bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2022‒03‒13
29 papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. Health Info Libr J. 2022 Mar;39(1): 1-5
    Co-Chairs Health Libraries Group 
      Celebrating its 75th year in 2022, Lynsey Hawker and Imrana Ghumra, Co-Chairs of the Health Libraries Group (HLG) look back on its origins, celebrate key activities and achievements. From its humble beginnings as the Medical Section of the UK Library Associations' University and Research Section, becoming a Section in its own right, its evolution as the Medical, Health and Welfare Libraries Group. Celebrating its publications, awards, partnership working and advocacy work, they invite you to share your memories and reflections on the HLG and its previous incarnations.
    Keywords:  United Kingdom (UK); collaboration; librarians, international; libraries, health science; libraries, medical; professional associations
  2. J Pathol Inform. 2022 ;13 100014
      Although the laboratory information system has largely solved the problem of storing anatomic pathology reports and disseminating their contents across the healthcare system, the retrospective query of anatomic pathology reports remains an area for improvement across laboratory information system vendors. Our institution desired the ability to query our repository of anatomic pathology reports for clinical, operational, research, and educational purposes. To address this need, we developed a full-text anatomic pathology search tool using the business intelligence software, Tableau. Our search tool allows users to query the 333,685 anatomic pathology reports from our institutional clinical relational database using the business intelligence tool's built-in regular expression functionality. Users securely access the search tool using any web browser, thereby avoiding the cost of installing or maintaining software on users' computers. This tool is laboratory information system vendor agnostic and as many institutions already subscribe to business intelligence software, we believe this solution could be easily reproduced at other institutions and in other clinical departments.
  3. Paediatr Child Health. 2022 Mar;27(1): 25-31
      Introduction: Recent studies highlight synergies for families receiving early childhood literacy support from their health care provider and public library, with more reading at home and higher quality book-sharing interactions. Our primary objective was to determine the percentage of Children's Hospital Winnipeg Ambulatory Clinic's patients who had ever used a public library. The clinic has a longstanding early-childhood literacy program and serves remote communities and low-income Winnipeg families.Methods: A structured survey was administered to parents or legal guardians by the first author. It explored library barriers and covariates that might affect library use. Analysis included descriptive statistics and a logistic regression model for predictors of library use.
    Results: Ninety-seven nearly consecutive surveys were administered, half prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Most respondents were female, from Winnipeg, and in the two lowest neighbourhood income quintiles. Roughly half (46.4%) of children had used a library. Most respondents wanted health care providers to promote literacy and provide information about public libraries, and more supported in-clinic distribution of books. The number of children per household positively predicted library use, possibly a proxy for experience with community resources. About 2/3 of respondents believed that library fines should be abolished. Most identified other barriers, for example, inconvenient hours, distance, or concerns about COVID-19.
    Conclusion: Less than half of surveyed families used public libraries, citing multiple barriers, including fines. Moreover, not all health care providers can offer new books and anticipatory guidance. Clinics that promote use of public libraries may therefore represent a low-cost, stand-alone alternative.
    Keywords:  Libraries; Literacy; Social class
  4. J Nurses Prof Dev. 2022 Mar 08.
      A consumer health librarian and nurse educators collaborated to conduct health literacy workshops to teach healthcare providers skills to reduce the health literacy burden of their patients. The workshop content included health literacy overview, patient literacy levels, teach-back, evaluation of patient educational materials, and finding consumer health information. Forty-eight healthcare providers registered, and 39 in total attended one of five workshops and represented eight healthcare disciplines. Feedback from the workshops was positive.
  5. BMJ Health Care Inform. 2022 Mar;pii: e100452. [Epub ahead of print]29(1):
      INTRODUCTION: The number of new biomedical manuscripts published on important topics exceeds the capacity of single persons to read. Integration of literature is an even more elusive task. This article describes a pilot study of a scalable online system to integrate data from 1000 articles on COVID-19.METHODS: Articles were imported from PubMed using the query 'COVID-19'. The full text of articles reporting new data was obtained and the results extracted manually. An online software system was used to enter the results. Similar results were bundled using note fields in parent-child order. Each extracted result was linked to the source article. Each new data entry comprised at least four note fields: (1) result, (2) population or sample, (3) description of the result and (4) topic. Articles underwent iterative rounds of group review over remote sessions.
    RESULTS: Screening 4126 COVID-19 articles resulted in a selection of 1000 publications presenting new data. The results were extracted and manually entered in note fields. Integration from multiple publications was achieved by sharing parent note fields by child entries. The total number of extracted primary results was 12 209. The mean number of results per article was 15.1 (SD 12.0). The average number of parent note fields for each result note field was 6.8 (SD 1.4). The total number of all note fields was 28 809. Without sharing of parent note fields, there would have been a total of 94 986 note fields.
    CONCLUSION: This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of a scalable online system to extract results from 1000 manuscripts. Using four types of notes to describe each result provided standardisation of data entry and information integration. There was substantial reduction in complexity and reduction in total note fields by sharing of parent note fields. We conclude that this system provides a method to scale up extraction of information on very large topics.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; data management; health information management; public health; software
  6. Health Info Libr J. 2022 Mar 11.
      BACKGROUND: Public health students need to use different resources to those used by other health science students.OBJECTIVES: To compare how users expect to interact with library resources and services with how they reported actual interactions and expected future usage, to inform library planning.
    METHODS: During first semester orientation, a paper questionnaire was administered to graduate students (n = 25), followed by an end of semester questionnaire in a mandatory public health course. Differences (orientation vs. actual and actual vs. predicted future) were analysed using chi-square tests.
    RESULTS: Most graduate students utilized library resources as frequently as they anticipated at the semester's start. Regarding which library resources they would use, respondents' predictions during orientation were accurate. Respondent confidence in their abilities to use the library resources rose by the semester's end, and the group's expectations of using electronic books in the future semester increased significantly.
    DISCUSSION: Graduate students had realistic expectations when predicting their library resource usage and difficulties and most expected to value the quiet space as much as they did.
    CONCLUSION: Such tracking of group expectations, experience and predicted usage helps library managers' plan where support is required.
    Keywords:  education; education and training; graduate; library services; library space utilisation; public health; questionnaires; surveys
  7. Bioinformatics. 2022 Mar 11. pii: btac146. [Epub ahead of print]
      MOTIVATION: Identification and interpretation of clinically actionable variants is a critical bottleneck. Searching for evidence in the literature is mandatory according to ASCO/AMP/CAP practice guidelines, however it is both labor-intensive and error-prone. We developed a system to perform triage of publications relevant to support an evidence-based decision. The system is also able to prioritize variants. Our system searches within pre-annotated collections such as MEDLINE and PubMed Central.RESULTS: We assess the search effectiveness of the system using three different experimental settings: literature triage; variant prioritization and comparison of Variomes with LitVar. Almost two thirds of the publications returned in the top-5 are relevant for clinical decision-support. Our approach enabled identifying 81.8% of clinically actionable variants in the top-3. Variomes retrieves on average +21.3% more articles than LitVar and returns the same number of results or more results than LitVar for 90% of the queries when tested on a set of 803 queries; thus, establishing a new baseline for searching the literature about variants.
    AVAILABILITY: Variomes is publicly available at Source code is freely available at SynVar is publicly available at
    SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
  8. Database (Oxford). 2022 Mar 09. pii: baac003. [Epub ahead of print]2022
      To meet the increasing demand for data sharing, data reuse and meta-analysis in the immunology research community, we have developed the data discovery system ImmuneData. The system provides integrated access to five immunology data repositories funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation, including ImmPort, ImmuneSpace, ITN TrialShare, ImmGen and IEDB. ImmuneData restructures the data repositories' metadata into a uniform schema using domain experts' knowledge and state-of-the-art Natural Language Processing (NLP) technologies. It comes with a user-friendly web interface, accessible at, and a Google-like search engine for biological researchers to find and access data easily. The vast quantity of synonyms used in biomedical research increase the likelihood of incomplete search results. Thus, our search engine converts queries submitted by users into ontology terms, which are then expended by NLP technologies to ensure that the search results will include all synonyms for a particular concept. The system also includes an advanced search function to build customized queries to meet higher-level users' needs. ImmuneData ensures the FAIR principle (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability) of the five data repositories to benefit data reuse in the immunology research community. The data pipeline constructing our system can be extended to other data repositories to build a more comprehensive biological data discovery system.DATABASE URL:
  9. Eval Program Plann. 2022 Feb 15. pii: S0149-7189(22)00010-6. [Epub ahead of print]91 102056
      Validity is both a critical foundation for, and widely contested concept in the field of program evaluation. Given the wide and divergent treatment of the term, this article sought to enhance the field's understanding and application of validity by systematically identifying, collating and integrating existing conceptions of validity. A critical interpretive synthesis approach was taken to combine the best elements of systematic literature searching with integrative review. We found that conceptions of validity could be roughly collated into three categories pertaining to the evaluation research, evaluative judgement and reporting, and beyond the evaluation proper. The result was a wide-ranging map of validity concepts against the various stages of the evaluation process. This made clear several gaps in the validity thinking, resulting in the development of comprehensive but not yet complete framework that weaves together related aspects identified into a cohesive whole. It is our hope that this initial iteration of a cohesive validity framework will be the starting point for a cooperative effort to improve professional evaluation practice.
    Keywords:  Evaluation quality; Program evaluation; Validity
  10. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Mar 01. pii: 2867. [Epub ahead of print]19(5):
      Websites content accessibility guidelines (WCAG) ensure that websites should be perceivable, understandable, navigable, and interactive. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the importance of accessible websites and online content grew throughout the world. Therefore, in this study, we examined COVID-19-related official government websites. This research covered 21 government websites, with 13 websites from European countries and 8 websites from Asian countries, to evaluate their accessibility following WCAG 2.0 and WCAG 2.1 guidelines. The overall goal of this study was to identify the frequent accessibility problems that might help the website owners to identify the shortcomings of their websites. The target websites were evaluated in two steps: in step-1, evaluation was performed through four automatic web accessibility testing tools such as Mauve++, Nibbler, WAVE, and WEB accessibility tools; in step-2, evaluation went through human observation, such as system usability testing and expert testing. The automatic evaluation results showed that few of the websites were accessible; a significant number of websites were not accessible for people with disabilities. In addition, system usability testing found some complexity in website organization, short explanations, and outdated information. The expert testing suggested improving the color of the websites, organization of links, buttons, and font size. This study might be helpful for associated authorities to improve the quality of the websites in the future.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Mauve++; Nibbler; WAVE; WEB accessibility; accessibility guidelines; automated tools; information technology; web accessibility
  11. J Craniofac Surg. 2022 Mar 08.
      ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the quality of the information YouTubeTM offers to patients concerning dental implant failure. YouTubeTM was searched systematically using the keyword 'dental implant failure'. The first 100 videos were viewed by two independent researchers. For each video, its purpose, target audience and source were also recorded. A 10 point content scale (CS) was used to evaluate the video content. The Global Quality Scale (GQS) was also used to determine the quality of videos. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney test and correlation coefficient analyses were performed using Spearman's Rho. While 92.2% of the videos included in the study were uploaded by dentists/health institutions, only 3.1% were uploaded by laypersons. Of the videos, 40.6% were aimed at informing laypersons and 56.3% targetted professionals. The content which was discussed most (71.9%) was 'definition of a dental implant' followed by 'reasons for failure' (65.6%). The mean CS and GQS score of the videos were 3.75 ± 2.35 (moderate) and 2.07 ± 1.05 (generally poor), respectively. There was a positive correlation between the CS and GQS score (r = 0.620). The quality of information on YouTubeTM regarding dental implant failure was found inadequate. Thus, the information currently available online needs to be constantly checked and improved by professionals. In addition, clinicians should improve the ways in which they use YouTubeTM to better inform patients about the causes, risks and treatment choices involved with failed dental implants.
  12. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2022 Mar 06. 1-15
      Aims: To describe the characteristics of the most accessed YouTube videos in Brazilian-Portuguese on cerebral palsy (CP), and to analyze content of informational videos about this topic.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Searching on YouTube website was conducted by two independent examiners between November and December 2019, using the keywords "Paralisia Cerebral" sorted by videos' number of views. Videos that did not present content related to CP or duplicate videos were excluded. The interaction parameters and content characteristics of the included videos were extracted. To access the trustworthiness and quality of informational videos, the modified Discern checklist and the Global Quality Score was used.Results: Following the eligibility criteria 90 videos were included. Fifty-three (53) were classified as experiential videos and 37 as informational videos. Informational videos presented multi-topics about different aspects of CP. This group of videos presented moderate trustworthiness due to the lack of scientific evidence content. Informational videos had good quality and generally good flow.Conclusion: YouTube presented a large number of videos about CP in Brazilian-Portuguese. Informational videos are useful for patients and healthcare providers; however, it is necessary to included information about scientific evidence, as a strategy to facilitate and promote knowledge translation.
    Keywords:  Cerebral palsy; YouTube; health communication; healthcare information; social media
  13. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2022 Mar;23(1): 15-20
      AIM: To assess the quality and readability of ECC-related Web information available in English, Spanish, and Brazilian Portuguese language.METHODS: This study assessed the quality and readability of information related to ECC in three different languages found on the most popular Internet search engines worldwide. Websites were retrieved from different search engines using specific strategies. DISCERN questionnaire, JAMA benchmark criteria, and language-based readability formulas were used by two independent investigators to evaluate the quality and readability of websites. Also, contents were categorised according to aetiology, prevention, and treatment of ECC. The statistical analysis was performed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, hierarchical clustering analysis by Ward's minimum variance method, and Mann-Whitney U test. P values < 0.05 were considered significant.
    CONCLUSION: ECC-related digital contents were considered simple, accessible and of poor quality, independently of their language and authorship. These findings indicate the importance of professional counseling to empower parents in selecting and consuming adequate information towards the improvement of children's oral health.
  14. Vet Rec. 2022 Mar 07. e1487
      BACKGROUND: Many dog owners turn to the internet for pet care advice. As internet resources can positively or negatively influence owners' decision making and thus impact dogs' welfare, the identification of trustworthy information online is crucial.METHODS: A scoping review was conducted in 2014, and repeated in 2021, to assess the availability and quality indicators of information resources generated from Google searches using empirically derived dog owner internet search terms.
    RESULTS: A total of 121 unique resources were identified from 300 search hits in 2014, compared to 102 in 2021. On both occasions, the resources identified covered most aspects of dog care and related to all ages and breeds of dog. Flesch Kincaid readability scores indicated the majority to be easily understandable. However, many resources did not offer supporting evidence or a reference list, and the minority of resources stated an author. Of the resources identified in 2014, only 10% (n = 12/121) were dated, compared to 45% in 2021 (n = 46/102).
    CONCLUSION: This study found that while a great deal of information on caring for a new dog or puppy is available online, reliable indicators of quality were lacking, posing a barrier to owners' identification of trustworthy information.
    Keywords:  Flesch Kincaid; critical appraisal; dog owners; online information; puppy owners; scoping review; search terms
  15. Wideochir Inne Tech Maloinwazyjne. 2022 Mar;17(1): 226-231
      Introduction: The number of social media users is gradually increasing, and they are spending their time gathering a lot of useful information for themselves. Here, we analysed the quality of Holmium Laser Enucleation of Prostate (HoLEP) surgery videos on YouTube.Aim: To assess the quality of the most viewed HoLEP videos on YouTube using validated questionnaires and scoring systems developed to evaluate the significant features.
    Material and methods: The most viewed 98 videos were included in this study by the search for 'Holep' keyword on YouTube. The Journal of American Medical Association Benchmark Score (JAMAS) and Global Quality Score (GQS) were used to analyse the videos after the validated HoLEP Scoring System Score (HSSS) was performed by 3 HoLEP trained surgeons to evaluate the technical quality of videos.
    Results: The videos including surgical technique (76.5%) and uploaded by urologists (63.3%) constituted the majority of videos. The median of JAMAS, GQS, and HSSS were 1 (0-3), 2 (0-4), and 1.5 (0-11), respectively. The mean GQS and JAMAS of videos uploaded by academic centres was higher than those uploaded by commercial centres and urologists (p = 0.01; p = 0.01, respectively). The mean HSSS was lower in the videos uploaded in the last 5 years, while JAMAS was higher (p = 0.03, p = 0.005, respectively). The mean GQS and HSSS of videos with higher likes were found statistically significantly higher (p = 0.01; p = 0.02, respectively).
    Conclusions: HoLEP videos on YouTube are not adequate to obtain proper information about the surgery. Videos uploaded by academic centres and in recent years provide more valid information for patients and urologists. To increase the value of information, online materials need to be checked, for patients to access accurate, reliable, and appropriate healthcare information.
    Keywords:  benign prostatic hyperplasia; holmium laser enucleation of prostate; laser prostatectomy
  16. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2022 Jan 31. pii: S1748-6815(22)00069-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      PURPOSE: Patients increasingly consult social media regarding aesthetic surgery. Given the popularity of fat transfer operations, this study assesses the quality and reliability of patient information available on YouTube regarding aesthetic fat grafting.METHODS: The terms "fat grafting" and "fat transfer" were searched on YouTube with respect to the terms "face", "breast", "buttock", and "Brazilian butt lift". Filtered by view count, the top 20 unique, English language, aesthetic surgery-related videos for each search combination were reviewed by three independent reviewers for demographic and descriptive characteristics. Videos were rated for information reliability and quality using the modified DISCERN (MD) tool (1 = low, 5 = high) and global quality scale (GQS) (1 = poor, 5 = excellent).
    RESULTS: Out of 80 total videos, 76% were authored by physicians and 24% by laypersons. The overall mean MD score was 1.5 and the mean GQS was 2.6. Videos authored by physicians outscored those by non-medical authors (MD: 1.6 vs. 1.3; GQS 2.7 vs. 2.2). Board-certified plastic surgeon videos (N = 30) scored higher on both the MD (1.7 vs 1.3) and GQS (3.1 vs 2.2) than those of non-medical authors. On the contrary, videos by laypersons and non-plastic surgeons had 40% more views, twice as many "likes" and nearly double as many subscribers.
    CONCLUSION: The overall quality of information presented in aesthetic fat grafting procedures videos on YouTube is low and from unreliable sources. Surgeons should educate patients regarding potentially inaccurate information, and professional societies should disseminate high-quality media.
    Keywords:  Aesthetic surgery; Body contouring; Digital media; Fat grafting; Fat transfer; Internet; Plastic surgery; Video quality; YouTube
  17. BMJ Glob Health. 2022 03;pii: e008334. [Epub ahead of print]7(3):
      INTRODUCTION: Vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have been accessible to the public since December 2020. However, only 58.3% of Americans are fully vaccinated as of 5 November 2021. Numerous studies have supported YouTube as a source of both reliable and misleading information during the COVID-19 pandemic. Misinformation regarding the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines has negatively impacted vaccination intent. To date, the literature lacks a systematic evaluation of YouTube's content on COVID-19 vaccination using validated scoring tools. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, usability and quality of the most widely viewed YouTube videos on COVID-19 vaccination.METHODS: A search on YouTube was performed on 21 July 2021, using keywords 'COVID-19 vaccine' on a cleared-cache web browser. Search results were sorted by 'views', and the top 150 most-viewed videos were collected and analysed. Duplicate, non-English, non-audiovisual, exceeding 1-hour duration, or videos unrelated to COVID-19 vaccine were excluded. The primary outcome was usability and reliability of videos, analysed using the modified DISCERN (mDISCERN) score, the modified Journal of the American Medical Association (mJAMA) score and the COVID-19 Vaccine Score (CVS).
    RESULTS: CONCLUSION: As the COVID-19 pandemic evolves, widespread adoption of vaccination is essential in reducing morbidity, mortality, and returning to some semblance of normalcy. Providing high-quality and engaging health information from reputable sources is essential in addressing vaccine hesitancy.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; vaccines
  18. JMIR Cancer. 2022 Mar 11. 8(1): e29581
      BACKGROUND: Patients with skin cancer increasingly watch online videos to acquire disease-related information. Until now, no scientific evaluation of the quality of videos available for German-speaking patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has been performed.OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to identify and evaluate videos about BCC provided on YouTube.
    METHODS: A video search on YouTube was conducted in July 2020, using German BCC-related keywords (eg, "Basalzellkarzinom," "Basaliom," "weißer hautkrebs," and "heller hautkrebs"). The first three pages (ie, 60 videos) were searched by two independent researchers for each keyword. Two authors evaluated videos that met the predefined eligibility criteria. The quality of the information of the videos was evaluated using the DISCERN tool and the Global Quality Scale (GQS). The understandability and actionability were assessed with the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool for Audiovisual Materials (PEMAT-A/V). The reliability was assessed with the JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) criteria score. Subgroup differences were identified using the Kruskal-Wallis test.
    RESULTS: A total of 41 videos were included in the evaluation. The mean assessment scores were as follows: DISCERN, 3.3 (SD 0.80); GQS, 3.8 (SD 1.1); JAMA, 27.74% (SD 22.1%); understandability, 70.8% (SD 13.3%); and actionability, 45.9% (SD 43.7%). These values indicated that the videos were of medium to good quality and had good understandability, low actionability, and poor reliability. The quality of videos provided by health professionals was significantly higher than that of videos provided by laypersons.
    CONCLUSIONS: Optimization of health-related videos about BCC is desirable. In particular, adaptation to reliability criteria is necessary to support patient education and increase transparency.
    Keywords:  YouTube; basal cell carcinoma; information; internet; patient education; quality; reliability; shared decision-making; videos
  19. J Med Internet Res. 2022 Mar 11. 24(3): e25275
      BACKGROUND: In the physician-patient relationship, patients' uncertainty about diseases and the lack of trust in physicians not only hinder patients' rehabilitation but also disrupt the harmony in this relationship. With the development of the web-based health industry, patients can easily access web-based information about health care and physicians, thus reducing patients' uncertainty to some extent. However, it is not clear how patients' web-based health information-seeking behaviors reduce their uncertainty.OBJECTIVE: On the basis of the principal-agent theory and the perspective of uncertainty reduction, this study aims to investigate the mechanism of how web-based disease-related information and web-based physician-related information reduce patients' uncertainty.
    METHODS: A web-based survey involving 337 participants was conducted. In this study, we constructed a structural equation model and used SmartPLS (version 3.3.3; SmartPLS GmbH) software to test the reliability and validity of the measurement model. The path coefficients of the structural model were also calculated to test our hypotheses.
    RESULTS: By classifying patients' uncertainties into those concerning diseases and those concerning physicians, this study identified the different roles of the two types of patients' uncertainty and revealed that web-based disease-related information quality and web-based physician-related information can act as uncertainty mitigators. The quality of disease-related information reduces patients' perceived information scarcity about the disease (β=-.588; P<.001), and the higher the information scarcity perceived by patients, the higher their uncertainty toward the disease (β=.111; P=.02). As for physician-related information, web-based word-of-mouth information about physicians reduces patients' perceived information scarcity about the physician (β=-.511; P<.001), mitigates patients' fears about physician opportunism (β=-.268; P<.001), and facilitates patients' trust (β=.318; P<.001). These factors further influence patients' uncertainty about the physician. In addition, from the test of mediating effect, patients' trust in the physician fully mediates the relationship between their perceived information scarcity about the physician's medical service and their uncertainty about the physician. Patients' trust also partially mediates the relationship between their fear of the physician's opportunism and their uncertainty about the physician. As for the two different types of uncertainty, patients' uncertainty about the physician also increases their uncertainty about the diseases (β=.587; P<.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: This study affirms the role of disease-related web-based information quality and physician-related web-based word-of-mouth information in reducing patients' uncertainties. With regard to the traits of principal-agent relationships, this study describes the influence mechanism based on patients' perceived information scarcity, fears of physicians' opportunism, and patients' trust. Moreover, information about physicians is effective in reducing patients' uncertainties, but only if the information enhances patients' trust in their physicians. This research generates new insights into understanding the impact of web-based health information on patients' uncertainties.
    Keywords:  online health information quality; online word-of-mouth; patient trust; patient uncertainty; physician-patient relationship; principal-agent theory
  20. JMIR Pediatr Parent. 2022 Mar 04. 5(1): e32406
      BACKGROUND: One of the largest groups of consumers who seek health information on the internet are parents of young children, as well as people in their social circle. The concept of proxy seeking (on behalf of others) has been explored in the literature, yet little is known about the outcomes.OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to describe consumer health information outcomes reported by proxy seekers using a parenting website.
    METHODS: We conducted a 2-year quantitative observational study. Participants were parents of 0- to 8-year-old children and members of their entourage in Canada who had accessed Naître et Grandir through the website or through a weekly newsletter. For each Naître et Grandir webpage, participants' perceptions regarding the outcomes of seeking and using specific webpages were gathered using a content-validated Information Assessment Method questionnaire. We compared the outcomes reported by parents with those reported by members of their entourage after consulting a parenting information website and explored if the method of accessing the information by the proxy seekers (website or weekly newsletter) changed the outcomes reported. For key primary survey items, the chi-square test was conducted, and differences in relative frequencies of responses were computed along with confidence intervals.
    RESULTS: A total of 51,325 completed questionnaires were included in the analysis, pertaining to 1079 Naître et Grandir webpages (mean 48; range 1-637). Compared to parents, individuals in the entourage are more likely to report using the information in discussion with others (mean difference 0.166, 95% CI 0.155-0.176). Parents, on the other hand, were more likely than the entourage to report using the information to better understand (mean difference 0.084, 95% CI 0.073-0.094), to decide to do something (mean difference 0.156, 95% CI 0.146-0.166), or to do something in a different manner (mean difference 0.052, 95% CI 0.042-0.061). In addition, results suggest that the differences in perceived benefits of parenting information by the entourage depend on how they access the information. Respondents who were actively seeking the information (through the website) were more likely to report that the information would help them be less worried (mean difference 0.047; 95% CI 0.024-0.069), handle a problem (mean difference 0.083; 95% CI 0.062-0.104), and decide what to do with someone else (mean difference 0.040, 95% CI 0.020-0.058). Respondents who passively acquired the information (through the newsletter) were more likely to report that the information would help improve the health or well-being of a child (mean difference 0.090; 95% CI 0.067-0.112).
    CONCLUSIONS: By better understanding how consumers and their entourages use information, information providers can adapt information to meet both individual and group needs, and health care practitioners can target patients' entourages with web-based health information resources for dissemination and use.
    Keywords:  child development; child health; consumer health information; digital health; health information; information outcomes; information seeking behavior; online information; parenting
  21. J Correct Health Care. 2022 Mar 08.
      This study examined factors influencing health information and mental health support seeking among individuals in U.S. prisons using the 2014 data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies. Results showed that not only are age, race, health status, receiving health information (e.g., from health experts, friends, and other incarcerated individuals), and readiness to learn associated with health information seeking from the media, but so too are competencies such as literacy, numeracy, and problem-solving skills. Years of education moderated the association between social trust and seeking mental health support. In addition, gender, work duration, and attending substance abuse support groups, life skills groups, and religious groups are associated with seeking mental health support in prisons. Findings from this study may provide insight for correctional health stakeholders working in partnership to deliver more tailored health and mental health interventions in U.S. prison settings.
    Keywords:  access to health care; disadvantaged population; health behavior; mental health support; quality of life
  22. JMIR Form Res. 2022 Mar 11. 6(3): e29819
      BACKGROUND: AIDS, caused by HIV, is a leading cause of mortality in Africa. HIV/AIDS is among the greatest public health challenges confronting health authorities, with South Africa having the greatest prevalence of the disease in the world. There is little research into how Africans meet their health information needs on HIV/AIDS online, and this research gap impacts programming and educational responses to the HIV/AIDS pandemic.OBJECTIVE: This paper reports on how, in general, interest in the search terms "HIV" and "AIDS" mirrors the increase in people living with HIV and the decline in AIDS cases in South Africa.
    METHODS: Data on search trends for HIV and AIDS for South Africa were found using the search terms "HIV" and "AIDS" (categories: health, web search) on Google Trends. This was compared with data on estimated adults and children living with HIV, and AIDS-related deaths in South Africa, from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, and also with search interest in the topics "HIV" and "AIDS" on Wikipedia Afrikaans, the most developed local language Wikipedia service in South Africa. Nonparametric statistical tests were conducted to support the trends and associations identified in the data.
    RESULTS: Google Trends shows a statistically significant decline (P<.001) in search interest for AIDS relative to HIV in South Africa. This trend mirrors progress on the ground in South Africa and is significantly associated (P<.001) with a decline in AIDS-related deaths and people living longer with HIV. This trend was also replicated on Wikipedia Afrikaans, where there was a greater interest in HIV than AIDS.
    CONCLUSIONS: This statistically significant (P<.001) association between interest in the search terms "HIV" and "AIDS" in South Africa (2004-2019) and the number of people living with HIV and AIDS in the country (2004-2019) might be an indicator that multilateral efforts at combating HIV/AIDS-particularly through awareness raising and behavioral interventions in South Africa-are bearing fruit, and this is not only evident on the ground, but is also reflected in the online information seeking on the HIV/AIDS pandemic. We acknowledge the limitation that in studying the association between Google search interests on HIV/AIDS and cases/deaths, causal relationships should not be drawn due to the limitations of the data.
    Keywords:  Google Trends; HIV/AIDS; Wikipedia; big data; information seeking behavior; online behavior; online health information; public health; web search
  23. Beyoglu Eye J. 2022 ;7(1): 9-17
      Objectives: The current study aimed to test the quality and educational utility of the videos of retinal detachment surgery available on YouTube.Methods: YouTube was searched using the keywords "retinal detachment, retinal detachment surgery" in October 2019. The steps of pars plana vitrectomy surgery were standardized according to the literature. The videos were evaluated in a blinded fashion by two retina specialists with the use of the Modified DISCERN, Health on the Net Foundation (HON)code, the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) checklist, and the Global Quality Score (GQS).
    Results: A total of 125 videos were reviewed. The total surgery score was 3.11 (2.16-3.67 IQR), and the most commonly shown surgical stages were photocoagulation and core vitrectomy (n = 99 [79.2%] and n = 97 [77.6%], respectively). In the multivariate linear regression model, the duration of video (minutes) (β- Coefficient 0.033, p<0.001), the HONcode score (β-Coefficient 0.310, p=0.005), and GQS (β-Coefficient 0.768, p<0.001) were associated with better educational content, whereas JAMA and Modified DISCERN scores were not.
    Conclusion: So far, the educational value of YouTube videos has been unsatisfactory. Assessing the videos using tools such as HONcode, video duration and GQS may provide better educational perspective to ophthalmology trainees.
    Keywords:  Retina; Surgery; Video; Vitreoretinal; YouTube
  24. Divers Divergence Dialogue (2021). 2021 Mar;12646 18-36
      Pregnancy often imposes risks on women's health. Consumers are increasingly turning to online resources (e.g., online health communities) to look for pregnancy-related information for better care management. To inform design opportunities for online support interventions, it is critical to thoroughly understand consumers' information needs throughout the entire course of pregnancy including three main stages: pre-pregnancy, during-pregnancy, and postpartum. In this study, we present a content analysis of pregnancy-related question posts on Yahoo! Answers to examine how they formulated their inquiries, and the types of replies that information seekers received. This analysis revealed 14 main types of information needs, most of which were "stage-based". We also found that peers from online health communities provided a variety of support, including affirmation of pregnancy, opinions or suggestions, health information, personal experience, and reference to health providers' service. Insights derived from the findings are drawn to discuss design opportunities for tailoring informatics interventions to support consumers' information needs at different pregnancy stages.
    Keywords:  Consumer Health Information; Information Seeking; Needs Assessment; Online Community; Pregnant Women
  25. JMIR Cancer. 2022 Feb 19.
      BACKGROUND: Online health communities (OHCs) provide ovarian cancer (OvCa) patients, survivors, and their caregivers with help beyond traditional support channels, such as health care providers and clinicians. OvCa OHCs promote connections and exchanges of information among users who have similar experiences. Users often exchange information, which leads to sharing resources in the form of weblinks. Although OHCs are important platforms for health management, concerns exist regarding the quality and relevance of the shared resources. Previous studies have examined different aspects of resource-sharing behaviors, such as the purpose of sharing, the type of shared resources, and peer user reaction on shared resources in OHCs to evaluate resource exchange scenarios. However, there is a paucity of research that examines whether these resource-sharing behaviors can ultimately determine the relevance of shared resources.OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the association between OHC resource-sharing behaviors and the relevance of shared resources. We analyzed three aspects of resource-sharing behaviors: types of shared resources, the purpose of sharing the resources, and OHC users' reactions to shared resources.
    METHODS: Using a retrospective design, data were extracted from the National ovarian cancer coalition (NOCC) discussion forum. A resource's relevance was classified on three levels: relevant, partially relevant, and not relevant. Resource-sharing behaviors were identified through manual content analysis. A significance test was performed to determine the association between resource relevance and resource-sharing behaviors.
    RESULTS: 49.4% (n=85) of the shared resources were identified as relevant, 30% (n=52) as partially relevant, and 22% (n=39) as irrelevant. The study established a significant association between the types of shared resources (X2=33.2, P<.001) and resource relevance (through chi-square tests of independence). Among the types of shared resources, health consumer materials such as health news (P<.001) and health organizations (P=0.02) exhibited significantly more relevant resources. Patient educational materials (P<.001) and patient-generated resources (P=.01) were more significantly associated with partially relevant and irrelevant resources, respectively. Expert health materials including academic literature were only shared a few times, but had significantly (P<.001) more relevant resources. A significant association (X2 =22.9, P<.001) was also established between the purpose of resource sharing and overall resource relevance. Resources shared with the purpose of providing additional readings (P=.01) and pointing to resources (P=.03), had significantly more relevant resources, while subjects for discussion and to stay connected did not include any relevant shared resources.
    CONCLUSIONS: The associations found between the resource-sharing behaviors and relevance of these resources can help in collecting relevant resources, along with corresponding information needs from OvCa OHCs on a large scale through automation. The results from this study can be leveraged to prioritize resources required by OvCa survivors and their caregivers, as well as automate the search for relevant shared resources in OvCa OHCs.
  26. J Biomed Inform. 2022 Mar 06. pii: S1532-0464(22)00056-9. [Epub ahead of print]128 104040
      Searching for health information online is becoming customary for more and more consumers every day, which makes the need for efficient and reliable question answering systems more pressing. An important contributor to the success rates of these systems is their ability to fully understand the consumers' questions. However, these questions are frequently longer than needed and mention peripheral information that is not useful in finding relevant answers. Question summarization is one of the potential solutions to simplifying long and complex consumer questions before attempting to find an answer. In this paper, we study the task of abstractive summarization for real-world consumer health questions. We develop an abstractive question summarization model that leverages the semantic interpretation of a question via recognition of medical entities, which enables generation of informative summaries. Towards this, we propose multiple Cloze tasks (i.e. the task of filing missing words in a given context) to identify the key medical entities that enforce the model to have better coverage in question-focus recognition. Additionally, we infuse the decoder inputs with question-type information to generate question-type driven summaries. When evaluated on the MeQSum benchmark corpus, our framework outperformed the state-of-the-art method by 10.2 ROUGE-L points. We also conducted a manual evaluation to assess the correctness of the generated summaries.
    Keywords:  Abstractive Summarization; Biomedical Question Answering; Consumer Health Question Answering; Consumer Health Question Summarization; Transformers
  27. J Res Nurs. 2021 Jun;26(4): 320-338
      Background/aims: To review the literature on college students' healthcare-seeking behaviours to uncover the current evidence and promote better healthcare-seeking behaviours and essentially better health outcomes in young adults.Methods: The researchers conducted an extensive literature review using CINAHL, Cochrane, PubMed, EBSCOhost and Google Scholar in the years 2018 and 2019. The search was limited to the past 18 years (2000-2018) and to studies reported in the English language focused on the general healthcare-seeking behaviour of college students. The search was also extended to young adults (aged 18-39 years).
    Results: A total of 56 articles were identified for abstract review and only 28 articles met the inclusion criteria for the final review. The following themes emerged to organise our findings: healthcare-seeking behaviour among college students, health information resource utilisation and its influence on healthcare-seeking behaviours and barriers to accessing care among college students.
    Conclusions: This review summarises the current body of knowledge related to healthcare-seeking behaviour among college students, health information resource utilisation and its influence on healthcare-seeking behaviour and barriers to accessing care among this population. Important measures further to address the health needs and interventions for addressing these needs among the college student population are discussed.
    Keywords:  barriers; college students; healthcare-seeking behaviours; review; young adults
  28. IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform. 2022 Mar 08. PP
      In recent years, Biomedical Named Entity Recognition (BioNER) systems have mainly been based on deep neural networks, which are used to extract information from the rapidly expanding biomedical literature. Long-distance context autoencoding language models based on transformers have recently been employed for BioNER with great success. However, noise interference exists in the process of pre-training and fine-tuning, and there is no effective decoder for label dependency. Current models have many aspects in need of improvement for better performance. We propose two kinds of noise reduction models, Shared Labels and Dynamic Splicing, based on XLNet encoding which is a permutation language pre-training model and decoding by Conditional Random Field (CRF). By testing 15 biomedical named entity recognition datasets, the two models improved the average F1-score by 1.504 and 1.48, respectively, and state-of-the-art performance was achieved on 7 of them. Further analysis proves the effectiveness of the two models and the improvement of the recognition effect of CRF, and suggests the applicable scope of the models according to different data characteristics.