bims-lifras Biomed News
on Li-Fraumeni syndrome
Issue of 2020‒04‒05
ten papers selected by
Joanna Zawacka-Pankau

  1. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2020 Apr 03.
    Le AN, Harton J, Desai H, Powers J, Zelley K, Bradbury AR, Nathanson KL, Shah PD, Doucette A, Freedman GM, Gabriel P, Domchek SM, MacFarland SP, Maxwell KN.
      PURPOSE: Women with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in TP53, have an over 50% risk of developing breast cancer by age 70. Patients with LFS are at risk for radiation-induced malignancies; however, only small case series have prior investigated radiation risks in the treatment of breast cancer. We therefore aimed to investigate the risk of malignancy in breast cancer patients with LFS following adjuvant radiotherapy.METHODS: A single-institution retrospective chart review was conducted for female breast cancer patients with confirmed germline TP53 mutation. The frequency of radiation-induced malignancies in LFS patients was compared to non-LFS breast cancer cases reported in the Penn Medicine Cancer Registry via statistical analyses.
    RESULTS: We identified 51 female LFS breast cancer patients with 74 primary diagnoses. Fifty-seven% had a history of breast cancer only, and 25% had breast cancer as their presenting diagnosis of LFS. LFS-associated breast cancers were predominantly invasive ductal carcinoma (48%) and HER2+ (58%). Twenty patients underwent adjuvant radiotherapy with a median follow-up of 12.5 (2-20) years. Of 18 patients who received radiation in a curative setting, one (6%) patient developed thyroid cancer, and one (6%) patient developed sarcoma in the radiation field. This risk for radiation-induced malignancy associated with LFS was higher for both sarcoma and thyroid cancer in comparison with the control cohort.
    CONCLUSIONS: We found a lower risk of radiation-induced secondary malignancies in LFS breast cancer patients than previously reported in the literature (33% risk of radiation-induced sarcoma). These findings suggest that LFS may not be an absolute contraindication for radiotherapy in breast cancer. The potential risk for locoregional recurrence without radiotherapy must be weighed against the long-term risk for radiation-induced malignancies in consideration of adjuvant radiotherapy for LFS breast cancer patients.
    Keywords:  Breast cancer; Li-Fraumeni syndrome; Radiation-induced malignancy; Radiotherapy
  2. BMC Cancer. 2020 Mar 30. 20(1): 256
    Aversa JG, De Abreu FB, Yano S, Xi L, Hadley DW, Manoli I, Raffeld M, Sadowski SM, Nilubol N.
      BACKGROUND: Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline TP53 tumor suppressor gene mutations, with no previous association with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). Here we present the first case of PNET associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.CASE PRESENTATION: This is a 43-year-old female who underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy at age 39 for a well-differentiated grade 2 cystic PNET. When the patient was 41 years old, her seven-year-old daughter was found to have an astrocytoma and a germline TP53 mutation. While undergoing surveillance with 68Gallium-DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography for her PNET, the patient was found to have a large choroid plexus papilloma in her right temporal lobe. She underwent genetic counseling and testing that identified a germline pathogenic variant in TP53, leading to the diagnosis of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Her PNET had a hemizygous pathogenic TP53 mutation with loss of the wild-type alternate allele, consistent with loss of heterozygosity and the two-hit hypothesis. She was enrolled in a Li-Fraumeni syndrome protocol and continues surveillance screening with our service.
    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first PNET reported in association with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated in this syndrome, and our case highlights the need for vigilance in screening for pancreatic neoplasms in these patients.
    Keywords:  Hereditary pancreatic neoplasm; Li-Fraumeni syndrome; Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor; TP53
  3. Case Rep Oncol. 2020 Jan-Apr;13(1):13(1): 130-138
    Cirauqui B, Morán T, Estival A, Quiroga V, Etxaniz O, Balana C, Navarro M, Villà S, Ballester R, Margelí M.
      Germline mutations in TP53, a tumor suppressor gene, are involved in the development of Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a rare disorder that predisposes carriers to multiple tumors. TP53 mutations have been associated with resistance to treatment and poor prognosis. A young female with the pathogenic germline TP53 mutation c.844C > T (p.R282W) was diagnosed with two metachronous breast tumors, one HER2-negative and the other HER2-positive. She was later diagnosed with synchronous glioblastoma, epidermal growth factor receptor-mutated lung adenocarcinoma, and HER2-negative breast cancer metastases. The patient was treated with local therapies, including brain surgery and radiotherapy, lung surgery, and a bilateral mastectomy, as well as with targeted systemic treatment. She proved to be highly sensitive to systemic therapy, and 13 years after the initial diagnosis of breast cancer and 6 years after the diagnosis of the two new primary tumors and recurrence of a prior cancer, she is alive with an excellent performance status. This surprising positive evolution may well be partly due to the pronged multidisciplinary approach to managing her disease and her extraordinary response to treatment: the lung adenocarcinoma showed excellent response to erlotinib; the breast cancer responded extremely well to eribulin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin; and the glioblastoma has remained in response to surgery and radiotherapy. Despite harboring a TP53 mutation and having multiple tumors, this patient has shown an unexpectedly favorable evolution. The coordinated participation of a multidisciplinary team and the patient's own extraordinarily high sensitivity to systemic treatment played a major role in this evolution.
    Keywords:  Breast cancer; Epidermal growth factor receptor-mutated adenocarcinoma; Glioblastoma; Li-Fraumeni syndrome; TP53
  4. Ann Oncol. 2020 Feb 20. pii: S0923-7534(20)36055-5. [Epub ahead of print]
    Waks AG, Cohen O, Kochupurakkal B, Kim D, Dunn CE, Buendia Buendia J, Wander S, Helvie K, Lloyd MR, Marini L, Hughes ME, Freeman SS, Ivy SP, Geradts J, Isakoff S, LoRusso P, Adalsteinsson VA, Tolaney SM, Matulonis U, Krop IE, D'Andrea AD, Winer EP, Lin NU, Shapiro GI, Wagle N.
      BACKGROUND: Little is known about mechanisms of resistance to poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) and platinum chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer and BRCA1/2 mutations. Further investigation of resistance in clinical cohorts may point to strategies to prevent or overcome treatment failure.PATIENTS AND METHODS: We obtained tumor biopsies from metastatic breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 deficiency before and after acquired resistance to PARPi or platinum chemotherapy. Whole exome sequencing was carried out on each tumor, germline DNA, and circulating tumor DNA. Tumors underwent RNA sequencing, and immunohistochemical staining for RAD51 foci on tumor sections was carried out for functional assessment of intact homologous recombination (HR).
    RESULTS: Pre- and post-resistance tumor samples were sequenced from eight patients (four with BRCA1 and four with BRCA2 mutation; four treated with PARPi and four with platinum). Following disease progression on DNA-damaging therapy, four patients (50%) acquired at least one somatic reversion alteration likely to result in functional BRCA1/2 protein detected by tumor or circulating tumor DNA sequencing. Two patients with germline BRCA1 deficiency acquired genomic alterations anticipated to restore HR through increased DNA end resection: loss of TP53BP1 in one patient and amplification of MRE11A in another. RAD51 foci were acquired post-resistance in all patients with genomic reversion, consistent with reconstitution of HR. All patients whose tumors demonstrated RAD51 foci post-resistance were intrinsically resistant to subsequent lines of DNA-damaging therapy.
    CONCLUSIONS: Genomic reversion in BRCA1/2 was the most commonly observed mechanism of resistance, occurring in four of eight patients. Novel sequence alterations leading to increased DNA end resection were seen in two patients, and may be targetable for therapeutic benefit. The presence of RAD51 foci by immunohistochemistry was consistent with BRCA1/2 protein functional status from genomic data and predicted response to later DNA-damaging therapy, supporting RAD51 focus formation as a clinically useful biomarker.
    Keywords:  BRCA1; BRCA2; PARP inhibitor; breast cancer; platinum
  5. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Mar 30. pii: E829. [Epub ahead of print]12(4):
    Del Valle J, Rofes P, Moreno-Cabrera JM, López-Dóriga A, Belhadj S, Vargas-Parra G, Teulé À, Cuesta R, Muñoz X, Campos O, Salinas M, de Cid R, Brunet J, González S, Capellá G, Pineda M, Feliubadaló L, Lázaro C.
      Fanconi anemia (FA) is caused by biallelic mutations in FA genes. Monoallelic mutations in five of these genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, BRIP1 and RAD51C) increase the susceptibility to breast/ovarian cancer and are used in clinical diagnostics as bona-fide hereditary cancer genes. Increasing evidence suggests that monoallelic mutations in other FA genes could predispose to tumor development, especially breast cancer. The objective of this study is to assess the mutational spectrum of 14 additional FA genes (FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCL, FANCM, FANCP, FANCQ, FANCR and FANCU) in a cohort of hereditary cancer patients, to compare with local cancer-free controls as well as GnomAD. A total of 1021 hereditary cancer patients and 194 controls were analyzed using our next generation custom sequencing panel. We identified 35 pathogenic variants in eight genes. A significant association with the risk of breast cancer/breast and ovarian cancer was found for carriers of FANCA mutations (odds ratio (OR) = 3.14 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-6.17, p = 0.003). Two patients with early-onset cancer showed a pathogenic FA variant in addition to another germline mutation, suggesting a modifier role for FA variants. Our results encourage a comprehensive analysis of FA genes in larger studies to better assess their role in cancer risk.
    Keywords:  Breast and ovarian cancer risk; Breast cancer risk; Fanconi Anemia; Hereditary Cancer; NGS panel sequencing
  6. Nat Commun. 2020 Apr 02. 11(1): 1640
    Subramanian DN, Zethoven M, McInerny S, Morgan JA, Rowley SM, Lee JEA, Li N, Gorringe KL, James PA, Campbell IG.
      High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) has a significant hereditary component, approximately half of which cannot be explained by known genes. To discover genes, we analyse germline exome sequencing data from 516 BRCA1/2-negative women with HGSOC, focusing on genes enriched with rare, protein-coding loss-of-function (LoF) variants. Overall, there is a significant enrichment of rare protein-coding LoF variants in the cases (p < 0.0001, chi-squared test). Only thirty-four (6.6%) have a pathogenic variant in a known or proposed predisposition gene. Few genes have LoF mutations in more than four individuals and the majority are detected in one individual only. Forty-three highly-ranked genes are identified with three or more LoF variants that are enriched by three-fold or more compared to GnomAD. These genes represent diverse functional pathways with relatively few involved in DNA repair, suggesting that much of the remaining heritability is explained by previously under-explored genes and pathways.
  7. Neoplasma. 2020 Mar 30. pii: 190918N925. [Epub ahead of print]
    Shinriki S, Maeshiro M, Shimamura K, Kawashima J, Araki E, Ibusuki M, Yamamoto Y, Iwase H, Miyamoto Y, Baba H, Yamaguchi M, Matsui H.
      Genetic testing based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis has recently been used to diagnose hereditary diseases. In this study, we explored the usefulness of our custom amplicon panel that targeted 23 genes related to hereditary tumors given in the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics recommendations. We applied our custom NGS panel to samples from 12 patients previously diagnosed by Sanger sequencing as having the diseases or diagnosed clinically by meeting the diagnostic criteria in this study. Our gene panel not only successfully identified all variants detected by Sanger sequencing but also identified previously unrecognized variants that resulted in confirmation of the disease, or even in the revision of the diagnosis. For instance, a patient identified with an SDHD gene mutation actually had von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome, as determined by the presence of a pathogenic VHL gene variant. We also identified false-positive results that were generated by amplification of genome regions that are not intended to be investigated. In conclusion, NGS-based amplicon sequencing is a highly effective method to detect germline variants, as long as they are also carefully evaluated by manual inspection.
  8. J Pathol Clin Res. 2020 Mar 28.
    Apellaniz-Ruiz M, Cullinan N, Grant R, Marrano P, Priest JR, Thorner PS, Goudie C, Foulkes WD.
      Individuals with DICER1 syndrome, a genetic disorder caused by pathogenic germline variants in DICER1, are at increased risk of developing a wide array of predominantly childhood onset conditions, including genitourinary sarcomas. However, data on DICER1 involvement in paratesticular sarcomas have not been published. Herein, we analyse a series of 15 paediatric paratesticular sarcomas and describe in detail the case of a male infant with a paratesticular myxoid tumour, considered to be a low-grade sarcoma, who also manifested a cystic nephroma, a classic DICER1 syndrome phenotype. He harboured a pathogenic germline DICER1 variant and different somatic hot-spot mutations in each tumour. The paratesticular tumour showed strong and diffuse expression for WT1 and CD10, an unusual immunophenotype in paediatric sarcomas, but typical of tumours of Müllerian origin. The tumour was postulated to arise from the appendix testis, a Müllerian remnant located in the paratestis. Such an origin would be analogous to other DICER1-associated non-epithelial gynaecological tumours, thought to arise from Müllerian derivatives. These findings point towards a key role of DICER1 in Müllerian-derived structures. Supporting this hypothesis is the fact that the other paratesticular sarcomas from the series were either negative or focally positive for WT1 and for CD10, and none had any DICER1 mutations. In summary, we present the first case of a paratesticular sarcoma associated with DICER1 syndrome, emphasising that paratesticular tumours with an unusual histological appearance may suggest an underlying DICER1 mutation, especially in the presence of a personal or family history of DICER1-associated disease. In this context, DICER1 mutation testing could lead to changes in clinical care including implementation of cancer care surveillance strategies.
    Keywords:   DICER1 testing; DICER1 syndrome; Müllerian origin; genitourinary tract; paratesticular sarcoma
  9. Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2020 Mar 23. pii: S1658-3876(20)30039-X. [Epub ahead of print]
    Mehyar M, Mosallam M, Tbakhi A, Saab A, Sultan I, Deebajah R, Jaradat I, AlJabari R, Mohammad M, AlNawaiseh I, Al-Hussaini M, Yousef YA.
      OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma (RB), the most common intraocular malignancy in children, is caused by biallelic inactivation of the human retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (RB1). We are evaluating the impact of the type of RB1 gene mutation on clinical presentation and management outcome.METHODS: A retrospective case series of 50 patients with RB. Main outcomes were clinical and pathologic features and types of RB1 gene mutations detected using quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), allele-specific PCR, next-generation sequencing analysis, and Sanger sequencing.
    RESULTS: Twenty (40%) patients had unilateral RB and 30 (60%) had bilateral RB. Overall, 36 (72%) patients had germline disease, 17 (47%) of whom inherited the disease. Of these 17 inherited cases, paternal origin of the RB1 mutation was seen in 15 (88%). The overall eye salvage rate was 74% (n = 49/66; 100% for Groups A + B + C, and 79% for Group D eyes). The most frequent type of mutation was a nonsense mutation generating a stop codon (15/36, 42%). Other mutations that result in a premature stop codon due to deletions or insertions with donor splice site or receptor splice site mutations were detected in 7/36 (19%), 10/36 (28%), and 2/26 (6%) patients, respectively. The remaining two (6%) patients had frameshift mutation. Patients with deletion, acceptor splice site, and frameshift mutations presented with more advanced ICRB (International Classification of Retinoblastoma) stage (75% diagnosed with Group D or E), even though there was no significant difference in eye salvage rate or tumor invasiveness between patients with different types of mutations.
    CONCLUSION: Despite the heterogeneous nature of RB1 gene mutations, tumor stage remains the most important predictive factor for clinical presentation and outcome. Furthermore, acceptor splice site and frameshift mutations are associated with more advanced tumor stage at diagnosis.
    Keywords:  Germline; Mutation; RB1 gene; Retinoblastoma
  10. Gene. 2020 Mar 28. pii: S0378-1119(20)30299-7. [Epub ahead of print] 144630
    Wu Y, Huang D, Zhang H, Weng X, Wang H, Zhou Q, Wu Y, Shen Y, Sun B, Hu Z.
      BACKGROUND: PTEN is a tumour suppressor gene that has been proven to be related to breast cancer incidence and tumour progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of PTEN mutations in breast carcinomas in China and the relationships of PTEN mutations with clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcomes.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Trimmomatic, Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA), ANNOVAR, SAMtools, and Sanger sequencing were used to analyse PTEN mutations and identify variants in Chinese breast cancer. The frequency of PTEN mutations and the relationships of PTEN mutations with clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcomes were evaluated in breast carcinomas in China.
    RESULTS: The rate of PTEN germline mutation was 0.23% (n=9) among 3955 unselected primary breast cancer patients. Of these 9 patients, 2 carried pathogenic mutations, and both were identified as having infiltrative carcinoma. One patient had a family history. The other 7 patients carried only PTEN germline variants that were not identified as pathogenic mutations.
    CONCLUSIONS: We studied the frequency of PTEN germline mutations in a sequential cohort of Chinese breast carcinoma patients. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the germline mutation of the PTEN gene is not closely related to the occurrence of breast cancer in the Chinese population. In the clinic, the PTEN germline mutation cannot be used as the basis for the detection of breast cancer.
    Keywords:  Biological Markers; Breast Neoplasms; PTEN