bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2022‒05‒01
23 papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. Journal of academic librarianship. 2022 Jul;48(4): 102525
      In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic was a major public health emergency on a global scale. The literature regarding the pandemic and its impact on academic libraries is still rising. This article examines the two-year process of developing a flexible service scenario and the broader picture by analyzing data on Chinese top university libraries' programmes and outreach initiatives prior to, during, and the normal COVID-19 pandemic (Sept. 2019-Sept. 2021). COVID-19 is found to have a significant impact on the physical space, collection development, and service of the library, demonstrating the characteristics of space access restricted by security measures, collection digitization, and online service. This research also examines the previous year's initiatives and programmes and discusses the next phase of "new normal" procedures. Hopefully, this study will give insight on how Chinese libraries responded to the recent pandemic, informing libraries' outreach and efforts to be better prepared to take imperative, swift, and decisive action in the post-COVID-19 era and beyond.
    Keywords:  COVID-19 pandemic; Chinese academic libraries; Diversity programming; Online services; Resources, services and space
  2. Res Synth Methods. 2022 Apr 26.
      Systematic searching aims to find all possibly relevant research from multiple sources, the basis for an unbiased and comprehensive evidence base. Along with bibliographic databases, systematic reviewers use a variety of additional methods to minimise procedural bias. Citation chasing exploits connections between research articles to identify relevant records for a review by making use of explicit mentions of one article within another. Citation chasing is a popular supplementary search method because it helps to build on the work of primary research and review authors. It does so by identifying potentially relevant studies that might otherwise not be retrieved by other search methods; for example, because they did not use the review authors' search terms in the specified combinations in their titles, abstracts, or keywords. Here, we briefly provide an overview of citation chasing as a method for systematic reviews. Furthermore, given the challenges and high resource requirements associated with citation chasing, the limited application of citation chasing in otherwise rigorous systematic reviews, and the potential benefit of identifying terminologically disconnected but semantically linked research studies, we have developed and describe a free and open source tool that allows for rapid forward and backward citation chasing. We introduce citationchaser, an R package and Shiny app for conducting forward and backward citation chasing from a starting set of articles. We describe the sources of data, the backend code functionality, and the user interface provided in the Shiny app. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  bibliographic checking; evidence synthesis tools; information retrieval; pearl growing; software development; systematic review tool; systematic searching
  3. Nat Commun. 2022 Apr 28. 13(1): 2310
      The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of understanding and managing information seeking behavior. Information-seeking in humans is often viewed as irrational rather than utility maximizing. Here, we hypothesized that this apparent disconnect between utility and information-seeking is due to a latent third variable, motivation. We quantified information-seeking, learning, and COVID-19-related concern (which we used as a proxy for motivation regarding COVID-19 and the changes in circumstance it caused) in a US-based sample (n = 5376) during spring 2020. We found that self-reported levels of COVID-19 concern were associated with directed seeking of COVID-19-related content and better memory for such information. Interestingly, this specific motivational state was also associated with a general enhancement of information-seeking for content unrelated to COVID-19. These effects were associated with commensurate changes to utility expectations and were dissociable from the influence of non-specific anxiety. Thus, motivation both directs and energizes epistemic behavior, linking together utility and curiosity.
  4. Patient Educ Couns. 2022 Apr 15. pii: S0738-3991(22)00178-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVE: Despite improved recognition regarding the importance and association between provision of high quality information for people affected by cancer and improved outcomes and experiences; gaps and unmet needs are still reported. As oncology health information provision increasingly moves online, understanding how service users experience and manage misinformation is important. Determining patient and carer preferences regarding cancer provision is needed to address outstanding gaps.METHODS: This study utilised a purpose-built national cross-sectional survey distributed via social media to assess perspectives regarding cancer information in Australia. Quantitative and qualitative (open text) items assessed respondents' perspectives regarding current inforation preferences and gaps, and experiences with accessing information online.
    RESULTS: A total of 491 people affected by cancer completed the survey. Respondents highlighted a preference for information that better addresses the diversity of cancer experience, and is more timely and responsive to personal situation and care context. Despite increasing attention to health literacy standards, complex medical jargon and terminology remains prevalent. Many respondents have concerns about misinformation, and seek improved mechanisms or skills to assist with determining the trustworthiness and relevance of information found online.
    CONCLUSIONS: Survey responses identified current gaps in information provision for people affected by cancer. Personalised information in formats which are more flexible, accessible, and responsive to user needs are required.
    PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Education and resources to target and improve digital health literacy and combat health misinformation are needed. Novel solutions co-designed by people affected by cancer will ensure that information is provided in a manner that is relevant, timely, and personalised.
  5. F1000Res. 2021 ;10 989
      Online accounts to keep track of scientific publications, such as Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) or Google Scholar, can be time consuming to maintain and synchronize. Furthermore, the open access status of publications is often not easily accessible, hindering potential opening of closed publications. To lessen the burden of managing personal profiles, we developed a R shiny app that allows publication lists from multiple platforms to be retrieved and consolidated, as well as interactive exploration and comparison of publication profiles. A live version can be found at
    Keywords:  R shiny; open access; publication profiles
  6. Respir Care. 2022 May;67(5): 534-542
      BACKGROUND: The use of YouTube for providing medical information is increasing, and patients with COPD are likely to use digital media to obtain information for their conditions. This study aimed to analyze the reliability and quality of the videos that were most frequently viewed by patients with COPD who searched YouTube for information on pulmonary rehabilitation.METHODS: A YouTube search was conducted by using the keyword "pulmonary rehabilitation." All the videos were categorized into 2 groups according to source and purpose. For evaluating the reliability and quality, the modified DISCERN score and the pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD-specific score (PRSS) were used, respectively. Differences of the variables between the groups and associations across the groups were examined. The influence of the variables of the videos on the engagement of viewers and viewership was analyzed.
    RESULTS: In total, 62 videos were analyzed. Most of the videos (54/62 [87%]) were uploaded by professionals and the remainder (8/62 [13%] by non-professionals. According to their purposes, 35 of 62 (56%) were informational and 27 of 62 (44%) were non-informational. The mean ± SD modified DISCERN score and the mean ± SD total the PRSS were 3.76 ± 1.04 and 4.13 ± 3.73, respectively. When comparing the videos according to professionalism, significant differences only in the modified DISCERN scores were observed. The engagement of viewers, viewership, mean modified DISCERN, mean total of the PRSS were significantly higher in the informational group than in the non-informational group. Video duration was positively correlated with engagement of viewers and viewership.
    CONCLUSIONS: Popular YouTube videos on pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD were reliable; however, they were biased and of low quality in terms of providing content. Given YouTube's advantage of easy accessibility and disadvantage of vulnerability to poor-quality information, professionals should pay more attention to uploading comprehensive high-quality videos for informational purposes.
    Keywords:  chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; education; internet; pulmonary rehabilitation; rehabilitation; social media
  7. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2022 Apr 26. pii: S1701-2163(22)00331-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVE: Hysterectomy is a common gynaecological procedure, and therefore online information is highly valuable to patients. Our objective was to evaluate the quality, readability, and comprehensiveness of online patient information on hysterectomy.METHODS: The first 25 patient-directed websites on hysterectomy, identified using 5 online search engines (Google, Yahoo, AOL, Bing, as well as clinical professional societies, were assessed using validated tools for quality (DISCERN, JAMA benchmark), readability (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level [FKGL], Gunning Fog, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook [SMOG], Flesch Reading Ease Score [FRES]), and completeness of information.
    RESULTS: We identified 50 websites for inclusion. Overall, websites were of good quality (median DISCERN score 53/80 [interquartile range {IQR} 47-61]; median JAMA score 3/4 [IQR 1-4]). Most websites described surgical risks (39, 78%), benefits (45, 90%), and types of hysterectomy(48, 96%). Content readability corresponded to Grade 11 using FKGL (median 11.1 [IQR 10.2-13.0]) and SMOG (median 10.9 [IQR 10.2-12.4]), or 15 years education using Gunning Fog (median 14.7 [IQR 13.8-16.4]). Websites were assessed as difficult to read using FRES (median 45.6/100 [IQR 37.9-50.9]). No differences were observed in readability scores when we compared websites from clinical professional societies, government, health care, or academic organizations with other websites (P > 0.05).
    CONCLUSION: Online patient information on hysterectomy is of good quality and comprehensive. However, the content is above the American Medical Association's recommended grade 6 reading level. Website authors should consider readability to make their content more accessible to patients.
    Keywords:  health education; hysterectomy; internet-based intervention; patient education handout; vaginal hysterectomy
  8. J Cancer Educ. 2022 Apr 25.
      For cancer patients undergoing treatment who may be at higher risk of COVID-19, access to high-quality online health information (OHI) may be of particular importance amidst a plethora of harmful medical misinformation online. Therefore, we assessed the readability and quality of OHI available for various cancer types and treatment modalities. Search phrases included "cancer radiation COVID," "cancer surgery COVID," "cancer chemotherapy COVID," and "cancer type COVID," for the fourteen most common cancer types (e.g., "prostate cancer COVID" and "breast cancer COVID"), yielding a total of 17 search phrases. The first 20 sources were recorded and analyzed for each keyword, yielding a total of 340 unique sources. For each of these sources, the approximate grade level required to comprehend the text was calculated as a mean of five validated readability scores; subsequently, for the first ten results of each search, the DISCERN tool was manually used to assess quality. Search terms were translated into Spanish and French, and a quality assessment using the Health on the Net Code (HONcode) accreditation was conducted. The median grade level readability for all sources was 13 (IQR 11-14). Median DISCERN scores for the 170 sources assessed were 55 out of 75, suggesting good quality. OHI with quality scores below the median DISCERN score had a median readability of 12.5 (IQR 11-14) grade reading level vs 14 (IQR 12-17) for those above the median DISCERN score (T-test P < 0.0001). Percentages of HONcode-accredited websites were 34.9%, 39.9%, and 38.6% for English, Spanish, and French OHI, respectively. We conclude that efforts are needed to make high-quality OHI available at the appropriate reading level for patients with cancer; such efforts may contribute to the alleviation of disparities in access to healthcare information.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Cancer education; Oncology; Online health resources; Patient education
  9. J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2022 Apr 22. pii: S2468-7855(22)00098-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the videos about orthodontics uploaded to two most popular video sharing platforms YouTube and TikTok and to determine which of the videos uploaded is more reliable and of high quality.MATERIALS AND METHOD: YouTube ( and Tiktok ( was searched for two search-terms: "Orthodontics" and "Orthodontic Treatment". Reliability and quality of the first 120 videos for each search-term was evaluated by social media video content evaluation tools: Global Quality Score (GQS) and Reliability Score (modified DISCERN tool).
    RESULTS: While YouTube videos were more informative or sharing patient experiences, TikTok videos were almost purely entertainment oriented. Tiktok videos had lower reliability. YouTube videos were rated of higher quality than Tiktok videos. GQS mean values for Youtube and TikTok were 2.90 ± 1.35 and 2.23 ± 1.08 respectively; and reliability (DISCERN) values were 2.42 ± 1.70 and 1.27 ± 1.48 respectively. GQS median values for Youtube and TikTok were 3 and 2 respectively; and reliability (DISCERN) values were 2 and 1 respectively. Most of the uploaders in both platforms were professionals.
    CONCLUSION: Neither YouTube videos nor Tiktok videos were found to be reliable or of good quality. Videos on YouTube were higher quality and more reliable than videos on TikTok. However, YouTube videos also contained unreliable information.
    Keywords:  Orthodontics; Public Health; Social Media; TikTok; YouTube
  10. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2022 Mar-Apr;12(2):12(2): 226-234
      Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate quality, reliability, and comprehensiveness of YouTube videos about oral self-examination to detect oral cancer and precancerous lesions and to assess whether the source, duration, quality, reliability, and/or comprehensiveness of videos influence their visibility and popularity.Materials and Methods: Videos on YouTube were searched using eight keywords similar to oral self-examination. The first 100 videos for each search term were included. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were adhered to, and videos were assessed for quality, reliability, and comprehensiveness. Upload date, views, likes, dislikes, duration, and source of the videos were noted. Viewing rate and interaction index were calculated for each video.
    Results: A total of 800 videos were analyzed, 24 of which met the inclusion criteria. Majority of videos (87%) were uploaded by the healthcare group. The visibility, quality, reliability, and comprehensiveness were higher in videos uploaded by the healthcare group when compared with the non-healthcare group, but not at a level of statistical significance. The mean interaction index score of the non-healthcare group was found to be higher than the healthcare group, with statistically significant difference. Duration of videos showed an impact on the comprehensiveness of the videos.
    Conclusion: There are relatively few videos on oral self-examination on YouTube, and most do not have satisfactory quality, reliability, and comprehensiveness. There is a potential to increase public awareness about oral self-examination by utilizing this tool. Videos with complete and accurate information regarding oral self-examination must be uploaded to YouTube, which is currently an important source of information for the general public.
    Keywords:  Cancer screening; Internet; YouTube; mouth cancer; oral cancer; patient education; self-examination
  11. BJUI Compass. 2021 Nov;2(6): 412-418
      Objectives: To investigate the quality and readability of online patient information on treatment for erectile dysfunction using a Google search.Materials and methods: The results of a Google search for "erectile dysfunction treatment" were reviewed. Webpages that contained written information on erectile dysfunction except those containing scientific publications and paywall protected webpages were included in further analysis. Typographic and treatment information were recorded. Readability was assessed using the Fleisch-Kincaid grade level, the Gunning-Fog index, the Coleman-Liau index, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook. Website quality was assessed using the DISCERN instrument, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark criteria, and presence of Health on the net (HON) code certification. Website typography, discussed treatment types, readability scores, and quality measures were reported. Parametric and nonparametric statistical tests were used to compare the data as appropriate dependent on the normality of data.
    Results: Eighty-one webpages were included. Urologists and hospitals were the most common producers with 15 (18%) each. Seventy-four (91%) webpages contained specific information on treatment for erectile dysfunction and 15 (19%) contained advertisements. Seventeen (21%) webpages were HON code certified. The median DISCERN score was 35 (IQR 26.5-44) out of 80. The mean combined readability score was 12.32 (SD 1.91). The median JAMA benchmark score was 1 (IQR 1-2) out of 4. Google rank had a small negative correlation with DISCERN score (τ = -0.16, P = .036). HON code certified webpages had higher DISCERN scores (median of 44 [IQR 35-58.5] vs 32.5 [IQR 25.25-42.25], U = 832, Z = 6561, P < .001). A linear regression was used to predict DISCERN score based on meeting each JAMA benchmark criterion (F(2, 78) = 22.7, P < .001) R 2 = 0.368, P < .001. Within this model the effects of meeting attribution (β = 11.09) and currency (β = 8.79) criterion were significant.
    Conclusions: The quality of online information on treatment for erectile dysfunction is generally poor. However, easy to identify markers of quality like HON code certification, or meeting JAMA benchmark criterion for attribution and currency may help patients to navigate to better quality online information on treatment for erectile dysfunction. Webpages are written at senior high school level, above any recommendations for patient medical information. Health professionals should use validated instruments to assess the quality of online information on treatment for erectile dysfunction prior to publication to improve their utility for patients.
    Keywords:  erectile dysfunction; health information; internet; readability; treatment
  12. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2022 Mar-Apr;12(2):12(2): 245-251
      Objectives: YouTube is the most popular social media and is widely used to access dental and oral diseases information. Nonetheless, the quality of online health information remains a problem. This study aimed to analyze the quality, usefulness, reliability, visibility, and popularity of YouTube videos about dental caries as a source of information.Materials and Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional analytical study. Here, 300 videos that were uploaded in September 2019-2020 were screened, and total duration, number of views, number of likes, number dislikes, uploader category (individual users or health professionals), and upload date of the videos were recorded. One hundred videos were analyzed in terms of their quality, usefulness, reliability, visibility, and popularity using the Global Quality Scale, usefulness score, DISCERN, viewing rate, and interaction index, respectively.
    Results: Videos were 78% uploaded by individual users. Videos uploaded by health professionals showed high scores in quality, usefulness, and reliability. Videos that were greater than 6 min long exhibited both better quality and higher popularity. Video with good-quality showed high visibility and popularity. In addition, videos with better usefulness and reliability showed high visibility; however, their popularity was low.
    Conclusions: Information about dental caries on YouTube is limited in quality. YouTube videos have a potentially important role in oral health education.
    Keywords:  Dental caries; YouTube; videos
  13. Respir Res. 2022 Apr 27. 23(1): 103
      BACKGROUND: The Internet is commonly used by patients to acquire health information. To date, no studies have evaluated the quality of information available on YouTube regarding lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Our aim was to determine the quality and content of YouTube videos regarding LAM and to compare the information provided with current knowledge and guidelines about the disease.METHODS: The first 200 video hits on YouTube in English for the search term "lymphangioleiomyomatosis" were recorded. All videos suitable for patient education on LAM were included. Video quality was analyzed independently by two investigators utilizing the Health on the Net (HONcode) score, which assesses whether websites provide understandable, accessible, and trustworthy health information; the DISCERN score, which evaluates the quality of information about treatment decisions; and a newly developed LAM-related content score (LRCS) with 31 guideline elements.
    RESULTS: The search identified 64 eligible videos. The "engagement rate" of 0.3 was low, with a median number of views of 408 (range 42-73,943), a median of 4 likes (range 0-2082), and the majority (53%) receiving a low HONcode score (≤ 2) and only 10% of videos achieving a high score (> 5). The median DISCERN score was 28 (range 15-61, maximum possible score 80), indicating poor video quality and reliability. The median LRCS was 8 (range 0-29, maximum possible score 31) and videos frequently failed to provide sources of information.
    CONCLUSIONS: Online resources could contribute to the limited and often inaccurate information available to patients with LAM, with only a few YouTube videos providing high-quality patient-relevant information.
    Keywords:  DISCERN; HONcode; Lymphangioleiomyomatosis; Patient education; Video
  14. J Clin Rheumatol. 2022 Apr 29.
      BACKGROUND: Patients are increasingly turning to the Internet for health guidance, requiring awareness from clinicians of constantly changing resources and quality of available information. A previous study demonstrated a minority of YouTube videos were useful for teaching methotrexate (MTX) self-injection; however, YouTube content constantly evolves, and previous results may not represent current videos. This study provides an update on previous work from 2014 evaluating the quality of YouTube videos demonstrating self-administered subcutaneous MTX injections. Our aim was to evaluate how YouTube videos on MTX injection have changed and evaluate the current video quality.METHODS: "Methotrexate injection" was searched on YouTube. The first 75 videos were analyzed independently by 2 reviewers. Videos were classified as useful, misleading/irrelevant, or a personal patient view and rated for reliability, comprehensiveness, and quality.
    RESULTS: Of the 75 videos reviewed, 12 were classified as useful (16%), 43 misleading/irrelevant (57.3%), and 20 personal patient views (26.7%). Although this represents a substantial increase from previous results in the proportion of videos deemed misleading/irrelevant (57.3% vs. 27.5%) (p = 0.0011), their reliability and global quality scores were higher.
    CONCLUSIONS: Concordant with the previous study, only a small proportion of the total videos were deemed useful videos for MTX injection specifically. However, reliability and global quality scores for all videos increased from the previous study, suggesting more videos provide reliable information with regard to MTX overall, even if it does not speak to self-injection directly. Logistics of the YouTube algorithm may still impede access to the "best" videos for patient teaching; therefore, clinicians should be prepared to recommend strategies for patients to find high-quality videos.
  15. J Med Internet Res. 2022 Apr 28. 24(4): e36463
      BACKGROUND: The internet has become a major source of health information for general consumers. Web-based health information quality varies widely across websites and applications. It is critical to understand the factors that shape consumers' evaluation of web-based health information quality and the role that it plays in their appraisal and use of health information and information systems.OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to identify the antecedents and consequences of consumers' evaluation of web-based health information quality as a means to consolidate the related research stream and to inform future studies on web-based health information quality.
    METHODS: We systematically searched 10 databases, examined reference lists, and conducted manual searches. Empirical studies that investigated consumers' evaluation of web-based health information quality, credibility, or trust and their respective relationships with antecedents or consequences were included.
    RESULTS: We included 147 studies reported in 136 papers in the analysis. Among the antecedents of web-based health information quality, system navigability (ρ=0.56), aesthetics (ρ=0.49), and ease of understanding (ρ=0.49) had the strongest relationships with web-based health information quality. The strongest consequences of web-based health information quality were consumers' intentions to use health information systems (ρ=0.58) and satisfaction with health information (ρ=0.46). Web-based health information quality relationships were moderated by numerous cultural dimensions, research designs, and publication moderators.
    CONCLUSIONS: Consumers largely rely on peripheral cues and less on cues that require more information processing (eg, content comprehensiveness) to determine web-based health information quality. Surprisingly, the relationships between individual differences and web-based health information quality are trivial. Web-based health information quality has stronger effects on cognitive appraisals and behavioral intentions than on behavior. Despite efforts to include various moderators, a substantial amount of variance is still unexplained, indicating a need to study additional moderators. This meta-analysis provides broad and consistent evidence for web-based health information quality relationships that have been fractured and incongruent in empirical studies.
    Keywords:  consumer health information behavior; credibility; information quality; meta-analysis; online health information; trust
  16. J Am Coll Radiol. 2022 Apr 26. pii: S1546-1440(22)00279-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      PURPOSE: To evaluate the quality of information available in YouTube videos on the treatment of uterine fibroids.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The DISCERN Scale Criterion was used to quantify the quality of YouTube videos on uterine fibroid embolization. The Video Power Index was used to quantify the popularity of videos on uterine fibroid embolization.
    RESULTS: Among the 31 videos identified in the study, the average total DISCERN score was 48.82 ± 14.48, indicative of average to poor quality. There was no correlation between a video's popularity and its quality. Popularity, as measured by Video Power Index, was not significantly different between videos containing a board-certified physician and those that did not. Videos with a board-certified interventional radiologist had a significantly lower Video Power Index than those without a board-certified physician.
    CONCLUSION: YouTube is not currently a high-quality source of information for uterine fibroid treatment options. Physicians should be aware of highly viewed material on YouTube to have informed discussions with patients about their treatment options and address misperceptions.
    Keywords:  DISCERN; YouTube; patient education; uterine fibroid embolization (UFE); video quality
  17. Clin Res Cardiol. 2022 Apr 26.
      OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to examine the content, reliability, and quality of YouTube video contents concerning myocarditis and its association with the COVID-19 for the first time in the literature.METHODS: The most viewed 50 videos were included in the analysis. The time since the videos were uploaded, video length, type of image (real/animation), video content, qualify of the uploaders, the number of daily and total views, likes, dislikes, comments and VPI were recorded. The reliability of the videos was determined using the modified DISCERN criteria for consumer health information, while the quality was determined with the GQS.
    RESULTS: The mean length of the videos was found as 6.25 ± 5.20 min. Contents of the videos included general information, COVID-19, vaccination, diagnosis, patient experience and treatment. The most common contents were regarding COVID-19 and vaccination by 44%. The uploaders of the videos were classified as physicians, hospital channels, health channels, patients and others. Fourteen (28%) videos were directly uploaded by physicians. The most viewed, liked and disliked videos were uploaded by health channels. The mean VPI score was calculated as 92.89 ± 12.29. The mean DISCERN score of all videos was 3.88 ± 0.77 and the mean GQS score was 3.63 ± 0.85. Reliability and quality of the videos were moderate.
    CONCLUSION: YouTube videos on myocarditis have mostly focused on the associations between myocarditis and COVID-19 disease and vaccination. Health-related contents on YouTube should be subjected to peer review and quality assessment.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Myocarditis; Quality; Reliability; Vaccination; YouTube
  18. Ann Vasc Surg. 2022 Apr 21. pii: S0890-5096(22)00192-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: The internet has become a leading resource for patients to research information about their medical conditions. Access to inaccurate information can lead to miscommunication, poor patient satisfaction and affect shared decision making with the provider. This study seeks to evaluate the quality and readability of patient resources that appear in the top search results for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS).METHODS: Searches were performed for "TOS" and "Thoracic Outlet Syndrome" on the search engines Google ©, Yahoo ©, and Bing©, and on the metasearch platforms Yippy© and Dogpile©. Websites were screened for exclusion and evaluated by two reviewers for accountability, interactivity, structure/organization, and content. Exclusion criteria included duplications, no original content on TOS, resources not intended for patients, foreign language, and inaccessible websites. Reviewers came to a consensus on scoring discrepancies. Four indices were used to evaluate readability. Statistical analysis was performed using Rstudio with ANOVA.
    RESULTS: In total, 44 websites met inclusion criteria. There were 25 hospital/healthcare organization websites (57%), 11 open access (25%), 5 government agency (11%), 2 professional medical society (5%), and 1 industry sponsored (2%). Median scores were 5.00 out of 16.00 for Accountability (IQR: 1.50-8.75), 1.50 out of 5.00 for Interactivity (IQR:1.50-1.50), 3.00 out of 4.00 for Structure/Organization (IQR: 2.00-3.13), 10.00 out of 25.00 for Content (IQR: 7.90-12.63) and 20.25 out of 50.00 for Total Score (IQR: 16.73-27.75) . Websites performed well describing TOS with 98% of websites providing a definition, 90% providing an etiology, 93% providing description or images of the anatomy, 98% providing symptoms of neurogenic TOS, 93% providing symptoms of venous TOS, and 93% providing symptoms of arterial TOS. Physical therapy was the most discussed treatment option (91%) followed by decompression surgery (86%), thrombolysis (41%), vascular repair (39%), interscalene injections (18%), and embolectomy (11%). There was no significant difference across website types for any category other than accountability where Open Access scored the highest (Table 2). Readability was difficult with median Flesch Reading Ease formula score correlating to a college level (IQR: 10th to 12th grade-college), median Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level of 10 (IQR: 9th -12th grade), median Standardized Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) grade of 10 (IQR: 9th-11th grade), and median Dale-Chall Readability Formula Score correlating to 11th to 12th grade (IQR: 11th to 12th - college grade level). There was no significant difference between website types for readability.
    CONCLUSION: The top web results for TOS have varying degrees of quality with a clear gap in certain areas of information. While websites performed well explaining the disease, they lacked discussion of the full scope of treatment that may be offered. Additionally, readability was poor across all website types which will not help patients' understanding of their condition. Providers should take into account the variability in websites when entering into shared decision-making discussions with patients.
    Keywords:  TOS; Thoracic Outlet Syndrome; internet web resources; patient information
  19. Nurs Res. 2022 May-Jun 01;71(3):71(3): 209-217
      BACKGROUND: The public often searches the Internet for information about managing symptoms of various diseases, with government and major hospital websites often providing valid and freely available information.OBJECTIVES: Fever is a common symptom of viral illness, and this review sought to identify information related to fever self-management on government and major hospital websites.
    METHODS: Two distinct search strategies were used. The first was an Internet-based search reviewing fever management advice published on Australian government websites (state, territory, and federal). The second search strategy pertained to fever management advice posted by major Australian tertiary adult and children's hospitals.
    RESULTS: A total of 4,797 results were identified during the two searches, with a total of 12 websites on fever self-management identified for inclusion; four were from either federal or state government, with the remaining eight from tertiary hospital websites. The information identified showed a discordant definition of fever and lack of consistency in self-management advice.
    DISCUSSION: This review identified a lack of consistent online government and hospital information. The information discrepancy across multiple websites was not underpinned by clinical evidence to support the self-management of fever.