bims-lifras Biomed News
on Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
Issue of 2019‒10‒20
five papers selected by
Joanna Zawacka-Pankau

  1. J Clin Oncol. 2019 Oct 17. JCO1901096
    Kleinerman RA, Schonfeld SJ, Sigel BS, Wong-Siegel JR, Gilbert ES, Abramson DH, Seddon JM, Tucker MA, Morton LM.
      PURPOSE: Survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma have excellent survival but substantially increased risks of subsequent bone and soft-tissue sarcomas, particularly after radiotherapy. Comprehensive investigation of sarcoma risk patterns would inform clinical surveillance for survivors.PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a cohort of 952 irradiated survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma who were originally diagnosed during 1914 to 2006, we quantified sarcoma risk with standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and cumulative incidence analyses. We conducted analyses separately for bone and soft-tissue sarcomas occurring in the head and neck (in/near the radiotherapy field) versus body and extremities (out of field).
    RESULTS: Of 105 bone and 124 soft-tissue sarcomas, more than one half occurred in the head and neck (bone, 53.3%; soft tissue, 51.6%), one quarter in the body and extremities (bone, 29.5%; soft tissue, 25.0%), and approximately one fifth in unknown/unspecified locations (bone, 17.1%; soft tissue, 23.4%). We noted substantially higher risks compared with the general population for head and neck versus body and extremity tumors for both bone (SIR, 2,213; 95% CI, 1,671 to 2,873 v SIR, 169; 95% CI, 115 to 239) and soft-tissue sarcomas (SIR, 542; 95% CI, 418 to 692 v SIR, 45.7; 95% CI, 31.1 to 64.9). Head and neck bone and soft-tissue sarcomas were diagnosed beginning in early childhood and continued well into adulthood, reaching a 60-year cumulative incidence of 6.8% (95% CI, 5.0% to 8.7%) and 9.3% (95% CI, 7.0% to 11.7%), respectively. In contrast, body and extremity bone sarcoma incidence flattened after adolescence (3.5%; 95% CI, 2.3% to 4.8%), whereas body and extremity soft-tissue sarcoma incidence was rare until age 30, when incidence rose steeply (60-year cumulative incidence, 6.6%; 95% CI, 4.1% to 9.2%), particularly for females (9.4%; 95% CI, 5.1% to 13.8%).
    CONCLUSION: Strikingly elevated bone and soft-tissue sarcoma risks differ by age, location, and sex, highlighting important contributions of both radiotherapy and genetic susceptibility. These data provide guidance for the development of a risk-based screening protocol that focuses on the highest sarcoma risks by age, location, and sex.
  2. J Hum Genet. 2019 Oct 18.
    Yamamoto Y, Kanai M, Kou T, Sugiyama A, Nakamura E, Miyake H, Yamada T, Nishigaki M, Kondo T, Murakami H, Torishima M, Matsumoto S, Kosugi S, Muto M.
      In tumor-only next-generation sequencing (NGS), identified variants have the potential to be secondary findings (SFs), but they require verification through additional germline testing. In the present study, 194 patients with advanced cancer who underwent tumor-only NGS between April 2015 and March 2018 were enrolled, and the incidences of possible and true SFs were evaluated. Among them, 120 patients (61.9%) harbored at least one possible SF. TP53 was the most frequent gene in which 97 variants were found in 91 patients (49.5%). Nine patients provided informed consent to undergo additional germline testing, and a total of 14 variants (BRCA1, n = 1; BRCA2, n = 2; PTEN, n = 2; RB1, n = 1; SMAD4, n = 1; STK11, n = 1; TP53, n = 6) were analyzed. Three variants (BRCA1, n = 1; BRCA2, n = 2) were confirmed to be SFs, whereas TP53 variants were confirmed to be somatic variants. To confirm the low prevalence of SFs in TP53, we analyzed 24 patients with TP53 variants who underwent a paired tumor-normal NGS assay. As expected, all TP53 variants were confirmed to be somatic variants. A total of 30 patients were tested for germline variants in TP53, but none of them resulted in true SFs, suggesting the low prevalence of SFs in this gene. Therefore, the significance of additional germline testing for TP53 variants appears to be relatively low in daily clinical practice using a tumor-only NGS assay, unless patients have any relevant medical or family history.
  3. Pediatr Radiol. 2019 Oct;49(11): 1506-1515
    Saade-Lemus S, Degnan AJ, Acord MR, Srinivasan AS, Reid JR, Servaes SE, States LJ, Anupindi SA.
      Cancer predisposition syndromes increase the incidence of tumors during childhood and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging is paramount for ensuring early detection of neoplasms, impacting therapeutic interventions and potentially improving outcome. While conventional imaging techniques involve considerable exposure to ionizing radiation, whole-body MRI is a radiation-free modality that allows continuous imaging of the entire body and has increasingly gained relevance in the surveillance, diagnosis, staging and monitoring of pediatric patients with cancer predisposition syndromes. Nevertheless, widespread implementation of whole-body MRI faces several challenges as a screening tool. Some of these challenges include developing clinical indications, variability in protocol specifications, image interpretation as well as coding and billing practices. These factors impact disease management, patient and family experience and research collaborations. In this discussion we review the aforementioned special considerations and the potential direction that might help overcome these challenges and promote more widespread use of whole-body MRI in children with cancer predisposition syndromes.
    Keywords:  Cancer predisposition syndromes; Children; Li–Fraumeni syndrome; Magnetic resonance imaging; Solid tumor; Whole-body
  4. Pediatr Radiol. 2019 Oct;49(11): 1453-1462
    Srinivasan AS, Saade-Lemus S, Servaes SE, Acord MR, Reid JR, Anupindi SA, States LJ.
      Effective surveillance is necessary for early detection of tumors in children with cancer predisposition syndromes. Instituting a surveillance regimen in children comes with practical challenges that include determining imaging modality and timing, and considering cost efficiency, accessibility, and the significant consequences of false-positive and false-negative results. To address these challenges, the American Association for Cancer Research has recently published consensus recommendations that focus on surveillance of cancer predisposition syndromes in children. This review condenses the imaging surveillance recommendations for syndromes that carry a predisposition to renal tumors in childhood, and includes summaries of the predisposition syndromes and discussion of considerations of available imaging modalities.
    Keywords:  DICER1 syndrome; Hepatoblastoma predisposition syndromes; Kidney; Li–Fraumeni syndrome; Magnetic resonance imaging; Tumor; Ultrasound; Von Hippel–Lindau syndrome; Wilms tumor
  5. J Clin Oncol. 2019 Oct 14. JCO1900577
    Begemann M, Waszak SM, Robinson GW, Jäger N, Sharma T, Knopp C, Kraft F, Moser O, Mynarek M, Guerrini-Rousseau L, Brugieres L, Varlet P, Pietsch T, Bowers DC, Chintagumpala M, Sahm F, Korbel JO, Rutkowski S, Eggermann T, Gajjar A, Northcott P, Elbracht M, Pfister SM, Kontny U, Kurth I.
      PURPOSE: The identification of a heritable tumor predisposition often leads to changes in management and increased surveillance of individuals who are at risk; however, for many rare entities, our knowledge of heritable predisposition is incomplete.METHODS: Families with childhood medulloblastoma, one of the most prevalent childhood malignant brain tumors, were investigated to identify predisposing germline mutations. Initial findings were extended to genomes and epigenomes of 1,044 medulloblastoma cases from international multicenter cohorts, including retrospective and prospective clinical studies and patient series.
    RESULTS: We identified heterozygous germline mutations in the G protein-coupled receptor 161 (GPR161) gene in six patients with infant-onset medulloblastoma (median age, 1.5 years). GPR161 mutations were exclusively associated with the sonic hedgehog medulloblastoma (MBSHH) subgroup and accounted for 5% of infant MBSHH cases in our cohorts. Molecular tumor profiling revealed a loss of heterozygosity at GPR161 in all affected MBSHH tumors, atypical somatic copy number landscapes, and no additional somatic driver events. Analysis of 226 MBSHH tumors revealed somatic copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 1q as the hallmark characteristic of GPR161 deficiency and the primary mechanism for biallelic inactivation of GPR161 in affected MBSHH tumors.
    CONCLUSION: Here, we describe a novel brain tumor predisposition syndrome that is caused by germline GPR161 mutations and characterized by MBSHH in infants. Additional studies are needed to identify a potential broader tumor spectrum associated with germline GPR161 mutations.