bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2022‒02‒06
sixty papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. Health Info Libr J. 2022 Feb 02.
      This is the last of three articles based on a series of articles published in the Health Information and Libraries Journal's Regular Feature (International Perspectives and Initiatives). Key trends from 12 countries in Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia were identified. In this issue, the last five trends are considered: (1) Participation in collaborations, networks, partnerships, social networks; (2) Repurposing library space; (3) Focus on user experience; (4) Impact of technology on the provision of services; and (5) Engaging with the public. Readers are challenged to compare these trends with their own experiences.
    Keywords:  case reports; collaboration; digital information resources; information literacy; information seeking behaviour; librarians, health science; libraries, health science; library space utilization; patient education; professional associations
  2. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 143-155
      When Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D. became Director of the U.S. National Library of Medicine in 1984, trained searchers, primarily librarians, conducted less than three million searches of NLM databases. They paid for their fair share of the commercial telecommunications costs to reach NLM's computer system. In 2015 when Lindberg retired, millions of scientists, health professionals, patients, members of the public, and librarians conducted billions of free searches of NLM's greatly expanded electronic resources via the Internet. Lindberg came to NLM intending to expand access to biomedical and health information along multiple dimensions: reaching more users, providing more types and volumes of information and data; and improving the conceptual, technical, and organizational connections needed to provide information to users when and where it is needed. By any measure he and NLM were spectacularly successful. This chapter discusses some key decisions and developments that contributed to that success.
    Keywords:  Consumer Health Information; Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; History; Internet Access; Librarians; MEDLINE; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  3. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 245-254
      Under the leadership of NLM Director Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D., the National Library of Medicine (NLM) continued to promote its services to the nation's health care professionals and scientists. With support of the U.S. Congress, it initiated new communications and outreach programs and services directed at the general public that revolutionized their access to information as well. Because effective health communication must be tailored for the audience and the situation, Lindberg supported the development of online health information tools designed to help consumers find free, comprehensive, timely, and trustworthy sources of health information that, ultimately, can improve patient outcomes. New and popular consumer-friendly websites were championed by Lindberg, including MedlinePlus, and, and he formed unique partnerships with national physician organizations to educate their patients about reliable sources of health information from the NLM. A new era of timely and trusted online health information for the general public began in 2006 under Lindberg's tenure culminating in the development, publication and distribution of NIH's first consumer magazine, NIH MedlinePlus, featuring the research and findings of the NIH. In his effort to improve patient outcomes, Dr. Lindberg revolutionized the Library's outreach capabilities and successfully expanded its mission to serve not only health professionals and scientists, but also consumers nationwide.
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; U.S. National Library of Medicine; consumer health; outreach
  4. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 223-232
      Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D. was a strong proponent of self-improvement for all professions. He believed it was imperative for health sciences librarians to embrace lifelong learning as the Internet and networked information radically changed their work and opened new opportunities to increase their scope and impact. During Dr. Lindberg's 1984-2015 tenure as its Director, the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) became an even more dominant influence on education and career development of health sciences librarians. This chapter focuses on the way NLM partnered with other institutions and organizations to ensure that education and training were consistently part of the roll-out of new NLM programs and services as they were implemented.
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; Education and Training; Medical Library Association; National Network of Libraries of Medicine; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  5. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 213-222
      This chapter describes how the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), under the leadership of Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D., promoted new and expanded roles for librarians and information specialists in response to advances in technology and public policy. These advances brought information services directly to all potential users, including health professionals and the public and stimulated NLM to expand its programs, policies, and services to serve all. Dr. Lindberg included librarians and information specialists in all of NLM's new endeavors, helping both to recognize and establish new or expanded roles. The involvement of librarians and information specialists in multidisciplinary healthcare research teams, in underserved communities, and in research data management and compliance has helped to redefine the health sciences information profession for the 21st century.
    Keywords:  Access to Information; Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; Librarians; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  6. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 283-298
      Donald A.B. Lindberg, M.D., brought with him when he joined NLM an inquisitive mind, tech savvy, and new ideas. He was an early advocate of both outreach and evaluation innovation at NLM. Dr. Lindberg initiated and supported multiple pilot test and implementation projects to strengthen NLM's health information outreach to healthcare providers, research scientists, health science and hospital librarians, and the general public, including minority and underserved populations. He helped steer NLM's transition to the Internet, and NLM's development of a robust framework for evaluating Internet and Web-based health information dissemination and outreach to its many audiences. Dr. Lindberg's leadership led to numerous landmark accomplishments, including the capacity-building "Measuring the Difference" outreach evaluation Guide, and a multidimensional approach to Internet and website evaluation that placed NLM at the forefront of federal agencies using these new and emerging technologies to support their missions.
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; Internet performance; U.S. National Library of Medicine; customer satisfaction; evaluation; health information dissemination; outreach; usage data; user surveys; web data analytics; websites
  7. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 299-311
      This chapter considers the transformation of U.S. National Library of Medicine's (NLM) national network of libraries into an effective force for spreading awareness of NLM's resources, services, and tools and increasing their use. Several examples of network programs and projects are recounted to illustrate the influence of NLM's longest serving Director, Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D. on the development and evolution of NLM's library network.
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM); Outreach; Regional Medical Library; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  8. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 167-177
      When Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D. was sworn in as Director of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) in 1984, MEDLINE, NLM's online database of citations and abstracts to biomedical journal articles, was searched primarily by librarians trained to use its command language interface. There were fees for searching, primarily to recover the cost of using commercial value-added telecommunications networks. Thirteen years later, in 1997, MEDLINE became free to anyone with an Internet connection and a Web browser. This chapter provides an insider's view of how Dr. Lindberg's vision and leadership - combined with new technology, astute handling of policy issues, and key help from political supporters and influential advocates - enabled a tremendous expansion in access to biomedical and health information for scientists, health professionals, patients, and the public.
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; MEDLINE; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  9. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 100-112
      Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D. arrived at the U.S. National Library of Medicine in 1984 and quickly launched the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) research and development project to help computer understand biomedical meaning and to enable retrieval and integration of information from disparate electronic sources, e.g., patient records, biomedical literature, knowledge bases. This chapter focuses on how Lindberg's thinking, preferred ways of working, and decision-making guided UMLS goals and development and on what made the UMLS markedly "new and different" and ahead of its time.
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; U.S. National Library of Medicine; Unified Medical Language System
  10. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 178-188
      When Dr. Lindberg was sworn in as Director, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) was providing few resources with information useful to the public, having concentrated efforts towards health professionals and scientists. With his arrival, and that of the Internet in the 1990s, NLM embarked on a research and user-focused path towards providing authoritative health information for patients, families and the public. MedlinePlus, NIHSeniorHealth, and MedlinePlus en espanol delivered health information in a variety of formats using text, still images, audio and video. These resources were supported by NLM advisors and Dr. Lindberg's strong belief that patients and families needed easy access to medical information to be able to effectively care for themselves in illness and maintain the best health possible throughout their lives.
    Keywords:  Consumer Health Information; Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; Go Local; MedlinePlus; MedlinePlus Connect; MedlinePlus en español; NIHSeniorHealth; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  11. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 312-324
      Before the modern internet and World Wide Web drastically simplified our access to scientific information, accessing the authoritative information of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) from outside the U.S. was for many very difficult. Compared to the totality of people with access to computers globally at the time, only a privileged group of biomedical researchers and practitioners could afford this access. The NLM was making great contributions developing products and collaborations to reduce the information gap for many underserved communities. This article describes a remarkable initiative started from the other end, underserved information users creating a solution to help the international community reach the NLM resources. Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D., the NLM Director and health informatics pioneer, believed in letting users guide the NLM down its path of service. The BITNIS project is a successful example of his leadership philosophy at a turning point in health informatics history.
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; Health informatics history; U.S. National Library of Medicine; bibliographical information; computer networks; electronic information services
  12. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 3-11
      This overview summary of the Informatics Section of the book Transforming biomedical informatics and health information access: Don Lindberg and the U.S. National Library of Medicine illustrates how the NLM revolutionized the field of biomedical and health informatics during Lindberg's term as NLM Director. Authors present a before-and-after perspective of what changed, how it changed, and the impact of those changes.
    Keywords:  Biomedical Informatics; Donald A.B. Lindberg; Health Informatics; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  13. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 32-42
      The Integrated Academic/Advanced Information Systems (IAIMS) program began in 1983 and was based on a study by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D. was a member of the AAMC Advisory Committee. The U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) grants for IAIMS were initiated in 1984 the same year Dr. Lindberg became Director of the NLM. This chapter presents an overview of IAIMS and its progression through three stages with Dr. Lindberg's leadership.
    Keywords:  Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC); IAIMS; Integrated Information; Integrated Resources; Medical Libraries; National Library of Medicine (NLM)
  14. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 156-166
      Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D. arrived as Director, U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) in late 1984 with the intention of implementing a physician-friendly interface to MEDLINE, a prime example of his interest in making NLM information services more directly useful in medical care. By early 1986, NLM's Grateful Med, an inexpensive PC search interface to MEDLINE useful for health professionals, had joined the group of end-user systems for searching MEDLINE that emerged in the 1980s. This chapter recounts Grateful Med's rapid iterative development and the subsequent campaign to bring it to attention of health professionals. It emphasizes Lindberg's role, the challenges faced by those introducing and using the interface in a pre-Internet world, and some longer-term effects of the effort to expand health professionals' use of MEDLINE during the decade from 1986 to 1996.
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; Grateful Med; MEDLARS; U.S. National Library of Medicine; User-Computer Interface
  15. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 201-212
      Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D., Director of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) from August 1984-March 2015, had a remarkable vision for NLM's scope, goals, and function. This vision resulted in many external partnerships and initiatives with the publishing industry, commercial and non-profit, journal editors, and professional organizations. These partnerships ranged from ongoing collaboration and dialogue, such as the NLM Publisher's Committee and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). to the more practical, such as the creation of HINARI and the Emergency Access Initiative (EAI). Dr. Lindberg fostered partnerships outside the NLM to expand the use and reach of Library resources, including MEDLINE and to support innovations in the processes that build them, and improve the quality of biomedical journals. Dr. Lindberg also encouraged the use of technology to enhance medical information and supported the early development of fully interactive publications. Attitudes that contained a measure of skepticism and distrust faded as collaborators came to have a better understanding of both NLM and their partners. This chapter discusses these relationships and accomplishments that NLM achieved working with publishers and other creators and disseminators of medical information under Dr. Lindberg's leadership.
    Keywords:; Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; MEDLINE; Publishing; Scholarly Communication; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  16. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 263-272
      In June 1993, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) joined with the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) Office of AIDS Research (OAR), and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to host a conference at a pivotal time in the HIV/AIDS epidemic to understand better the information needs of five major constituency groups: clinical researchers; clinical providers; news media and the public; patients; and the affected community. NLM's director, Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D., and staff sought to identify new program possibilities benefitting from the input of current and potential users of the Library's information services. Conference recommendations led to a key NLM policy change providing cost-free access to all AIDS data, and the establishment of the HIV/AIDS Community Information Outreach Program (ACIOP), which enabled new partnerships with local community-based organizations serving the affected community. Uniquely funded and long running, more than 300 ACIOP projects have been supported to-date. These projects have improved awareness and use of national HIV/AIDS information resources; enhanced information seeking skills; developed locally generated information resources; and enhanced the capacity of community-based organizations to use new information and computer technologies providing access to essential information resources and services.
    Keywords:  Community-Based Outreach; Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; HIV/AIDS Community Information Outreach Program; HIV/AIDS Information Services Conference; U.S. National Institutes of Health; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  17. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 235-244
      Friends and colleagues of Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D. came together to give tribute to his extraordinary contributions during his tenure (1984-2015) as Director of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). Dr. Lindberg died in 2019. The book, Transforming biomedical informatics and health information access: Don Lindberg and the U.S. National Library of Medicine. includes four sections. The ten edited chapters in section three (the Outreach section) are briefly summarized in this overview. As Associate Director for Health Information Programs Development, Elliot R. Siegel Ph.D. coordinated NLM's outreach programming under Dr. Lindberg's leadership from its inception in 1989 to his own retirement in 2010. Dr. Lindberg's legacy at NLM is one of new possibilities imagined, significant changes made in the mission and ethos of a venerable institution, and numerous successes achieved in a variety of settings and contexts. Like so much else Dr. Lindberg accomplished, these Outreach programs that profoundly changed the character of NLM would likely not have occurred without him. He made a difference.
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; Outreach; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  18. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 325-337
      In 1997, Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D., Director, U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) agreed to address the request of African malaria researchers for access to the Internet and medical journals as part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health's (NIH) contribution to the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM). This challenge matched my interests and previous experience in Africa. I joined NLM in 1997 to help establish the MIM Communications Network (MIMCom) in partnership with several NIH components and more than 30 other partners in Africa, the U.S., the United Kingdom (U.K.), and Europe. After a successful launch of MIMCom, NLM worked with African partners to create a series of innovative programs to build capacity in Africa and enhance global access to indigenous African research.
    Keywords:  Global Health; Information Technology; Malaria; National Library of Medicine (U.S.); Sub-Saharan Africa
  19. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 43-50
      Through his visionary leadership as Director of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D. influenced future generations of informatics professionals and the field of biomedical informatics itself. This chapter describes Dr. Lindberg's role in sponsoring and shaping the NLM's Institutional T15 training programs.
    Keywords:  Biomedical Informatics Training; Donald A.B. Lindberg; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  20. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 74-84
      Precision medicine offers the potential to improve health through deeper understandings of the lifestyle, biological, and environmental influences on health. Under Dr. Donald A.B. Lindberg's leadership, the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) has developed the central reference resources for biomedical research and molecular laboratory medicine that enable precision medicine. The hosting and curation of biomedical knowledge repositories and data by NLM enable quality information reachable for providers and researchers throughout the world. NLM has been supporting the innovation of electronic health record systems to implement computability and secondary use for biomedical research, producing the scale of linked health and molecular datasets necessary for precision medicine discovery.
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg; Electronic Health Records; Genomics; National Library of Medicine; Precision Medicine
  21. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 423-427
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  22. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 113-121
      The highest priority new initiative resulting from the 1985-86 National Library of Medicine Long Range Planning exercise initiated by NLM Director Dr. Donald A.B. Lindberg was the creation of new information resources and services related to molecular biology and genetics, termed "biotechnology information". Beginning with existing NLM resources and research projects associated with molecular data, and with Lindberg's enthusiastic support, the institution launched a Congressionally-mandated Center that has become an essential part of 21st century biomedical science.
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg; Genomics; Human Genome Project; National Center for Biotechnology Information; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  23. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 23-31
      Among the many contributions of Donald A.B. Lindberg was his work on behalf of a variety or professional organizations in the field of biomedical and health informatics. These began during his early days at the University of Missouri and continued throughout his 30 years at the National Library of Medicine. This chapter summarizes that work, which occurred both through his personal efforts and through the impact of the NLM under his leadership. Examples include his role in the development of organizations themselves (e.g., the International Medical Informatics Association, the American College of Medical Informatics, and the American Medical Informatics Association) and also his contributions to the professional scientific meetings that have advanced the field (e.g., the Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care, MEDINFO, and the AMIA Annual Symposium).
    Keywords:  American Medical Informatics Association; Donald A.B. Lindberg; International Medical Informatics Association; Medical Informatics; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  24. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 51-63
      The U.S. National Library of Medicine's Biomedical Informatics Short Course ran from 1992 to 2017, most of that time at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Its intention was to provide physicians, medical librarians and others engaged in health care with a basic understanding of the major topics in informatics so that they could return to their home institutions as "change agents". Over the years, the course provided week-long, intense, morning-to-night experiences for some 1,350 students, consisting of lectures and hands-on project development, taught by many luminaries in the field, not the least of which was Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D., who spoke on topics ranging from bioinformatics to national policy.
    Keywords:  Biomedical Informatics Training; Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; Marine Biological Laboratory; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  25. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 255-262
      The U.S. National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Environmental Health Information Partnership (EnHIP) collaborates with Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and other minority-serving academic institutions to enhance their capacity to reduce health disparities through the access, use, and delivery of environmental health information on their campuses and in their communities. The partnership began in 1991 as the Toxicology Information Outreach Panel (TIOP) pilot project, and through successive iterations it is NLM's longest running outreach activity. EnHIP's continued relevance today as an information outreach and training program testifies to the prescience of NLM director, Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D's initial support for the program. Dr. Lindberg's seeing to its continued success to benefit participating institutions and help achieve the societal goals of environmental justice serve as well to benefit NLM by increasing its visibility, and use of its resources in the classroom, for research, and in community outreach. NLM envisions an expanding role for EnHIP in advancing health equity as the impact of environmental exposure, climate change, and increasing zoonotic diseases disproportionately impact their communities.
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; Environmental Health Information Partnership; Environmental Justice; Health Disparities; Historical Black Colleges and Universities; Outreach; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  26. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 12-22
      As a young pathologist, Donald A.B. Lindberg, M.D., tirelessly sought scientific solutions to clinical and research problems. Directing several clinical laboratories at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Dr. Lindberg developed the world's first computerized laboratory information system, speeding analysis and reporting. He directed his team in building computer systems to help clinicians retrieve medical knowledge, enable patients to find information about personal or family health issues, and provide expert automated assistance to physicians in reaching differential diagnoses outside their specialties. Developing superior functionalities with the limited information technologies of the time, Dr. Lindberg's pioneering work in Columbia foreshadowed his subsequent inspired leadership as Director of the United States National Library of Medicine.
    Keywords:  AI/COAG; AI/RHEUM; Artificial Intelligence; CONSIDER; Computers in Medicine; Donald A.B. Lindberg; Knowledge Based Systems; Laboratory Information Systems; Regional Medical Program; University of Missouri-Columbia
  27. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 375-381
      Section four provides additional insights into Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.'s life, character, interests, and passions. It includes 20 memoirs, a few of his photographs, a Resource Guide, and an essay about the influence of his home library and leadership traits. Section four's 20 memoirs are brief, more colloquial, and sometimes personal. The memoirs discuss Dr. Lindberg's interactions with family, lifelong friends, biomedical informatics colleagues, and U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) peers. The Resource Guide, photos, and essay yield other insights and assist readers who wish to learn more about Dr. Lindberg.
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; U.S. National Library of Medicine; leadership; memoirs
  28. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 454-458
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; History of the U.S. National Library of Medicine; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  29. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 403-405
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; Randolph A. Miller M.D.; U.S. National Library of Medicine; biomedical informatics; leadership
  30. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 437-453
      This chapter introduces the importance and some of the multidisciplinary diversity in Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.'s home library. The latter collection minimally suggests his varied interests, which often inspired a multidisciplinary approach to tackling problems and managing the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). Dr. Lindberg converted the ideas he picked up from reading into administering projects as well as to set aspirational goals for NLM and for himself. The chapter suggests Dr. Lindberg's home library was an enduring reservoir of knowledge, judgment, planning, and creativity. The chapter also discusses two of Dr. Lindberg's leadership traits: the cultivation of discovery and project development in educational administration and the need for leaders to determine and act in the greater public interest. The chapter suggests the latter two traits defined Dr. Lindberg's NLM leadership.
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; U.S. National Library of Medicine; administration; leadership; public interest; vision
  31. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 421-422
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; National Institutes of Health; U.S. National Library of Medicine; transgender
  32. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 85-99
      When Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D. became Director in 1984, the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) was a leader in the development and use of information standards for published literature but had no involvement with standards for clinical data. When Dr. Lindberg retired in 2015, NLM was the Central Coordinating Body for Clinical Terminology Standards within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, a major funder of ongoing maintenance and free dissemination of clinical terminology standards required for use in U.S. electronic health records (EHRs), and the provider of many services and tools to support the use of terminology standards in health care, public health, and research. This chapter describes key factors in the transformation of NLM into a significant player in the establishment of U.S. terminology standards for electronic health records.
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; Electronic Health Records; Health Information Exchange; Logical Observation Identifiers Names Codes; RxNorm; Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  33. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 64-73
      The U.S. National Library of Medicine's (NLM) funding for biomedical informatics research in the 1980s and 1990s focused on clinical decision support systems, which were also the focus of research for Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D. prior to becoming NLM's director. The portfolio of projects expanded over the years. At NLM, Dr. Lindberg supported various large infrastructure programs that enabled biomedical informatics research, as well as investigator-initiated research projects that increasingly included biotechnology/bioinformatics and health services research. The authors review NLM's sponsorship of research during Dr. Lindberg's tenure as its Director. NLM's funding significantly increased in the 2000's and beyond. Authors report an analysis of R01 topics from 1985-2016 using data from NIH RePORTER. Dr. Lindberg's legacy for biomedical informatics research is reflected by the research NLM supported under his leadership. The number of R01s remained steady over the years, but the funds provided within awards increased over time. A significant amount of NLM funds listed in RePORTER went into various types of infrastructure projects that laid a solid foundation for biomedical informatics research over multiple decades.
    Keywords:  Biomedical informatics; Donald A.B. Lindberg; Informatics Research Funding; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  34. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 273-282
      Mentoring in Medicine, Inc (MIM) is a nonprofit health and science youth development organization based in the Bronx, NY. Founded in 2006 by three physicians and an engineer-trained entrepreneur, MIM's organizational goal is to expose socioeconomically disadvantaged students to the wide variety of health and science careers and to increase the health literacy of their communities. It is aligned with the outreach mission of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) whose former Director, Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D., fostered an enduring relationship. Technical assistance, evaluation, and financial support provided under his leadership helped MIM to become a nationally recognized organization leading the field to diversify health careers and to increase health literacy in often hard to reach populations. Through live and virtual programming, MIM has impacted nearly 58,000 students, parents, and educators in urban epicenters in the U.S. The MIM Team has helped 503 students who were discouraged to build a competitive application and matriculate in health professional school. MIM has 88 press features highlighting its work in the community.
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; Mentoring in Medicine; U.S. National Library of Medicine; disadvantaged youth; health and science careers; health disparities; outreach
  35. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 189-200
      Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.'s interests extended far beyond his scientific expertise into the arts and humanities, as evidenced, for example, by his love of opera, his talents in photography, and his affection for history. It is therefore not surprising that he had a strong interest in the National Library of Medicine's historical programs and services, going beyond supporting these activities to becoming actively involved in some of them. The subject of this essay is Dr. Lindberg's contributions to these programs and services, which may be grouped under three main headings: placing greater emphasis on more contemporary history, promoting the digitization of historical materials to increase access, and enhancing outreach through an exhibition program.
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; History of medicine; U.S. National Library of Medicine; digitization; exhibitions; historical collections; history
  36. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 362-371
      Personal reflections on Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D. are offered by four Native American leaders who were instrumental in the successful development of the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Native Voices Exhibition: Stories of Health and Wellness from American Indians, Alaska Natives and Native Hawaiians. A uniquely collaborative effort, the exhibition features nearly 100 videographed interviews conducted by Dr. Lindberg with Native elders, healers, leaders, and people. He is credited with the incorporation of indigenous peoples' healing knowledge in a personal and relational way, making for a wonderful journey together that was a very large chapter in his life and that of the authors.
    Keywords:  Alaska Native; American Indian; Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; Indigenous People; Native Hawaiian; Native Healing; Native Voices Exhibition; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  37. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 406-411
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; U.S. National Library of Medicine; University of Missouri-Columbia; University of Utah; history of biomedical informatics; mentorship
  38. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 416-420
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; U.S. National Library of Medicine; computer graphics technology; dyslexia; visual thinking
  39. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 401-402
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; U.S. National Library of Medicine
  40. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022 Feb 01. 288 414-415
    Keywords:  Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.; U.S. National Library of Medicine; mentorship
  41. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2022 Jan 28. pii: S1058-2746(22)00163-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Patients today have access to an increasing number of health resources to guide medical decision-making, including specialist health care providers, the internet, friends and family members. No prior studies, to our knowledge, have comprehensively explored health information-seeking behavior (HISB) for patients being managed for shoulder pain.OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective is to identify which health resources patients use and find helpful in a cohort of patients being either evaluated or managed for shoulder pain. With increased access to the internet and its use, we also hope to quantify the extent of utilization of internet resources and identify predictors of patient use.
    METHODS: We interviewed a cohort of new and follow-up patients being surgically or non-operatively managed for shoulder pain by a single fellowship-trained orthopedic surgeon. All patients were administered a questionnaire to determine HISB, which evaluated types of resources utilized and which were deemed most helpful in guiding medical decision-making. For patients using the internet, specific websites were documented. Additional variables were collected included age, gender, ethnicity, and highest education attained. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of internet use.
    RESULTS: This study included 242 patients. A discussion with an orthopedic surgeon was reported to be the most informative for non-operatively treated patients, first postoperative patients and operative follow-up patients. Patients at the first postoperative visit reported YouTube as their preferred resource almost 4 times more than new patients (OR 3.9; P=0.015). Compared to new patients, utilizing a search engine was significantly higher in patients at the first postoperative visit (OR 5.8; P=0.004) and patients at subsequent surgical follow-up (OR 8.3; P=0.001). Having an undergraduate (OR 0.1; P=0.037) or graduate degree (OR 0.03; P=0.01) had a significant inverse association with difficulty of using internet resources. Patients of Black race had significantly reported higher rates of distrust for internet resources when compared to those of White race (OR 5.8; P<0.001).
    CONCLUSION: This study highlights the patterns of HISB among patients with shoulder conditions. A face-to-face discussion with a physician or a shoulder surgeon was the most crucial resource for information compared to other resources. This study has also defined the preferred internet resources for patients at different timepoints of care and the reasons for refraining from seeking health information on the internet. Such findings can aid shoulder surgeons in understanding the optimal methods for delivering health information for different patient demographics and different phases of their care.
    Keywords:  HISB; health information seeking behavior; health resource; shoulder; survey
  42. J Med Internet Res. 2022 Jan 31. 24(1): e26308
      BACKGROUND: The internet has become one of the most important channels for residents to seek health information, particularly in remote rural areas in China.OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to explore the gap between self-rated health information literacy and internet health information seeking ability for patients with chronic diseases in rural communities and to preliminarily evaluate their barriers when seeking health information via the internet.
    METHODS: Residents from rural communities near Bengbu City and with chronic diseases were included in this study. A self-rated questionnaire was used to evaluate their health information literacy, 3 behavioral competency tasks were designed to preliminarily evaluate their ability to seek health information on the internet and semistructured interviews were used to investigate their barriers to obtaining health information via the internet. A small audiorecorder was used to record the interview content, and screen-recording software was used to record the participants' behavior during the web-based operational tasks.
    RESULTS: A total of 70 respondents completed the self-rated health information literacy questionnaire and the behavioral competence test, and 56 respondents participated in the semistructured interviews. Self-rated health information literacy (score out of 70: mean 46.21, SD 4.90) of the 70 respondents were moderate. Although 91% (64/70) of the respondents could find health websites, and 93% (65/70) of the respondents could find information on treatment that they thought was the best, 35% (23/65) of respondents did not know how to save the results they had found. The operational tasks indicated that most articles selected by the respondents came from websites with encyclopedic knowledge or answers from people based on their own experiences rather than authoritative health information websites. After combining the results of the semistructured interviews with the DISCERN scale test results, we found that most interviewees had difficulty obtaining high-quality health information via the internet.
    CONCLUSIONS: Although the health information literacy level of patients with rural chronic disease was moderate, they lack the ability to access high-quality health information via the internet. The vast majority of respondents recognized the importance of accessing health information but were not very proactive in accessing such information.
    Keywords:  barriers to acquisition; chronic; chronic conditions; health information; information seeking; literacy; middle-aged patients with chronic diseases; online; rural; rural community
  43. Int J Biometeorol. 2022 Jan 30.
      The purpose of the study was to investigate the quality and reliability of YouTube videos as a source of information in water treatments. We searched videos on YouTube ( ) using the following keywords: "health resort medicine," "spa treatment," "spa therapy," "hydrotherapy," "thermal medicine," "balneology," and "balneotherapy" on June 17th, 2021. The global quality scale (GQS) was used to evaluate the quality of the videos. The assessment of reliability was evaluated using the modified DISCERN tool. Some other video parameters and sources of the videos were also recorded. One hundred twenty-one (121) videos were analyzed. The most common video source was advertisement (46.3%). GQS and modified DISCERN median scores were generally low. They were superior for "hydrotherapy" and "balneotherapy" and were also higher in videos uploaded by health-related persons or organizations (physicians, health-related professionals, and health-related websites). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between investigated parameters (like view ratio, number of likes, video power index, video length) and GQS. Only video length was correlated with modified DISCERN for investigated parameters. The median video power index scores were statistically higher for "spa therapy" and "spa treatment." The YouTube content linked with water treatments has poor quality and reliability most of time. The hydrotherapy and balneotherapy keywords have the best quality and reliability.We think that designers of water treatment videos should involve health professionals more often so that the content of their video will better explain the details of medical conditions or interventions.The scientific experts should ensure a consensus in terminology to straighten the awareness of water treatments for patients and physicians.
    Keywords:  Balneotherapy; Health resort medicine; Spa therapy; Water treatments; YouTube
  44. World Neurosurg. 2022 Jan 30. pii: S1878-8750(22)00116-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVE: For the majority of patients, the Internet constitutes the first source of health information influencing their medical decision-making. We aimed to assess the quality of the online videos regarding anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF).METHODS: YouTube database was searched using three different phrases: "anterior lumbar interbody fusion", "ALIF", and "ALIF surgery". The first 50 videos for each phrase were selected. Video content was evaluated by three independent researchers using DISCERN instrument. Qualitative data, quantitative data, and the source of upload were analyzed.
    RESULTS: A total of 24 videos were included. The mean DISCERN score was 38.21, indicating the poor quality of ALIF videos on YouTube. Video duration was positively correlated with DISCERN score (r=0.71, p <0.001) but not with the video power index (VPI). A negative correlation between time since upload and DISCERN score (r=-0.8 p<0.001) was found. Furthermore, videos containing surgical complications, risk factors, and postoperative prognosis had a significantly higher DISCERN score. Neither DISCERN score nor a VPI correlated with the presence of intraoperative recordings. Videos including the explanation of the spine anatomy had a significantly higher number of likes (p= 0.018).
    CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increasing educational value of ALIF videos over time, the overall quality of YouTube videos on ALIF remains poor. However, the majority of them can be recommended to the patient as an informative source of basic knowledge on the surgical details of the ALIF procedure. Longer video duration increases its quality without simultaneous negative influence on its popularity.
    Keywords:  ALIF; YouTube; anterior lumbar interbody fusion; spinal fusion
  45. Facial Plast Surg. 2022 Feb 03.
      Web-based health information plays an increasingly vital role in spreading health information. Many patients interested in aesthetic surgery study the procedure on the Internet. This study aims to evaluate the quality of online health information on injectable fillers using the modified "Ensuring Quality Information for Patients" (EQIP) tool. Nine different search terms, including "fillers," "fuller cheeks," "wrinkle removal," and "antiwrinkle treatment" were identified and queried on Google. Unique links from the first three pages of each search term were identified and evaluated if the contents were in English language and were for general non-medical public use. A total of 172 websites were analyzed, with a median EQIP score of 20. In total 129 websites belonged to aesthetic practitioners, of which 81 were operated by medical doctors. Eighty-three percent of websites disclosed some forms of postoperative complications, most commonly edema (74%) and bruising (73%). Blindness and tissue necrosis were only mentioned by 12 and 10% of the websites, respectively. The current health information available on injectable fillers is of poor quality. While many do provide some information on risks, the majority of websites fail to disclose severe complications and quantifying risks. This poses a barrier against informed decision-making and may lead to unrealistic expectations. Patient satisfaction and expectations may be improved by developing better online education resources on fillers.
  46. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2022 Feb 03. pii: 142902. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVES: The variety of clinical presentation on the topic of carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication ranges from slight headache to coma or death. YouTube allows patients to search not only for entertainment but also medical advice. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the content and quality of YouTube videos concerning CO poisoning as a source of knowledge for non-medical audience.MATERIAL AND METHODS: On the December 8, 2020 a YouTube search was conducted for the following phrases: "carbon monoxide poisoning," "carbon monoxide symptoms," "CO poisoning," "carbon monoxide asphyxiation," "carbon monoxide intoxication" using the "incognito mode" and without attachment to Google Account. The search results were set as: "default" in the YouTube browser. The first 50 results were taken into consideration. Two raters, a specialist in emergency medicine and a specialist in clinical toxicology rated videos with Quality Criteria for Consumer Health Information (DISCERN), Global Quality Score (GQS) and Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). "VidIQ Vision for YouTube" plug-in was used.
    RESULTS: Ninety-five videos were included. The interclass coefficient for DISCERN, GQS and JAMA scores were: 0.8, 0.74 and 0.62 reaching good and moderate reliability. The mean DISCERN/GQS/JAMA was 28.1 (SD 7.9), 2.5 (SD 0.8) and 1.1 (SD 0.7) respectively. Higher DISCERN/GQS/JAMA had videos providing information on: exposure time, treatment options, hyperbaric chamber indications as well as physician speaker (p < 0.05). Video Power Index was higher when the video contained animations and presented patients own history of CO exposure but not influenced the DISCERN/ GQS/JAMA scores. Videos providing misleading information had a higher like ratio.
    CONCLUSIONS: The overall video quality was poor indicating inappropriate educational and informative value for patients who search information about carbon monoxide poisoning.
    Keywords:  YouTube; carbon monoxide; first aid; poisons; social media; verification
  47. Turk J Orthod. 2021 Jun;34(2): 116-121
      OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the content and quality of YouTube™ videos about rapid maxillary expansion (RME).METHODS: Videos on YouTube™ were searched using the term "palatal expansion." After sorting by relevance, the final 100 videos were analyzed for video demographics, primary purpose, information reliability, audiovisual quality, and Global Quality Scale (GQS). Also, viewers' interaction index and viewing rate formulas were calculated for each YouTube™ video. Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman's correlation coefficient and Intra-class Correlation Coefficient were used for statistical analyses.
    RESULTS: YouTube™ videos about palatal expansion were mostly uploaded by patients and their relatives (51%). The reliability of the information in the videos with a GQS value >3 was significantly higher than those with a GQS value ≤3 (4.33 vs. 1.69) (P < .001). There was an excellent correlation between information reliability and GQS in videos uploaded by orthodontists and dentistry professionals (r=0.878, P < .01).
    CONCLUSION: YouTube™ is currently not an appropriate source of information about RME for patients. Orthodontists should refer patients to reliable sources of information on social media platforms.
  48. Reprod Health. 2022 Jan 29. 19(1): 25
      BACKGROUND: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are infections commonly spread through sexual contact and transmitted by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. In today's world, STI-related information-seeking behavior is often vital for the advancement of knowledge, behavioral changes, health decisions, and the sharing of sexual health information among youths. However, paucity of evidence on information-seeking behavior among students in higher education institutions. This study aimed to assess STI-related information-seeking behavior and its associated factors among students at the University of Gondar.METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted among students at the University of Gondar from January 15 to February 15, 2021. A total of 832 participants were selected using a stratified two-stage sampling method. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the required data. STI information-seeking behavior questionnaire was adapted from health information national survey tool (HINTS). Descriptive statistics, bi-variable, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied using SPSS version 26.
    RESULT: The proportion of STI related information-seeking among university students was 462 (55.5%) with 95% CI (52.3, 58.9). About 263 (56.9%) of students preferred internet as a primary source for STI related information. Year of study being 4th (AOR = 4.77, 95% CI = 2.75, 8.29) and 5th year (AOR = 5.45, 95% CI = 2.48, 12.01), field of study being health (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.16, 4.11), sexual experiences (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.56, 3.48), ever had STI symptoms (AOR = 4.19, 95% CI = 2.14, 8.18), perceived susceptibility (AOR = 5.05, 95% CI = 3.29, 7.75), and perceived severity (AOR = 2.16,95% CI = 1.45, 3.22) were significant factors for good STI information-seeking.
    CONCLUSION: the proportion of STI information-seeking among university students was low. Students' STI information-seeking behavior could be improved by increasing digital literacy and enhancing computer and internet access across the campus.
    Keywords:  Ethiopia; STIs; STIs Information seeking behavior; Sexual health information; University students
  49. JMIR Form Res. 2022 Feb 02. 6(2): e32360
      BACKGROUND: The internet has become a major source of health information, especially for adolescents and young adults. Unfortunately, inaccurate, incomplete, or outdated health information is widespread on the web. Often adolescents and young adults turn to authoritative websites such as the student health center (SHC) website of the university they attend to obtain reliable health information. Although most on-campus SHC clinics comply with the American College Health Association standards, their websites are not subject to any standards or code of conduct. In the absence of quality standards or guidelines, monitoring and compliance processes do not exist for SHC websites. Thus, there is no oversight of the health information published on SHC websites by any central governing body.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop, describe, and validate an open-source software that can effectively and efficiently assess the quality of health information on SHC websites in the United States.
    METHODS: Our cross-functional team designed and developed an open-source software, QMOHI (Quantitative Measures of Online Health Information), that assesses information quality for a specified health topic from all SHC websites belonging to a predetermined list of universities. The tool was designed to compute 8 different quality metrics that quantify various aspects of information quality based on the retrieved text. We conducted and reported results from 3 experiments that assessed the QMOHI tool in terms of its scalability, generalizability in health topics, and robustness to changes in universities' website structure.
    RESULTS: Empirical evaluation has shown the QMOHI tool to be highly scalable and substantially more efficient than manually assessing web-based information quality. The tool's runtime was dominated by network-related tasks (98%), whereas the metric computations take <2 seconds. QMOHI demonstrated topical versatility, evaluating SHC website information quality for four disparate and broad health topics (COVID, cancer, long-acting reversible contraceptives, and condoms) and two narrowly focused topics (hormonal intrauterine device and copper intrauterine device). The tool exhibited robustness, correctly measuring information quality despite changes in SHC website structure. QMOHI can support longitudinal studies by being robust to such website changes.
    CONCLUSIONS: QMOHI allows public health researchers and practitioners to conduct large-scale studies of SHC websites that were previously too time- and cost-intensive. The capability to generalize broadly or focus narrowly allows a wide range of applications of QMOHI, allowing researchers to study both mainstream and underexplored health topics. QMOHI's ability to robustly analyze SHC websites periodically promotes longitudinal investigations and allows QMOHI to be used as a monitoring tool. QMOHI serves as a launching pad for our future work that aims to develop a broadly applicable public health tool for web-based health information studies with potential applications far beyond SHC websites.
    Keywords:  adolescents; automated quantification tool; digital health; health information; health information websites; health websites; infodemiology; information quality metrics; online health; online health information quality; public health; student health center websites
  50. Foot Ankle Orthop. 2021 Oct;6(4): 24730114211041544
      Background: The Internet is often the first resource used by applicants to evaluate fellowship programs. However, information on these websites can be often incomplete, inaccessible, and/or inaccurate. The primary objective of this study was to examine key factors that orthopedic foot and ankle fellowship applicants use to rank programs. The secondary objective was to assess both the accessibility and availability of the information on orthopedic foot and ankle fellowship program websites.Methods: A Qualtrics survey was distributed via e-mail to those who matched into an orthopedic foot and ankle fellowship position from years 2008-2020. A comprehensive list of orthopedic foot and ankle fellowship programs was created. Program websites were evaluated for accessibility as well as the quality of recruitment and educational content.
    Results: There were a total of 114 survey responses out of 644 invites (17.7%). The most important factors for establishing a rank list were operative experience, current faculty, and program reputation. Eighty-five percent (41/48) of orthopedic foot and ankle fellowship websites were directly accessible using Google. On average, accessible orthopedic foot and ankle fellowship websites contained only 57% (11.5/20) of the content deemed desirable.
    Conclusion: Orthopedic foot and ankle websites are widely accessible and have higher recruitment and educational quality content scores compared with previously published data. The most important factors for establishing a rank list are consistent with previous literature. Those who ranked operative experience as one of the most important factors when establishing a rank list did not complete more operative cases than those who did not.
    Level of Evidence: Level IV.
    Keywords:  accessibility; ankle; fellowship; foot; orthopedic; quality; rank
  51. BMC Oral Health. 2022 Feb 04. 22(1): 29
      BACKGROUND: The internet is increasingly used as a source of health information. This study aimed to explore the online oral health information seeking experience, to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of oral health, and to investigate the associations between online oral health information seeking experience and oral health KAP of participants.METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted. Three hundred and ninety-five university students participated in the study. Required data were gathered using two valid questionnaires eHIQ (e-Health Information Questionnaire) and Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Questionnaire. eHIQ was a 2-part instrument with 37 items. eHIQ-Part 1 includes 11 items related to general views of using the internet in relation to health. eHIQ-Part 2 includes 26 items related to the consequences of using specific health-related online sources. The second questionnaire includes 30 items as a combination of multiple-choice and yes/no type questions. The data were analyzed using the statistical analysis software SPSS version 20. Mean scores, standard deviation, and frequency distribution were obtained. Independent T-test, correlation coefficients and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used in the analysis.
    RESULTS: Participants had good KAP of oral health. The between-group differences tests showed that oral health knowledge and attitudes were significantly different between gender and years of study groups, but the differences of oral health practices were significant only based on years of study. Participants had moderate scores regarding all sub-scales of eHIQ-Parts 1 and 2. Findings revealed that online oral health information seeking behavior was associated with oral health KAP (p < 0.05).
    CONCLUSION: According to the results the general views of using the internet in relation to health and the consequences of using specific health-related online sources were in a moderate level among the participants. Such results can emphasize the need for more planning, education and empowerment of the population`s health literacy. The present study also provides good insights for the latter and has practical and policy implications besides its research values.
    Keywords:  Attitude; Information literacy; Information seeking behavior; Internet; Knowledge; Oral health; Practice
  52. Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim. 2021 Jun;49(3): 224-229
      OBJECTIVE: The Internet may facilitate active participation of the patient in specifying the priorities of disease management and improve rehearsal for awaiting interventions. In this study, we sought to assess the relationship of Internet use with the anaesthesia-related variables.METHODS: A 15-question survey was formed involving questions about demographics, Internet use habits and awareness of the planned interventions. A previous online search for anaesthesia and topics of search were specifically asked. Searching for anaesthesia on the Internet was determined as the primary end-point.
    RESULTS: One-hundred and fifty-seven patients (41.1 6 14.4 years, 63.1% female) responded to our survey. The ratio of the participants who had previous experience of anaesthesia was 62.4%. Seventy-nine percent of the subjects had an Internet access frequency of couple of times a week or more often. However, only 39.5% (n ¼ 49) of those specifically searched about anaesthesia on the Internet. Individuals who searched for anaesthesia on the Internet were younger and used to be online everyday. Regional anaesthesia was more frequently preferred method in this group. However, previously discussed anaesthesia issues with the surgeon were designated as the only closely associated variable of the primary end-point (OR ¼ 0.25, 95% CI [0.102-0.616], P ¼ .003).
    CONCLUSION: Possibly due to local cultural myths, our participants were more eager to get answers to their concerns about anaesthesia when compared with their counterparts in previous reports. Although Internet search habits played a role in this sense, the entity of "online search for anaesthesia" was closely associated only with having the surgeons' ideas about anaesthesia procedure.
  53. Neurooncol Pract. 2021 Apr;8(2): 129-136
      Background: Meningiomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumors and patients face difficulty evaluating resources available online. The purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the educational resources available for patients seeking meningioma information on the Internet.Methods: A total of 127 meningioma websites were identified by inputting the term "meningioma" on Google and two meta-search engines. A structured rating tool developed by our research group was applied to top 100 websites to evaluate with respect to accountability, interactivity, readability, and content quality. Responses to general and personal patient questions were evaluated for promptness, accuracy, and completeness. The frequency of various social media account types was analyzed.
    Results: Of 100 websites, only 38% disclosed authorship, and 32% cited sources. Sixty-two percent did not state date of creation or modification, and 32% provided last update less than 2 years ago. Websites most often discussed the definition (99%), symptoms (97%), and treatment (96%). Prevention (8%) and prognosis (47%) were most often not covered. Only 3% of websites demonstrated recommended reading level for general population. Of 84 websites contacted, 42 responded, 32 within 1 day.
    Conclusions: Meningioma information is readily available online, but quality varies. Sites often lack markers for accountability, and content may be difficult to comprehend. Information on specific topics are often not available for patients. Physicians can direct meningioma patients to appropriate reliable online resources depicted in this study. Furthermore, future web developers can address the current gaps to design reliable online resources.
    Keywords:  internet information; meningioma; online resources; patient education; web resources
  54. J Med Internet Res. 2022 Feb 04. 24(2): e31569
    Keywords:  COVID-19; United States; communication; information seeking; internet; misinformation; mistrust; online health information; public health; social media; survey; usage; vaccination; web-based health information
  55. Andrologia. 2022 Feb 04. e14392
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of information regarding erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment on YouTube and TikTok. The term "erectile dysfunction" was searched on YouTube and TikTok in July 2021. The first 50 videos on each platform that met inclusion were included. Videos were sorted as reliable or unreliable based on accuracy of video content. Quality of information was evaluated using Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT) and 5-point modified DISCERN. TikTok videos were shorter (0.4 minutes vs. 5.2 minutes, p < 0.001) and had more likes (2294 vs. 1000, p = 0.005), views per month (17,281 vs. 3521, p < 0.001) and subscribers/followers (97,500 vs. 23,000, p = 0.016) than YouTube videos. TikTok videos were less reliable than YouTube videos (TikTok 5/50 [10%] vs. YouTube 21/50 [42%], p < 0.001). YouTube mentioned more about phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (32% vs. 10%, p = 0.007), while TikTok mentioned more about alternative supplements (36% vs. 4%, p < 0.001). YouTube had a higher DISCERN (1.99 vs. 0.98, p < 0.001) and PEMAT actionability scores (64.2% vs. 54.0%, p = 0.039) when compared to TikTok. YouTube videos were of higher quality than TikTok videos. Nevertheless, YouTube had a considerable amount of unreliable information. We recommend a collaborative effort from the medical community to improve information regarding ED treatment on YouTube and TikTok.
    Keywords:  TikTok; YouTube; erectile dysfunction; patient education; social media
  56. Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther. 2022 Feb 02. 31(1): 42-48
      Objectives: Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy is a radionuclide treatment for hyperthyroidism and well-differentiated thyroid cancer. One of the most popular sources of information for patients on the internet is YouTube. This study aimed to examine the quality of videos about RAI treatment.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed by using videos in YouTube. The terms "radyoaktif iyot tedavisi" and "radioactive iodine treatment" were used to search related videos in June 2021. The quality of the videos was assessed by using the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark criteria, the DISCERN scale, and the global quality scale (GQS).
    Results: Of the total 88 videos evaluated, 56 videos (30 in English, 26 in Turkish) were analyzed according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seven (12.5%) videos were assigned to the high-quality group, 16 (28.58%) to the intermediate quality group, and 33 (58.92%) to the low quality group. The findings of this study showed that the most popular videos with the highest video power index (VPI) scores and the highest number of video likes and comments belonged to the intermediate quality group. Contrarily, popularity level, number of video likes, and number of video views were the lowest in the high-quality group. The analysis of video sources revealed that viewers most preferred non-physician-sourced videos, with average total views of 59307.80 [standard deviation (SD): 122554.13]. The most liked videos were non-physician-made videos, with average total likes of 424.35 (SD: 639.41). The mean VPI scores were the highest in non-physician-made videos, with 25.18 (SD: 25.69). The average JAMA (1.92, SD: 0.50), DISCERN (34.31, SD: 14.33), and GQS scores (2.61, SD: 0.99) were the highest in physician-made videos.
    Conclusion: Although high-quality videos on YouTube may inform and encourage patients positively, unprofessional, incorrect, and incomplete information can be also uploaded on YouTube and may mislead patients.
    Keywords:  Video; internet; radioactive iodine; treatment
  57. Foot Ankle Orthop. 2020 Jan;5(1): 2473011420912957
      Background: The content and accessibility of foot and ankle fellowship websites impact applicants and fellowship programs. This study aimed to evaluate the accessibility provided via the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) websites and individual websites.Methods: The AOFAS website was used to identify existing foot and ankle fellowship programs. The database information was reviewed for links to fellowship program websites, which was corroborated through a Google search for accessibility. Information from fellowship program websites and the AOFAS was analyzed for the presence of recruitment and educational content, and this analysis was compared to previously reported metrics.
    Results: Forty-eight orthopedic foot and ankle fellowship programs were identified. The AOFAS database featured direct links to 19 (40%) fellowship websites with the Google search providing direct links to 35 (73%) websites. Foot and ankle fellowship information markedly improved in domains of Salary/Benefits (+233%), Rotations/Curriculum (+199%), and Faculty Listing (+67%), but there was a reduction in available content in the domains of Operative Experience (-79%), Office/Clinic information (-78%), and Didactics (-39%) compared with the lone existing study.
    Conclusion: There continues to be variability between foot and ankle fellowship websites and the AOFAS website regarding program content and descriptions. Some information is more readily available, but other domains have less information now than in previously reported research.
    Keywords:  accessibility; content; education; fellowship; foot and ankle; website
  58. Biomed Res Int. 2022 ;2022 1897705
      Background: You Tube is one of the most commonly used online sources for sharing information and knowledge. Academic topics or clinical data shared on this platform is not peer reviewed or evaluated by subject specialists for accuracy. No study was found in the literature examining the validity of crown preparation videos available at this platform.Objective: To evaluate the authenticity of the content and quality of the crown preparation videos uploaded on the YouTube.
    Methods: The systematic search for YouTube videos was carried out over a period of one year from January 2020 until February 2021. The keywords or phrases and tags used were crown preparation, PFM crown preparation, all ceramic crown preparation, and dental crown preparation. The videos were shortlisted on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria to select educationally useful videos in terms of content and quality.
    Results: Three subject specialists evaluated the videos on crown preparation three times to shortlist only 12 (11%) educationally useful videos out of 109 relevant videos. These 12 videos met the preset inclusion criteria.
    Conclusion: Although YouTube is the most popular social media platform used as the source of information by the students, the majority of uploaded content lacks authenticity. This study found that crown preparation videos uploaded by the faculty members or subject specialists can be considered as the reliable source.
  59. Ophthalmol Glaucoma. 2022 Jan 31. pii: S2589-4196(22)00017-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      PURPOSE: To systematically assess the content, quality, accuracy, navigability, and readability of the highest ranked online information regarding glaucoma.DESIGN: Internet-based cross-sectional study SUBJECTS/PARTICIPANTS, AND/OR CONTROLS: N/A METHODS: The top 15 Google websites that resulted from the search term 'glaucoma' were independently evaluated by 3 glaucoma specialists for content, accuracy (1-4 scale), and navigability (1-3 scale) in March 2020. Content was evaluated by answers to 25 questions regarding information most relevant to glaucoma patients (0-2 scale). Readability (Flesch-Kincaid grade level) and quality (Quality Component Scoring System) were also analyzed.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall content, accuracy, navigability, quality component scores and reading grade level as described above. Additional analyses included type of websites, presence and type of graphic content.
    RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation) content score for all websites was 28 (7.6) of 50 possible points (range, 15-45). Inter-rater reliability for content score was good (0.619, 0.746, 0.872 for 3 pair-wise comparisons between graders). Mean accuracy score was 9.8 (2.2) of 12 possible points (range, 5-12). Mean navigability score was 7.5 (1.4) of 9 possible points (range, 5-9). Mean reading grade level was 9.3 (1.7) with a range of 7-13 reading grades. Mean quality component score was 7.7 (2.6) of 13 possible points (range, 3-11). Six websites (40%) attempted to visually simulate glaucoma symptoms as tunnel vision (n=5) and black spots (n=1). Google rank did not correlate with any of the measures.
    CONCLUSION: The most readily accessible online information about glaucoma varies in content, quality, accuracy, navigability, and readability. This systematic analysis identifies potential areas of improvement.