bims-lorfki Biomed News
on Long non-coding RNA functions in the kidney
Issue of 2020‒09‒20
three papers selected by
Nikita Dewani
Max Delbrück Centre for Molecular Medicine

  1. Biomark Res. 2020 ;8 41
      Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent an important class of RNAs comprising more than 200 nucleotides, which are produced by RNA polymerase II. Although lacking an open reading framework and protein-encoding activity, lncRNAs can mediate endogenous gene expression by serving as chromatin remodeler, transcriptional or post-transcriptional modulator, and splicing regulator during gene modification. In recent years, increasing evidence shows the significance of lncRNAs in many malignancies, with vital roles in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Moreover, lncRNAs were also considered potential diagnostic and prognostic markers in cancer. The lncRNA small nuclear RNA host gene 16 (SNHG16), found on chromosome 17q25.1, represents a novel tumor-associated lncRNA. SNHG16 was recently found to exhibit dysregulated expression in a variety of malignancies. There are growing evidence of SNHG16's involvement in characteristics of cancer, including proliferation, apoptosis, together with its involvement in chemoresistance. In addition, SNHG16 has been described as a promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in cancer patients. The current review briefly summarizes recently reported findings about SNHG16 and discuss its expression, roles, mechanisms, and diagnostic and prognostic values in human cancers.
    Keywords:  Biomarker; Human cancer; Long non-coding RNA; Mechanism; SNHG16
  2. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2020 ;14 3547-3557
      Background: Renal fibrosis is a frequent pathway leading to end-stage kidney dysfunction. In addition, renal fibrosis is the ultimate manifestation of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to be involved in occurrence of renal fibrosis, and lncRNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) has been reported to act as a key biomarker in renal diseases. However, the role of PVT1 in renal fibrosis remains unclear.Materials and Methods: HK-2 cells were treated with TGF-β1 to mimic renal fibrosis in vitro. Gene and protein expressions in HK-2 cells were measured by qRT-PCR and Western-blot, respectively. ELISA was used to test the level of creatinine (CR) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in serum of mice. Additionally, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal fibrosis mice model was established to investigate the effect of PVT1 on renal fibrosis in vivo.
    Results: PVT1 was upregulated in TGF-β1-treated HK-2 cells. In addition, TGF-β1-induced upregulation of α-SMA and fibronectin in HK-2 cells was significantly reversed by PVT1 knockdown. Meanwhile, PVT1 bound to miR-181a-5p in HK-2 cells. Moreover, miR-181a-5p directly targeted TGF-βR1. Furthermore, miR-181a-5p antagonist could significantly reverse the anti-fibrotic effect of PVT1 knockdown. Besides, knockdown of PVT1 notably attenuated the symptom of renal fibrosis in vivo.
    Conclusion: Knockdown of PVT1 significantly inhibited the progression of renal fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Thus, PVT1 may serve as a potential target for the treatment of renal fibrosis.
    Keywords:  PVT1; TGF-βR1; miR-181a-5p; renal fibrosis
  3. J Cell Mol Med. 2020 Sep 14.
      Exosomes are extracellular vesicles secreted by donor cells, and one of the important roles of exosomes is intercellular communication. Exosomes contain proteins, lipids, DNA and RNA. The components exert their functions by modulating the cellular processes of recipient cells. Exosomal long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important components and play multiple roles in tumorigenesis and tumour development. In this review, we summarize the biological functions and clinical applications of exosomal lncRNAs in cancer. Exosomal lncRNAs regulate cell proliferation, metastasis, drug resistance and angiogenesis in human cancers. Since exosomal lncRNAs are associated with clinicopathological characteristics of cancer, these might be potentially useful biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. Exosomal lncRNAs participate in multiple processes of cancer progression, which makes them promising therapeutic targets for cancer treatment.
    Keywords:  cancer; exosomal lncRNA; exosome