bims-lifras Biomed News
on Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
Issue of 2019‒08‒18
three papers selected by
Joanna Zawacka-Pankau

  1. J Mol Cell Biol. 2019 Aug 13. pii: mjz078. [Epub ahead of print]
    Zhang P, Christen SP, Bond GL.
  2. Nat Rev Cancer. 2019 Aug 14.
    Oosterhuis JW, Looijenga LHJ.
      Human germ cell tumours (GCTs) are derived from stem cells of the early embryo and the germ line. They occur in the gonads (ovaries and testes) and also in extragonadal sites, where migrating primordial germ cells are located during embryogenesis. This group of heterogeneous neoplasms is unique in that their developmental potential is in effect determined by the latent potency state of their cells of origin, which are reprogrammed to omnipotent, totipotent or pluripotent stem cells. Seven GCT types, defined according to their developmental potential, have been identified, each with distinct epidemiological and (epi)genomic features. Heritable predisposition factors affecting the cells of origin and their niches likely explain bilateral, multiple and familial occurrences of the different types of GCTs. Unlike most other tumour types, GCTs are rarely caused by somatic driver mutations, but arise through failure to control the latent developmental potential of their cells of origin, resulting in their reprogramming. Consistent with their non-mutational origin, even the malignant tumours of the group are characterized by wild-type TP53 and high sensitivity for DNA damage. However, tumour progression and the rare occurrence of treatment resistance are driven by embryonic epigenetic state, specific (sub)chromosomal imbalances and somatic mutations. Thus, recent progress in understanding GCT biology supports a comprehensive developmental pathogenetic model for the origin of all GCTs, and provides new biomarkers, as well as potential targets for treatment of resistant disease.
  3. Transl Oncol. 2019 Aug 13. pii: S1936-5233(19)30223-2. [Epub ahead of print]12(11): 1453-1460
    Ferreira EN, Brianese RC, de Almeida RVB, Drummond RD, de Souza JE, da Silva IT, de Souza SJ, Carraro DM.
      The majority of the hereditary triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are associated with BRCA1 germline mutations. Nevertheless, the understanding of the role of BRCA1 deficiency in the TNBC tumorigenesis is poor. In this sense, we performed whole-exome sequencing of triplet samples (leucocyte, tumor, and normal-adjacent breast tissue) for 10 cases of early-onset TNBC, including 5 hereditary (with BRCA1 germline pathogenic mutation) and 5 sporadic (with no BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline pathogenic mutations), for assessing the somatic mutation repertoire. Protein-affecting somatic mutations were identified for both mammary tissues, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to investigate gene interactions. BRCA1 and RAD51C somatic promoter methylation in tumor samples was also investigated by bisulfite sequencing. Sporadic tumors had higher proportion of driver mutations (≥25% allele frequency) than BRCA1 hereditary tumors, whereas no difference was detected in the normal breast samples. Distinct gene networks were obtained from the driver genes in each group. The Cancer Genome Atlas data analysis of TNBC classified as hereditary and sporadic reinforced our findings. The data presented here indicate that in the absence of BRCA1 germline mutations, a higher number of driver mutations are required for tumor development and that different defective processes are operating in the tumorigenesis of hereditary and sporadic TNBC in young women.