bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2022‒03‒27
nineteen papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. Libr Inf Sci Res. 2022 Apr;44(2): 101151
      Community colleges offer a unique context in higher education and yet specific guidance on implementing the ACRL Framework in community colleges is lacking. Semi-structured interviews with 30 community college librarians who had instruction duties explored the state of the implementation of the Framework in community colleges and the effect of the recent pandemic on information literacy instruction (ILI). The Framework is most lauded for its effect on the design and delivery of instruction, but its components mainly underpin ILI rather than being explicitly taught. The pandemic limited one-shot information literacy instruction but opened up opportunities for embedding librarianship in online courses. The value of this study lies in the potential for identifying opportunities for improving ILI in community colleges, based on a better understanding of librarians' attitudes and experiences of their instructional roles. Community college librarians with responsibility for ILI can be more fully supported when their instructional challenges are better understood.
    Keywords:  Community colleges; Covid-19; Framework for information literacy for higher education; Information literacy instruction; Interviews
  2. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2022 Mar 25. 22(1): 79
      BACKGROUND: Deprescribing literature has been increasing rapidly. Our aim was to develop and validate search filters to identify articles on deprescribing in Medline via PubMed and in Embase via .METHODS: Articles published from 2011 to 2020 in a core set of eight journals (covering fields of interest for deprescribing, such as geriatrics, pharmacology and primary care) formed a reference set. Each article was screened independently in duplicate and classified as relevant or non-relevant to deprescribing. Relevant terms were identified by term frequency analysis in a 70% subset of the reference set. Selected title and abstract terms, MeSH terms and Emtree terms were combined to develop two highly sensitive filters for Medline via Pubmed and Embase via . The filters were validated against the remaining 30% of the reference set. Sensitivity, specificity and precision were calculated with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).
    RESULTS: A total of 23,741 articles were aggregated in the reference set, and 224 were classified as relevant to deprescribing. A total of 34 terms and 4 MeSH terms were identified to develop the Medline search filter. A total of 27 terms and 6 Emtree terms were identified to develop the Embase search filter. The sensitivity was 92% (95% CI: 83-97%) in Medline via Pubmed and 91% (95% CI: 82-96%) in Embase via .
    CONCLUSIONS: These are the first deprescribing search filters that have been developed objectively and validated. These filters can be used in search strategies for future deprescribing reviews. Further prospective studies are needed to assess their effectiveness and efficiency when used in systematic reviews.
    Keywords:  Deprescriptions; Medical subject headings; Methods; Sensitivity; Systematic review
  3. Ugeskr Laeger. 2022 Mar 14. pii: V12210901. [Epub ahead of print]184(11):
      In this review, we provide an overview of search filters, which are pre-formulated search strategies developed to help identify articles within a given topic or with a particular study design. We present the rationale behind search filters and how they are used. Using a search filter may however, result in missing relevant publications and they should be used with care. Therefore, we describe how these search filters are developed and evaluated. Finally, we provide guidance on how the use of a search filter is reported in a systematic search.
  4. . 2022 Mar 16. 102521
      The outbreak of the global COVID -19 pandemic has affected all aspects of life, access to higher education has not been out of danger as evidenced by the enforcement of official closures, enforcement lockdown and social distancing rules by governments throughout the world. However, while the COVID-19 pandemic has presented the world with numerous socioeconomic challenges, it has also helped to spur creativity and information as evidenced by the responses of academic libraries that have seen a heighted use of digital platforms to support education, teaching and research. The study sought to establish how librarians in Zimbabwe responded to the outbreak of COVID-19 and the implications of the pandemic on library service delivery. A qualitative research was adopted for the study. Using snowballing, interviews were used to gather data beginning with the library association's branch leadership. The researchers ensured that the questions were aligned to the research objectives. The interview schedule included open and closed questions to enable participants to provide further details relating to the phenomenon under study. The participants were guaranteed their rights to consent, privacy and anonymity in the introduction of the interview schedule. An The study reveals that there has been an increase in the use online platforms for accessing information especially library's webpages, electronic books and journals. The use of library online resources from distance locations also rose following closure of campuses. Library patrons' perceptions towards electronic resources significantly improved as they realized that they were equally useful as the print. Findings from the study provide useful recommendation on how librarians can remodel their services to match new demands presented by the COVD-19 pandemic. The study provides a starting point upon which further research on the effect of COVID-19 or other similar pandemics have on library service delivery.
    Keywords:  Academic libraries; Access to information; COVID-19 pandemic; Digital divide & Zimbabwe; Digital technologies
  5. JMIR Hum Factors. 2022 Mar 25. 9(1): e30258
      BACKGROUND: A major factor in the success of any search engine is the relevance of the search results; a tool should sort the search results to present the most relevant documents first. Assessing the performance of the ranking formula is an important part of search engine evaluation. However, the methods currently used to evaluate ranking formulae mainly collect quantitative data and do not gather qualitative data, which help to understand what needs to be improved to tailor the formulae to their end users.OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate 2 different parameter settings of the ranking formula of LiSSa (the French acronym for scientific literature in health care; Department of Medical Informatics and Information), a tool that provides access to health scientific literature in French, to adapt the formula to the needs of the end users.
    METHODS: To collect quantitative and qualitative data, user tests were carried out with representative end users of LiSSa: 10 general practitioners and 10 registrars. Participants first assessed the relevance of the search results and then rated the ranking criteria used in the 2 formulae. Verbalizations were analyzed to characterize each criterion.
    RESULTS: A formula that prioritized articles representing a consensus in the field was preferred. When users assess an article's relevance, they judge its topic, methods, and value in clinical practice.
    CONCLUSIONS: Following the evaluation, several improvements were implemented to give more weight to articles that match the search topic and to downgrade articles that have less informative or scientific value for the reader. Applying a qualitative methodology generates valuable user inputs to improve the ranking formula and move toward a highly usable search engine.
    Keywords:  human factors; information retrieval; search engine; search result ranking; topical relevance; user testing
  6. Health Info Libr J. 2022 Mar 25.
      BACKGROUND: A validated generic impact questionnaire can demonstrate how individual and groups of health libraries contribute to continuing education and patient care outcomes.OBJECTIVES: To validate an existing generic questionnaire for Knowledge for Healthcare, England by examining: (1) internal reliability; (2) content validity; and (3) suggest revisions.
    METHODS: Methods used included Cronbach's alpha test, simple data mining of patterns among a data set of 187 questionnaire responses and checking respondents' interpretation of questions.
    RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha was 0.776 (acceptable internal reliability). The patterns of responses indicated that respondents' interpretations of the questions were highly plausible, and consistent. The meaning of 'research' varied among different occupational groups, but overall, respondents could identify relevant personal and service impacts. However, users were confused about the terms that libraries use to describe some services.
    DISCUSSION: The analysis indicated that the questionnaire worked well for the two types of personal services (literature/evidence searches and training/e-learning) frequently cited on the responses. Further research may be required for library assessment of the impact of other services such as digital resource services.
    CONCLUSIONS: The generic questionnaire is a reliable way of assessing the impact of health library and knowledge services, both individually and collectively.
    Keywords:  United Kingdom (UK); evaluation; health care; impact; libraries; medical; questionnaires; research methodology; statistics; surveys
  7. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Mar 19. pii: 3676. [Epub ahead of print]19(6):
      The COVID-19 pandemic and the concomitant infodemic have emphasized the importance of digital health literacy (DHL) to global public health research and practice. The aim of this study was to examine information-seeking behavior, the ability to find, understand and deal with health information among university college students in Denmark and/in addition we wanted to examine the impact of their close social network on students' ability to find and understand health information. This research was carried out as part of the COVID-HL university student survey by using a uniform questionnaire consisting of elaborated scales. Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey conducted at University College South during 4 weeks in April and May 2020. To capture DHL, four subscales of the DHL instrument were adapted to the pandemic context. A total of 59.9% of the students have sufficient DHL-most students find it rather easy to find information and are satisfied with the information they find on the internet. However, some (28.1%) students find it difficult to judge the quality and reliability of the information. Students with a sufficient level of DHL are more likely to seek information through search engines and websites of official institutions, while students with a limited level of DHL more often use social media for health information. Students with sufficient DHL more often share health information and less often ask for support in their network.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Denmark; digital health literacy; information seeking; social network; university college students
  8. J Med Internet Res. 2022 Mar 23. 24(3): e29307
      BACKGROUND: The need to assess the effectiveness and value of interventions involving digital health and health and welfare technologies is becoming increasingly important due to the rapidly growing development of these technologies and their areas of application. Systematic reviews of scientific literature are a mainstay of such assessment, but publications outside the realm of traditional scientific bibliographic databases-known as gray literature-are often not included. This is a disadvantage, particularly apparent in the health and welfare technology (HWT) domain.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to investigate the significance of gray literature in digital health and HWT when reviewing literature. As an example, the impact of including gray literature to the result of two systematic reviews in HWT is examined.
    METHODS: In this paper, we identify, discuss, and suggest methods for including gray literature sources when evaluating effectiveness and appropriateness for different review types related to HWT. The analysis also includes established sources, search strategies, documentation, and reporting of searches, as well as bias and credibility assessment. The differences in comparison to scientific bibliographic databases are elucidated. We describe the results, challenges, and benefits of including gray literature in 2 examples of systematic reviews of HWT.
    RESULTS: In the 2 systematic reviews described in this paper, most included studies came from context-specific gray literature sources. Gray literature contributed to the overall result of the reviews and corresponded well with the reviews' aims. The assessed risk of bias of the included studies derived from gray literature was similar to the included studies from other types of sources. However, because of less standardized publication formats, assessing and extracting data from gray literature studies were more time-consuming and compiling statistical results was not possible. The search process for gray literature required more time and the reproducibility of gray literature searches were less certain due to more unstable publication platforms.
    CONCLUSIONS: Gray literature is particularly relevant for digital health and HWT but searches need to be conducted systematically and reported transparently. This way gray literature can broaden the range of studies, highlight context specificity, and decrease the publication bias of reviews of effectiveness of HWT. Thus, researchers conducting systematic reviews related to HWT should consider including gray literature based on a systematic approach.
    Keywords:  digital health; gray literature; health and welfare technology; information retrieval
  9. JMIR Cancer. 2022 Mar 24. 8(1): e25005
      BACKGROUND: Patients often turn to web-based resources following the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. To be fully understood by average American adults, the American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend web-based health information to be written at a 6th grade level or lower. Previous analyses of osteosarcoma resources have not measured whether text is written such that readers can process key information (understandability) or identify available actions to take (actionability). The Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT) is a validated measurement of understandability and actionability.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate web-based osteosarcoma resources using measures of readability, understandability, and actionability.
    METHODS: Using the search term "osteosarcoma," two independent Google searches were performed on March 7, 2020 (by AGS), and March 11, 2020 (by TRG). The top 50 results were collected. Websites were included if they were directed at providing patient education on osteosarcoma. Readability was quantified using validated algorithms: Flesh-Kincaid Grade Ease (FKGE), Flesch-Kincaid Grade-Level (FKGL). A higher FKGE score indicates that the material is easier to read. All other readability scores represent the US school grade level. Two independent PEMAT assessments were performed with independent scores assigned for both understandability and actionability. A PEMAT score of 70% or below is considered poorly understandable or poorly actionable. Statistical significance was defined as P≤.05.
    RESULTS: Two searches yielded 53 unique websites, of which 37 (70%) met the inclusion criteria. The mean FKGE and FKGL scores were 40.8 (SD 13.6) and 12.0 (SD 2.4), respectively. No website scored within the acceptable NIH or AHA recommended reading level. Only 4 (11%) and 1 (3%) website met the acceptable understandability and actionability threshold. Both understandability and actionability were positively correlated with FKGE (ρ=0.55, P<.001; ρ=0.60, P<.001), but were otherwise not significantly associated with other readability scores. There were no associations between readability (P=.15), understandability (P=.20), or actionability (P=.31) scores and Google rank.
    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, web-based osteosarcoma patient educational materials scored poorly with respect to readability, understandability, and actionability. None of the web-based resources scored at the recommended reading level. Only 4 achieved the appropriate score to be considered understandable by the general public. Authors of patient resources should incorporate PEMAT and readability criteria to improve web-based resources to support patient understanding.
    Keywords:  health literacy; osteosarcoma; patient education; web-based health information
  10. Int J Urol. 2022 Mar 22.
      OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality information on testicular cancer uploaded on YouTube™ videos.METHODS: YouTube™ videos were searched using "Testicular cancer" as a keyword. The Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool, the Misinformation scale, and the DISCERN tool were used to assess the quality information of YouTube™ videos on testicular cancer.
    RESULTS: According to the selection criteria, 121 YouTube™ videos were collected for the analysis and stratified according to uploading year (2009-2014 vs 2015-2020). According to the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool for audio-visual content, the overall Understandability score was 60% (interquartile range 45.5-75) and the overall Actionability score was 100% (interquartile range 66.7-100). According to the Misinformation scale, the lowest median was recorded for item 6 ("Effects on fertility") and the overall median Misinformation score was 2 (interquartile range 1.3-2.8). No statistically significant differences were observed according to uploading year (all P > 0.05). Of all, only 54 (44.6%) videos mentioning treatment were subsequently analyzed. Of these videos, the overall Understandability was 71.4% (interquartile range 56.3-84.6) and the overall Actionability was 100% (interquartile range 66.7-100). The overall Misinformation score was 2.8 (interquartile range 2.2-3.5). The median DISCERN score recorded for question 16 was 5 (interquartile range 3-5).
    CONCLUSIONS: YouTube™ is a fast and open-access source for mass information. The overall quality of the testicular cancer contents provided is sadly unsatisfactory, in the present likewise in the past. However, YouTube™ videos mentioning treatment options showed higher quality content, than the remaining one. Nevertheless, all the videos analyzed underestimated the testicular cancer effects on fertility. Nowadays, YouTube™ cannot be recommended as a reliable source of information on testicular cancer.
    Keywords:  YouTube; fertility; patient information; social media; testis cancer; urology
  11. JMIR Infodemiology. 2022 Jan-Jun;2(1):2(1): e32452
      Background: The "infodemic" accompanying the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic has the potential to increase avoidable spread as well as engagement in risky health behaviors. Although social media platforms, such as YouTube, can be an inexpensive and effective method of sharing accurate health information, inaccurate and misleading information shared on YouTube can be dangerous for viewers. The confusing nature of data and claims surrounding the benefits of vitamin D, particularly in the prevention or cure of COVID-19, influences both viewers and the general "immune boosting" commercial interest.Objective: The aim of this study was to ascertain how information on vitamin D and COVID-19 was presented on YouTube in 2020.
    Methods: YouTube video results for the search terms "COVID," "coronavirus," and "vitamin D" were collected and analyzed for content themes and deemed useful or misleading based on the accuracy or inaccuracy of the content. Qualitative content analysis and simple statistical analysis were used to determine the prevalence and frequency of concerning content, such as confusing correlation with causation regarding vitamin D benefits.
    Results: In total, 77 videos with a combined 10,225,763 views (at the time of data collection) were included in the analysis, with over three-quarters of them containing misleading content about COVID-19 and vitamin D. In addition, 45 (58%) of the 77 videos confused the relationship between vitamin D and COVID-19, with 46 (85%) of 54 videos stating that vitamin D has preventative or curative abilities. The major contributors to these videos were medical professionals with YouTube accounts. Vitamin D recommendations that do not align with the current literature were frequently suggested, including taking supplementation higher than the recommended safe dosage or seeking intentional solar UV radiation exposure.
    Conclusions: The spread of misinformation is particularly alarming when spread by medical professionals, and existing data suggesting vitamin D has immune-boosting abilities can add to viewer confusion or mistrust in health information. Further, the suggestions made in the videos may increase the risks of other poor health outcomes, such as skin cancer from solar UV radiation.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; YouTube; content analysis; health information; immune system; immunity; infodemic; misinformation; natural medicine; prevention; risk; social media; supplements; video; vitamin D
  12. Int J Impot Res. 2022 Mar 24.
      The objective of the current study was to evaluate the quality of the information provided in YouTubeTM videos on phimosis. The term "phimosis" was searched on YouTubeTM, and the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT) for Audio/Visual Materials (Understandability and Actionability sections, good-quality score of minimum 70%) and misinformation scale (rated from 1 to 5) were used to assess video quality. Quality assessment was investigated over time. Of all, 60 were eligible for analysis. Healthcare providers were the authors of 75.0% of the videos, and 73.3% of the videos were patient-targeted. The median Understandability score was 42.9% (interquartile range [IQR]:34.5-58.9) and ranged from 28.6 to 42.9% (2013-2020). The median Actionability score was 50.0% (IQR:25.0-56.2) and ranged from 25.0 to 50.0% (2013-2020). The median misinformation score was 2.8/5 (IQR:1.6-3.6), and although the score fluctuated over time, the median score was 2.6 both in 2013 and in 2020. According to our results, although an increase of PEMAT over time was observed, the overall quality of the information uploaded on YouTubeTM is low. Therefore, at present, YouTubeTM cannot be recommended as a reliable source of information on phimosis. Video producers should upload higher-quality videos to help physicians and patients in the decision-making process.
  13. Prog Urol. 2022 Mar 18. pii: S1166-7087(22)00069-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVES: Prior to benign prostate surgery, the patient's informed consent is mandatory. Among the multiple source of information for patients, social networks are very popular, but the quality of information delivered is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the information freely available for patients on YouTube™ regarding HoLEP.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The term "HOLEP" was searched on YouTube™ on December 24, 2020. Videos that were not in English, French or Arabic, specifically destined to the medical community, with no written or oral comment, patient testimonials, pure surgical technique or had content unrelated to HoLEP were excluded from the study. The patient information sheet by the French Urology Association (AFU) was used to create a list of 31 items classified into 4 categories as follows: anatomy and pathophysiology (6 items), technique and perioperative preparation (10 items), usual outcomes (10 items) and complications (5 items). For each item on the predefined list, correct, missing and incorrect information were rated respectively 1, 0 and -1.
    RESULTS: Thirty-five videos met the inclusion criteria. Their average length was 6'06"±7'03" [00'20"; 31'30"], with an average number of views of 5279±17,821 [8; 87,354]. The information provided on the videos was written and oral, oral-only and written-only in 51%, 34% and 14% of cases, respectively. 23% of the videos showed surgery sequences, 40% animations and 62% a doctor speaking. Only one video had a quality score greater than 80% and 7 videos got a score below 20%.
    CONCLUSION: The information about HoLEP on YouTube™ seemed not of sufficiently high quality to allow patients to make informed decisions, and was occasionally misleading. Surgeons still have the duty to give the best quality information, and may point patients towards adequate sources of information, especially those delivered by national and international professional societies.
    Keywords:  Benign prostatic obstruction; Consentement éclairé; Hypertrophie bénigne de la prostate; Information patient; Informed consent; LUTS; Patient information; Réseaux sociaux; SBAU; Social media; Video; Vidéo
  14. Nucl Med Commun. 2022 Mar 23.
      OBJECTIVES: YouTube is one of the most popular online sources of information for patients. The purpose of the study is to analyze the quality of YouTube videos about the most commonly applied radionuclide treatments.METHOD: Related radionuclide therapy videos were searched on YouTube in October 2021. The quality of the videos was assessed by using the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark criteria, the DISCERN Scale and the Global Quality Scale (GQS).
    RESULTS: A total of 473 videos were assessed and 270 were included in the study according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. According to the GQS score, videos were categorized as high-quality (n:63, 23.33%), intermediate quality (n:118, 43.70%) and low-quality (n:89, 32.96 %) groups. The findings of our study showed that the highest number of video views and comments were in the low-quality group. In addition; the number of video likes, views and comments were the lowest in the high-quality video group. The most viewed and commented as well as most liked videos and the videos of highest video power index scores were nonphysician sourced videos. The most quality videos were the physician-sourced videos in terms of JAMA, DISCERN and GQS scores.
    CONCLUSION: Although high-quality videos about radionuclide treatments on YouTube may enlighten and motivate patients positively; it should be kept in mind that improper information may also be uploaded to this platform. Under the guidance of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, it is necessary to generate an official video in English with multilingual subtitles.
  15. Healthcare (Basel). 2022 Mar 10. pii: 506. [Epub ahead of print]10(3):
      YouTube (YT) has become a popular health information reservoir. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the content and quality of YT videos as a source of patient information for meningiomas. A YT search was conducted for the following terms: "meningioma", "meningiomas", "meningeal tumor", and "psammoma". A total of 119 videos were examined by five independent raters, using validated quality criteria, including the Quality Criteria for Consumer Health Information (DISCERN), the Journal of the American Medical Association instrument (JAMA), and the Global Quality Score (GQS). The mean DISCERN score was 35.6 points, while the mean GQS and JAMA scores were 2.4 and 1.8, respectively. The majority of the videos were produced in the United States (37.82%). Moreover, 47.9% of the evaluated videos were graded as "poor" and only 9.24% were "good". Statistically higher scores in all three scoring systems were associated with the following information: tumor localization, clinical manifestations, indications for surgery, treatment options, risks, adjuvant therapies, results, follow up, diagrams, and those that featured a doctor as the speaker. Misleading information was presented in 35 productions. Our findings show that the overall quality of YT on the topic of meningiomas is defective, and requires further improvement and evaluation.
    Keywords:  DISCERN scores; YouTube; internet; meningiomas; neurosurgery; online learning; quality
  16. Int J Impot Res. 2022 Mar 23.
      The prevalence of delayed ejaculation in sexually active men is reportedly 3%. Due to its rarity and uncertain definitions, people seek information about delayed ejaculation on the internet. YouTube is one of the largest video platforms preferred global for gathering medical information. We aimed to determine the quality of YouTube videos on delayed ejaculation. YouTube search was performed with the keywords "delayed and retarded ejaculation", and we recorded the first 400 videos according to relevance. The search results were saved in the playlist, and the first 400 videos were evaluated by two independent urologists. DISCERN and Global Quality Scale (GQS) were used to assess the reliability and quality of videos. Repeated (n = 17), off-topic (n = 279), non-English videos (n = 37), and videos with no audio (n = 16) were excluded from the study. The remaining 51 videos were evaluated. DISCERN and GQS scores were statistically significantly associated with video durations (r = 0.329, P = 0.018 and r = 0.349, P = 0.012; respectively). A statistically significant association was also observed between and DISCERN and GQS scores with video power index values (r = 0.466, P = 0.001 and r = 0.422, P = 0.002; respectively). 62.7% (n = 32) videos were low quality, 23.5% (n = 12) were intermediate quality, and 13.7% (n = 7) were high quality according to the GQS. Most of the YouTube content on delayed ejaculation was of poor quality. Physicians should be aware of this situation, and take the lead in bringing high-quality videos about delayed ejaculation to the community.
  17. Transplant Proc. 2022 Mar 16. pii: S0041-1345(22)00106-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Unspecified kidney donation (UKD) refers to transplantation from donors unrelated and unknown to the recipient. UKD has contributed to the expansion of the live donor pool in several countries. The United Kingdom Transplant Community has set maximizing UKDs as a priority. The Internet raises awareness and potentially influences the decision-making regarding UKD. This is the first study assessing the quality and readability of online material on UKD.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Google was searched for the terms "kidney donation" and one of "unspecified," "altruistic," "non-directed," "anonymous," or "good Samaritan," as well as "giving or donating a kidney to a stranger." Two independent assessors reviewed the top 100 websites. Quality was assessed using the Journal of the American Medical Association criteria, the DISCERN instrument and Health On the Net Code certification. Readability was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease (FRE), Flesch-Kincaid Grade (FKG), and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) scores.
    RESULTS: Only 6% of websites displayed HONcode certification. The mean (± SD) JAMA and DISCERN scores of 1.96 (± 1.00) and 32.34 (± 11.19) indicate poor quality. The mean (± SD) FRE, FKG, and SMOG scores of 52.92 (± 13.62), 10.60 (± 2.72), and 9.64 (± 2.22) reveal poor readability. The difference in JAMA and DISCERN scores according to website classification was significant (P < .001, P = .014) with websites from medical, nonprofit, and governmental organizations scoring amongst the lowest, while comprising most search results (61%).
    CONCLUSIONS: Transplant centers and medical organizations should prioritize improving their online resources to lower the risk of individuals pursuing UKD based on unrealistic expectations or being discouraged unjustly.
  18. Ophthalmol Retina. 2022 Mar 22. pii: S2468-6530(22)00130-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      Patients often utilize the internet to learn about retinal diseases. Our results demonstrate that online patient education materials related to common retinal diseases are often written at higher than recommended reading levels and lack accountability.
    Keywords:  Accountability; Education; Online; Patient; Readability; Retinal
  19. Arch Public Health. 2022 Mar 21. 80(1): 87
      BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests an increasing demand for culturally and linguistically responsive disease prevention programs and health interventions. It is important to understand how individuals seek health information to address the potential needs of the health care system.METHODS: Latent classes of health information-seeking behaviors in a linguistically mixed region of Italy were explored through a population-based telephone survey of ten health information sources. Data were collected in August and September 2014 from 504 adults in South Tyrol, Italy (primary language German, 68%; Italian, 28%), and analyzed using latent class analysis and latent class multinomial logistic regression models.
    RESULTS: Three classes of health information-seeking behaviors emerged: "multidimensional" (23.3%), "interpersonal" (38.6%) and "technical/online" (38.1%). Compared to the "technical/online" class, "interpersonal" class members were older, had lower education than high school, and were less likely to be of Italian ethnicity. "Multidimensional" class members were more likely to be female, older, and of German ethnicity than those in the "technical/online" class.
    CONCLUSIONS: Linguistic ethnicity explains membership in classes on health information-seeking behavior. Policymakers and healthcare providers should consider the health information-seeking behaviors of population subgroups to promote health and medical care in linguistic minority groups.
    Keywords:  Health information-seeking behavior; Latent class analysis; Linguistic ethnicity; Population-based survey