- cortex manifesting as early as 10 days after birth and persisting later in life. Such delays were less pronounced in the cerebellum. Despite our previous finding of diminished accumulation of the ferritin-bound iron in the Mcoln1 -/- brain, we report no significant changes in expression of the cytosolic iron reporters, suggesting that iron-handling deficits in MLIV occur in the lysosomes and do not involve broad iron deficiency. These data demonstrate very early deficits of oligodendrocyte maturation and critical regional differences in myelination between the forebrain and cerebellum in the mouse model of MLIV. Furthermore, they establish quantitative readouts of the MLIV impact on early brain development, useful to gauge efficacy in pre-clinical trials.
    Keywords:  Lysosome; Mucolipidosis IV; Mucolipin-1; Myelination; Oligodendrocyte; TRPML1
  11. J Cell Physiol. 2020 Jun 24.
    Moccia F, Zuccolo E, Di Nezza F, Pellavio G, Faris PS, Negri S, De Luca A, Laforenza U, Ambrosone L, Rosti V, Guerra G.
      Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is the most recently discovered Ca2+ -releasing messenger that increases the intracellular Ca2+ concentration by mobilizing the lysosomal Ca2+ store through two-pore channels 1 (TPC1) and 2 (TPC2). NAADP-induced lysosomal Ca2+ release regulates multiple endothelial functions, including nitric oxide release and proliferation. A sizeable acidic Ca2+ pool endowed with TPC1 is also present in human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), which represent the only known truly endothelial precursors. Herein, we sought to explore the role of the lysosomal Ca2+ store and TPC1 in circulating ECFCs by harnessing Ca2+ imaging and molecular biology techniques. The lysosomotropic agent, Gly-Phe β-naphthylamide, and nigericin, which dissipates the proton gradient which drives Ca2+ sequestration by acidic organelles, caused endogenous Ca2+ release in the presence of a replete inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3 )-sensitive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ pool. Likewise, the amount of ER releasable Ca2+ was reduced by disrupting lysosomal Ca2+ content. Liposomal delivery of NAADP induced a transient Ca2+ signal that was abolished by disrupting the lysosomal Ca2+ store and by pharmacological and genetic blockade of TPC1. Pharmacological manipulation revealed that NAADP-induced Ca2+ release also required ER-embedded InsP3 receptors. Finally, NAADP-induced lysosomal Ca2+ release was found to trigger vascular endothelial growth factor-induced intracellular Ca2+ oscillations and proliferation, while it did not contribute to adenosine-5'-trisphosphate-induced Ca2+ signaling. These findings demonstrated that NAADP-induced TPC1-mediated Ca2+ release can selectively be recruited to induce the Ca2+ response to specific cues in circulating ECFCs.
    Keywords:  Ca2+ signaling; NAADP; VEGF; endothelial colony-forming cells; two-pore channel 1
  12. Front Neurosci. 2020 ;14 556
    Rivero-Ríos P, Romo-Lozano M, Fasiczka R, Naaldijk Y, Hilfiker S.
      Mutations in the gene encoding for leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are associated with both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 encodes a large protein comprised of a GTPase and a kinase domain. All pathogenic variants converge on enhancing LRRK2 kinase substrate phosphorylation, and distinct LRRK2 kinase inhibitors are currently in various stages of clinical trials. Although the precise pathophysiological functions of LRRK2 remain largely unknown, PD-associated mutants have been shown to alter various intracellular vesicular trafficking pathways, especially those related to endolysosomal protein degradation events. In addition, biochemical studies have identified a subset of Rab proteins, small GTPases required for all vesicular trafficking steps, as substrate proteins for the LRRK2 kinase activity in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the impact of such phosphorylation on neurodegenerative mechanisms underlying LRRK2-related PD, especially with respect to deregulated Rab-mediated endolysosomal membrane trafficking and protein degradation events. Surprisingly, a significant proportion of PD patients due to LRRK2 mutations display neuronal cell loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta in the absence of any apparent α-synuclein-containing Lewy body neuropathology. These findings suggest that endolysosomal alterations mediated by pathogenic LRRK2 per se are not sufficient to cause α-synuclein aggregation. Here, we will review current knowledge about the link between pathogenic LRRK2, Rab protein phosphorylation and endolysosomal trafficking alterations, and we will propose a testable working model whereby LRRK2-related PD may present with variable LB pathology.
    Keywords:  LRRK2; Parkinson’s disease; Rab protein; glucocerebrosidase; lysosomal storage disorder; lysosome; phosphorylation; α-synuclein
  13. Nat Commun. 2020 Jun 26. 11(1): 3258
    Silva MC, Nandi GA, Tentarelli S, Gurrell IK, Jamier T, Lucente D, Dickerson BC, Brown DG, Brandon NJ, Haggarty SJ.
      Tauopathies are neurodegenerative diseases associated with accumulation of abnormal tau protein in the brain. Patient iPSC-derived neuronal cell models replicate disease-relevant phenotypes ex vivo that can be pharmacologically targeted for drug discovery. Here, we explored autophagy as a mechanism to reduce tau burden in human neurons and, from a small-molecule screen, identify the mTOR inhibitors OSI-027, AZD2014 and AZD8055. These compounds are more potent than rapamycin, and robustly downregulate phosphorylated and insoluble tau, consequently reducing tau-mediated neuronal stress vulnerability. MTORC1 inhibition and autophagy activity are directly linked to tau clearance. Notably, single-dose treatment followed by washout leads to a prolonged reduction of tau levels and toxicity for 12 days, which is mirrored by a sustained effect on mTORC1 inhibition and autophagy. This new insight into the pharmacodynamics of mTOR inhibitors in regulation of neuronal autophagy may contribute to development of therapies for tauopathies.
  14. Elife. 2020 Jun 24. pii: e57495. [Epub ahead of print]9
    Burns JC, Cotleur B, Walther DM, Bajrami B, Rubino SJ, Wei R, Franchimont N, Cotman SL, Ransohoff RM, Mingueneau M.
      To date, microglia subsets in the healthy CNS have not been identified. Utilizing autofluorescence (AF) as a discriminating parameter, we identified two novel microglia subsets in both mice and non-human primates, termed autofluorescence-positive (AF+) and negative (AF-). While their proportion remained constant throughout most adult life, the AF signal linearly and specifically increased in AF+ microglia with age and correlated with a commensurate increase in size and complexity of lysosomal storage bodies, as detected by transmission electron microscopy and LAMP1 levels. Post-depletion repopulation kinetics revealed AF- cells as likely precursors of AF+ microglia. At the molecular level, the proteome of AF+ microglia showed overrepresentation of endolysosomal, autophagic, catabolic, and mTOR-related proteins. Mimicking the effect of advanced aging, genetic disruption of lysosomal function accelerated the accumulation of storage bodies in AF+ cells and led to impaired microglia physiology and cell death, suggestive of a mechanistic convergence between aging and lysosomal storage disorders.
    Keywords:  immunology; inflammation; mouse; neuroscience; rhesus macaque
  15. Geroscience. 2020 Jun 23.
    Mota-Martorell N, Jove M, Pradas I, Berdún R, Sanchez I, Naudi A, Gari E, Barja G, Pamplona R.
      Species longevity varies significantly across animal species, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent studies and omics approaches suggest that phenotypic traits of longevity could converge in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway. The present study focuses on the comparative approach in heart tissue from 8 mammalian species with a ML ranging from 3.5 to 46 years. Gene expression, protein content, and concentration of regulatory metabolites of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) were measured using droplet digital PCR, western blot, and mass spectrometry, respectively. Our results demonstrate (1) the existence of differences in species-specific gene expression and protein content of mTORC1, (2) that the achievement of a high longevity phenotype correlates with decreased and inhibited mTORC1, (3) a decreased content of mTORC1 activators in long-lived animals, and (4) that these differences are independent of phylogeny. Our findings, taken together, support an important role for mTORC1 downregulation in the evolution of long-lived mammals.
    Keywords:  Arginine; FKBP12; Methionine cycle metabolites; PRAS40; Raptor; mTOR
  16. Cell Rep. 2020 Jun 23. pii: S2211-1247(20)30787-7. [Epub ahead of print]31(12): 107806
    Triki M, Rinaldi G, Planque M, Broekaert D, Winkelkotte AM, Maier CR, Janaki Raman S, Vandekeere A, Van Elsen J, Orth MF, Grünewald TGP, Schulze A, Fendt SM.
      Cancer cells display an increased plasticity in their lipid metabolism, which includes the conversion of palmitate to sapienate via the enzyme fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2). We find that FADS2 expression correlates with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) activity across multiple cancer types and is prognostic in some cancer types. Accordingly, activating mTOR signaling by deleting tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (Tsc2) or overexpression of SREBP-1/2 is sufficient to increase FADS2 mRNA expression and sapienate metabolism in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and U87 glioblastoma cells, respectively. Conversely, inhibiting mTOR signaling decreases FADS2 expression and sapienate biosynthesis in MEFs with Tsc2 deletion, HUH7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and orthotopic HUH7 liver xenografts. In conclusion, we show that mTOR signaling and SREBP activity are sufficient to activate sapienate metabolism by increasing FADS2 expression. Consequently, targeting mTOR signaling can reduce sapienate metabolism in vivo.
    Keywords:  FADS2; SCD1; SREBP; cancer; fatty acid metabolism; glioblastoma; hepatocellular carcinoma; mTOR; palmitate; palmitoleate; sapienate
  17. Nat Metab. 2019 Nov;1(11): 1127-1140
    Wang C, Haas MA, Yang F, Yeo S, Okamoto T, Chen S, Wen J, Sarma P, Plas DR, Guan JL.
      Although mTORC1 negatively regulates autophagy in cultured cells, how autophagy impacts mTORC1 signaling, in particular in vivo, is less clear. Here we show that autophagy supports mTORC1 hyperactivation in NSCs lacking Tsc1, thereby promoting defects in NSC maintenance, differentiation, tumourigenesis, and the formation of the neurodevelopmental lesion of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). Analysing mice that lack Tsc1 and the essential autophagy gene Fip200 in NSCs we find that TSC-deficient cells require autophagy to maintain mTORC1 hyperactivation under energy stress conditions, likely to provide lipids via lipophagy to serve as an alternative energy source for OXPHOS. In vivo, inhibition of lipophagy or its downstream catabolic pathway reverses defective phenotypes caused by Tsc1-null NSCs and reduces tumorigenesis in mouse models. These results reveal a cooperative function of selective autophagy in coupling energy availability with TSC pathogenesis and suggest a potential new therapeutic strategy to treat TSC patients.
    Keywords:  autophagy; energy stress; lipid catabolism; mTORC1; neural stem cells; tumorigenesis
  18. Mol Cancer Res. 2020 Jun 25. pii: molcanres.0088.2020. [Epub ahead of print]
    Mohammad AH, Kim SH, Bertos N, El-Assaad W, Nandi I, Smith H, Yang J, Chen O, Gamache I, Rao T, Gagnon B, Gruosso T, Tremblay ML, Sonenberg N, Guiot MC, Muller W, Park M, Teodoro JG.
      PTEN loss-of-function contributes to hyperactivation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and to drug resistance in breast cancer. Unchecked PI3K pathway signaling increases activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which promotes tumorigenicity. Several studies have suggested that vacuolar (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) complex activity is regulated by PI3K signaling. In this study, we showed that loss of PTEN elevated V-ATPase activity. Enhanced V-ATPase activity was mediated by increased expression of the ATPase H+ Transporting Accessory Protein 2 (ATP6AP2), also known as the Prorenin Receptor (PRR). PRR is cleaved into a secreted extracellular fragment (sPRR) and an intracellular fragment (M8.9) that remains associated with the V-ATPase complex. Reduced PTEN expression increased V-ATPase complex activity in a PRR-dependent manner. Breast cancer cell lines with reduced PTEN expression demonstrated increased PRR expression. Similarly, PRR expression became elevated upon PTEN deletion in a mouse model of breast cancer. Interestingly, concentration of sPRR was elevated in the plasma of breast cancer patients and correlated with tumor burden in HER2-enriched cancers. Moreover, PRR was essential for proper HER2 receptor expression, localization and signaling. PRR knockdown attenuated HER2 signaling and resulted in reduced Akt and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation, and in lower mTORC1 activity. Overall, our study demonstrates a mechanism by which PTEN loss in breast cancer can potentiate multiple signaling pathways through upregulation of the V-ATPase complex. Implications: Our study contributed to the understanding of the role of the V-ATPase complex in breast cancer cell tumorigenesis and provided a potential biomarker in breast cancer.
  19. Neurobiol Dis. 2020 Jun 20. pii: S0969-9961(20)30250-3. [Epub ahead of print] 104975
    Klofas LK, Short BP, Snow JP, Sinnaeve J, Rushing GV, Westlake G, Weinstein W, Ihrie RA, Ess KC, Carson RP.
      Mutations in the DEPDC5 gene can cause epilepsy, including forms with and without brain malformations. The goal of this study was to investigate the contribution of DEPDC5 gene dosage to the underlying neuropathology of DEPDC5-related epilepsies. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from epilepsy patients harboring heterozygous loss of function mutations in DEPDC5. Patient iPSCs displayed increases in both phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 and proliferation rate, consistent with elevated mTORC1 activation. In line with these findings, we observed increased soma size in patient iPSC-derived cortical neurons that was rescued with rapamycin treatment. These data indicate that human cells heterozygous for DEPDC5 loss-of-function mutations are haploinsufficient for control of mTORC1 signaling. Our findings suggest that human pathology differs from mouse models of DEPDC5-related epilepsies, which do not show consistent phenotypic differences in heterozygous neurons, and support the need for human-based models to affirm and augment the findings from animal models of DEPDC5-related epilepsy.
    Keywords:  Disease modeling; Epilepsy; Induced pluripotent stem cells; Molecular genetics; Neurodevelopment; Neuronal differentiation; mTOR
  20. Cell Rep. 2020 Jun 23. pii: S2211-1247(20)30791-9. [Epub ahead of print]31(12): 107810
    Taylor HE, Calantone N, Lichon D, Hudson H, Clerc I, Campbell EM, D'Aquila RT.
      Cellular metabolism governs the susceptibility of CD4 T cells to HIV-1 infection. Multiple early post-fusion steps of HIV-1 replication are restricted in resting peripheral blood CD4 T cells; however, molecular mechanisms that underlie metabolic control of these steps remain undefined. Here, we show that mTOR activity following T cell stimulatory signals overcomes metabolic restrictions in these cells by enabling the expansion of dNTPs to fuel HIV-1 reverse transcription (RT), as well as increasing acetyl-CoA to stabilize microtubules that transport RT products. We find that catalytic mTOR inhibition diminishes the expansion of pools of both of these metabolites by limiting glucose and glutamine utilization in several pathways, thereby suppressing HIV-1 infection. We demonstrate how mTOR-coordinated biosyntheses enable the early steps of HIV-1 replication, add metabolic mechanisms by which mTOR inhibitors block HIV-1, and identify some metabolic modules downstream of mTOR as druggable targets for HIV-1 inhibition.
    Keywords:  CD4 T cells; HIV-1; HIV-1 replication; host-virus interactions; immunometabolism; mTOR; mTORC1; mTORC2; microtubule stabilization; reverse transcription
  21. Cell Rep. 2020 Jun 23. pii: S2211-1247(20)30760-9. [Epub ahead of print]31(12): 107780
    Di Nardo A, Lenoël I, Winden KD, Rühmkorf A, Modi ME, Barrett L, Ercan-Herbst E, Venugopal P, Behne R, Lopes CAM, Kleiman RJ, Bettencourt-Dias M, Sahin M.
      Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neurogenetic disorder that leads to elevated mechanistic targeting of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity. Cilia can be affected by mTORC1 signaling, and ciliary deficits are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we examine whether neuronal cilia are affected in TSC. We show that cortical tubers from TSC patients and mutant mouse brains have fewer cilia. Using high-content image-based assays, we demonstrate that mTORC1 activity inversely correlates with ciliation in TSC1/2-deficient neurons. To investigate the mechanistic relationship between mTORC1 and cilia, we perform a phenotypic screen for mTORC1 inhibitors with TSC1/2-deficient neurons. We identify inhibitors of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) that suppress mTORC1 through regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. Pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 rescues ciliation through downregulation of Hsp27. Our study uncovers the heat-shock machinery as a druggable signaling node to restore mTORC1 activity and cilia due to loss of TSC1/2, and it provides broadly applicable platforms for studying TSC-related neuronal dysfunction.
    Keywords:  17-AGG; Hsp27; Hsp90; TSC; autism; brain; cilia; ciliopathy; mTOR