bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2022‒01‒16
sixteen papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. Data Brief. 2022 Feb;40 107713
      As libraries struggle to keep pace with the changing societal landscape, emerging practices such as citizen science (CS) initiatives are being incorporated to reinforce the idea of public libraries as gathering, meeting, and collaboration spaces within the context of shared community and shared learning resources. However, there is little empirical evidence of whether the most open and participatory ways that CS puts forward can converge with and be nurtured by the essence of public libraries. Also, the roles of librarians and users in the 'next generation public library' have been under-developed. As the number of CS initiatives at public libraries grows, so does the need to collect evidence on the impact and the capacity of assimilation of CS practices. The data describes librarians and users' perceptions of participating in a citizen science project. Two hands-on activities for librarians of the Barcelona Network of Public Libraries were implemented. One was a training course for 30 librarians from 24 libraries which allowed them to envisage citizen science implementation in each library. The second activity consisted in the co-creation of a citizen social science project. 40 library users, 7 librarians from 3 different cities, and professional scientists, were involved. The data on librarians and users' perception was collected through participant observation, surveys, and a focus group to identify strengths and challenges of implementing citizen science at public libraries. The data covers librarians and users attitudes towards citizen science, their motivations to participate, their perceived ability to implement a citizen science project (as for librarians) or to contribute to science (as for library users), and the participants intention to keep engaged with citizen science, drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Responses to closed-ended survey questions are analyzed at a descriptive level. The qualitative feedback from the focus group and the open-ended survey question on motivations is subjected to a thematic analysis. The data offers interesting insights to identify opportunities and challenges of implementing citizen science at public libraries, contributing to the debate over the public library's mission as local community hub.
    Keywords:  Citizen science; Citizen social science; Co-creation; Engagement; Learning; Perceptions; Public library; Self-efficacy
  2. Front Digit Health. 2021 ;3 801204
      Background: The current pandemic of COVID-19 has changed the way health information is distributed through online platforms. These platforms have played a significant role in informing patients and the public with knowledge that has changed the virtual world forever. Simultaneously, there are growing concerns that much of the information is not credible, impacting patient health outcomes, causing human lives, and tremendous resource waste. With the increasing use of online platforms, patients/the public require new learning models and sharing medical knowledge. They need to be empowered with strategies to navigate disinformation on online platforms. Methods and Design: To meet the urgent need to combat health "misinformation," the research team proposes a structured approach to develop a quality benchmark, an evidence-based tool that identifies and addresses the determinants of online health information reliability. The specific methods to develop the intervention are the following: (1) systematic reviews: two comprehensive systematic reviews to understand the current state of the quality of online health information and to identify research gaps, (2) content analysis: develop a conceptual framework based on established and complementary knowledge translation approaches for analyzing the existing quality assessment tools and draft a unique set of quality of domains, (3) focus groups: multiple focus groups with diverse patients/the public and health information providers to test the acceptability and usability of the quality domains, (4) development and evaluation: a unique set of determinants of reliability will be finalized along with a preferred scoring classification. These items will be used to develop and validate a quality benchmark to assess the quality of online health information. Expected Outcomes: This multi-phase project informed by theory will lead to new knowledge that is intended to inform the development of a patient-friendly quality benchmark. This benchmark will inform best practices and policies in disseminating reliable web health information, thus reducing disparities in access to health knowledge and combat misinformation online. In addition, we envision the final product can be used as a gold standard for developing similar interventions for specific groups of patients or populations.
    Keywords:  assessment; benchmark; credibility; health information; online; protocol
  3. J Med Internet Res. 2022 Jan 13. 24(1): e24086
      BACKGROUND: Although recent developments in mobile health have elevated the importance of how smartphones empower individuals to seek health information, research investigating this phenomenon in Asian countries has been rare.OBJECTIVE: The goal of our study was to provide a comprehensive profile of mobile health information seekers and to examine the individual- and country-level digital divide in Asia.
    METHODS: With survey data from 10 Asian countries (N=9086), we ran multilevel regression models to assess the effect of sociodemographic factors, technological factors, and country-level disparities on using smartphones to seek health information.
    RESULTS: Respondents who were women (β=.13, P<.001), parents (β=.16, P<.001), employed (β=.08, P=.002), of higher social status (β=.08, P<.001), and/or from countries with low health expenditures (β=.19, P=.02) were more likely to use smartphones to seek health information. In terms of technological factors, technology innovativeness (β=.10, P<.001) and frequency of smartphone use (β=.42, P<.001) were important factors of health information seeking, whereas the effect of online information quality was marginal (β=-.04, P<.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: Among smartphone users in Asia, health information seeking varies according to individuals' socioeconomic status, their innovativeness toward technology, and their frequency of smartphone use. Although smartphones widen the digital divide among individuals with different socioeconomic status, they also bridge the divide between countries with varying health expenditures. Smartphones appear to be a particularly useful complement to manage health in developing countries.
    Keywords:  Asia; digital divide; health information seeking; smartphone; user profile
  4. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2022 Jan 10.
      BACKGROUND: YouTube is used by more than 70 percent of adults and 81 percent of 15- to 25-year-olds. The information quality of videos related to the two most performed aesthetic procedures-botulinum toxin type A (Botox) and soft-tissue filler injections-has not been assessed or compared to that of websites.METHODS: A YouTube search for "Botox" and "fillers" was performed in July of 2020, identifying the most popular health information videos. Quality was assessed using the validated Journal of American Medical Association, Health on the Net principles, and the DISCERN criteria in addition to a procedure-specific content score. Quality scores were compared between different groups of video contributors and against websites.
    RESULTS: A total of 720 measurements of quality were performed across 95 YouTube videos and 85 websites. The mean quality scores were as follows: Journal of the American Medical Association, 1.74/4 ± 0.718; Health on the Net, 6.66/16 ± 2.07; DISCERN, 40.0/80 ± 9.25; and content, 39.1/100 ± 11.9. Physician, nonphysician health professionals, and other (news, magazine channels, and influencers) were all of higher quality than patient-based videos (p < 0.001). The mean DISCERN percentage score for videos was 50.04 ± 11.57 and significantly less than that of websites, 55.46 ± 15.74 (p = 0.010). The mean content scores showed a similar result, 39.06 ± 11.92 versus 60.76 ± 17.65 (p < 0.001), respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: Improvement is needed in the quality of YouTube videos related to aesthetic injectables. Plastic surgeons, who are the most frequent video contributors, are most qualified to provide this change. Plastic surgeons should include videos as part of their online presence, as they may help facilitate a greater viewership.
  5. BMC Med Educ. 2022 Jan 13. 22(1): 35
      BACKGROUND: The use of Open Educational Resources (OER) and Social Media (SM) for academic information seeking is common among undergraduates nowadays. There is limited data on OER and SM use for education in Sri Lanka. This study was aimed at evaluating the OER and SM use for education among the medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya. Stratified random sampling was used to select students from the first year to the final year. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data.
    RESULTS: The study included 257 responses (response rate: 89.5%), of which 185 (72.0%) were females. The OER and SM use for educational purposes at least once a month among students was 96.1% (95%CI: 93.7-98.5%) and 88.3% (95%CI: 84.4-92.3%) respectively. There was no gender difference in OER and SM use. The main reasons for accessing OER were the availability of information at any time (36.1%) and ease of information access (31.5%). Wiki sites (84.4%) and Facebook (79.8%) were the highest accessed OER and SM platforms. The majority of students were in view that the information on wiki sites (51.4%) and results of general non-specific web searches (56.0%) were reliable. Only 33.9% of students searched information from educational and government-related sources and 18.7% had accessed e-journals. Through SM, 79.0% joined educational groups and 77.0% followed the medical-related sites, pages and people. More than one-third of students (35.8%) could not find academic information from SM due to the information overload and 31.1% mentioned that SM distracted their education.
    CONCLUSION: The majority of the students used OER and SM for education; however, only a minority accessed reliable information. Students accepted information available in wiki sites and general non-specific web searchers without considering the credibility of sources. The majority of the students did not refer to e-journals. Distractions to academic work and the difficulty to access accurate information were major concerns of using SM. This study highlights the importance of improving information literacy among medical students.
    Keywords:  Academic information seeking; Facebook; Free educational resources; Medical students; Open educational resources; Social media; Wiki
  6. Facial Plast Surg. 2022 Jan 11.
      Injectable facial fillers have become tremendously more popular in recent years, and the Internet offers a proportional amount of consumer-facing educational material. This study sought to explore the quality of these online materials. The top 20 Web sites offering educational materials about facial filler were identified via Google search and sorted by source: Medical Professional Boards, Hospitals and Providers, Medical News and Reference, and Fashion. The materials were assessed for overall quality with the validated DISCERN instrument. The authors also assessed understandability and actionability (Patient Education Material Assessment Tool - PEMAT), accuracy, comprehensiveness, and readability (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level and Flesch Reading Ease). The mean DISCERN score was 46.9 ± 7.6, which is considered "fair" quality educational material; above "poor," but below "good" and "excellent." Understandability and actionability scores were low, particularly with respect to visual aids. The materials were generally accurate (76-99%), but scored poorly in comprehensiveness, as 15% failed to mention any risks/adverse effects and only 35% mentioned cost. On average, readability was at an 11th grade level, far more complex than ideal (< 6th grade level). Information disseminated from seemingly reputable sources such as professional boards and hospitals/providers were not of higher quality or superior in any of the above studied domains. In conclusion, online educational materials related to injectable facial fillers are of subpar quality, including those from academic and professional organizations. Visual aids were particularly weak. The facial rejuvenation community should make a concerted effort to set a higher standard for disseminating such information.
  7. J Med Internet Res. 2022 Jan 11. 24(1): e27178
      BACKGROUND: Massive, easily accessible online health information empowers users to cope with health problems better. Most patients search for relevant online health information before seeing a doctor to alleviate information asymmetry. However, the mechanism of how online health information affects health empowerment is still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To study how online health information processing affects health empowerment.
    METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire study that included 343 samples from participants who had searched online health information before the consultation. Respondents' perceptions of online information cues, benefits, health literacy, and health empowerment were assessed.
    RESULTS: Perceived argument quality and perceived source credibility have significant and positive effects on perceived information benefits, but only perceived argument quality has a significant effect on perceived decision-making benefits. Two types of perceived benefits, in turn, affect health empowerment. The effects of perceived argument quality on perceived informational benefits and perceived decision-making benefits on health empowerment are significantly stronger for the high health literacy group than the low health literacy group (t269=7.156, P<.001; t269=23.240, P<.001). While, the effects of perceived source credibility on perceived informational benefits and perceived informational benefits on health empowerment are significantly weaker for the high health literacy group than the low health literacy group (t269=-10.497, P<.001; t269=-6.344, P<.001). The effect of perceived argument quality on perceived informational benefits shows no significant difference between high and low health literacy groups.
    CONCLUSIONS:  In the context of online health information, perceived information benefits and perceived decision-making benefits are the antecedents of health empowerment, which in turn will be affected by perceived argument quality and perceived source credibility. Health literacy plays a moderating role in the relationship of some variables. To maximize health empowerment, online health information providers should strengthen information quality and provide differentiated information services based on users' health literacy.
    Keywords:  health empowerment; health literacy; information seeking; online health information; perceived argument quality; perceived source credibility
  8. Int J Dent Hyg. 2022 Jan 14.
      INTRODUCTION: Parents and caregivers of pediatric patients usually tend to search for health information on social networks and other online platforms. At this point, the quality and reliability of these sources play an essential part in maintaining the oral health of pediatric patients.AIM: The recent study aimed to analyze the reliability, quality, and content of YouTubeTM videos on pediatric oral health instructions, assess the efficacy of these videos, and help health providers lead the parents accessing accurate information on the subject mentioned.
    DESIGN: The searching term was detected as "children oral health" (Google Trends Application). The first 150 videos were taken into the study. Six excluding criteria were used, and 40 videos have lasted for the further examinations. Content headings were determined according to the AAPD guidelines on pediatric oral health. The content analysis scores, reliability scores, and Global Quality Score were calculated for each of these 40 videos. SPSS 26 statistical software was used in the statistical analysis process of the data; p <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
    RESULTS: The recent study results showed that according to content analyses, the videos were classified as ''poor'' content with the mean values 4.07 (± 1.32). The mean reliability score 2.96 (± 0.69) has shown that the reliability of the videos was moderate. Mean Global Quality Score values were 2.95 (± 0.73), which means the subjects were moderate quality. The mean reliability of the rich content videos (3.39 ± 0.59) and the Global Quality Score score of them (3.43 ± 0.62) were statistically higher compared to the average values of the poor content videos (respectively; 2.73 ± 0.64; 2.69± 0.66) (p<0.05) The average number of likes, dislikes, length, interaction index and viewing rate of rich content videos were higher than the same features of poor content videos (p<0.05). The videos with rich content were determined in the first 50 videos listed for analyzes, and the distribution of the included videos on the list was equally.
    CONCLUSION: The present study concluded that the YouTubeTM videos providing oral health instructions for pediatric patients and their parents had poor content, medium quality, and reliability. Although all the listed content headings were not mentioned in the videos, the content of them still may be useful and educational for individuals. However, dental hygiene practitioners and dentists should be aware of the need in this area and put more effort into improving the YouTubeTM videos on children's oral health in a more detailed way regarding content headings, quality, and reliability.
  9. J Med Internet Res. 2022 Jan 11. 24(1): e31284
      BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a highly proatherogenic lipid fraction that is a clinically significant risk modifier. Patients wanting to learn more about Lp(a) are likely to use online patient educational materials (OPEMs). However, the readability of OPEMs may exceed the health literacy of the public.OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the readability of OPEMs related to Lp(a). We hypothesized that the readability of these online materials would exceed the sixth grade level recommended by the American Medical Association.
    METHODS: Using an online search engine, we queried the top 20 search results from 10 commonly used Lp(a)-related search terms to identify a total of 200 websites. We excluded duplicate websites, advertised results, research journal articles, or non-patient-directed materials, such as those intended only for health professionals or researchers. Grade level readability was calculated using 5 standard readability metrics (automated readability index, SMOG index, Coleman-Liau index, Gunning Fog score, Flesch-Kincaid score) to produce robust point (mean) and interval (CI) estimates of readability. Generalized estimating equations were used to model grade level readability by each search term, with the 5 readability scores nested within each OPEM.
    RESULTS: A total of 27 unique websites were identified for analysis. The average readability score for the aggregated results was a 12.2 (95% CI 10.9798-13.3978) grade level. OPEMs were grouped into 6 categories by primary source: industry, lay press, research foundation and nonprofit organizations, university or government, clinic, and other. The most readable category was OPEMs published by universities or government agencies (9.0, 95% CI 6.8-11.3). The least readable OPEMs on average were the ones published by the lay press (13.0, 95% CI 11.2-14.8). All categories exceeded the sixth grade reading level recommended by the American Medical Association.
    CONCLUSIONS: Lack of access to readable OPEMs may disproportionately affect patients with low health literacy. Ensuring that online content is understandable by broad audiences is a necessary component of increasing the impact of novel therapeutics and recommendations regarding Lp(a).
    Keywords:  health education; health literacy; lipoprotein(a); online patient education material; readability
  10. Orthopedics. 2022 Jan 12. 1-5
      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the readability, content, and authorship of websites related to patella instability. A search was performed using three search engines and four terms related to patella dislocation. Thirty-seven unique websites were identified. Seventeen of 37 (46%) web-sites disclosed the authorship credentials. The mean Flesch-Kincaid grade was 10.8±3.5, and the mean Flesch reading ease score was 47.6±18. Only 8 of 37 (22%) websites had a third-party Health On the Net seal. The information presented online about patella dislocation can be unreliable and misleading for patients. [Orthopedics. 202x;xx(x):xx-xx.].
  11. J Community Genet. 2022 Jan 13.
      Genetic testing for BRCA1/2 mutations in early breast cancer has been shown to be beneficial, and an increase in surveillance using these genetic markers is recommended. Given this recommendation, it is likely that individuals gather information about such testing. Social media is increasingly becoming a common source of health information. One such platform known for sharing health information is YouTube. The purpose of this study was to describe content related to BRCA1/2 mutations on YouTube. The sample included 100 English language videos, which were coded for content related to BRCA1/2 mutations. The 100 videos evaluated in this study were viewed 5.5 million times. In general, the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations were mentioned simultaneously, with only 15% of videos explaining the difference in prevalence or implication of the variants individually. A great number of videos (85.0%) discussed having genetic testing to determine the presence of BRCA mutations, but only 16.0% discussed the potential harms of BRCA mutation testing and 42.0% mentioned seeking genetic counseling to determine the need for testing and interpretation of the test results. Comparing the characteristics and content of videos created by healthcare professionals (n = 71) to those created by consumers and the media (n = 29), we found that consumer/media videos were viewed twice as many times as professional videos (3,704,351 vs. 1,851,825, p = 0.04). Videos from medical professionals should include consistent information on the recommendations for individuals who test positive for a BRCA mutation. Such content should include education about BRCA mutations, testing, implications of those results and ways to reduce risk, and recommendations for increased surveillance and enhanced screening for individuals positive for BRCA mutations.
  12. Cureus. 2022 Jan;14(1): e20897
      Introduction Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), the gold standard treatment for symptomatic gallstone disease, is the most common procedure performed by general surgeons worldwide. The internet remains to be a popular source of medical information. Our aim was to evaluate the quality and readability of information available on the web for patients undergoing LC and to compare the information provided by the National Health Service (NHS) and non-NHS websites.  Methods We searched for the keywords 'laparoscopic cholecystectomy' using the three most popular search engines (Google, Yahoo and MSN) and looked at the first 50 websites only. The readability of each document was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) score. We checked Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct (HONcode) certification status, whether the sites had been checked by an expert and when the information was last updated. Results Fifty-five of the possible 150 sites were analysed thus excluding repetitions (n=65), irrelevant content (n=26) or inaccessible links (n=3). Only seven of those were HONcode-certified. The mean FRE score was 46 (range 0-68, SD=16.13). There were 13 NHS sites and 42 non-NHS sites. The mean FRE score for the NHS sites was significantly better compared to the non-NHS sites [58.31 (SD=5.01) vs 42.21 (SD=16.35); p=0.001]. Fifty-four per cent (54%) of the analysed websites had been checked by a medical expert and 22% were updated within the last year. Conclusions This study highlights the poor quality and readability of information on medical websites. The information provided by NHS sites have significantly better readability compared to non-NHS sites.
    Keywords:  healthcare information; information quality; internet; laparoscopic cholecystectomy; readability
  13. JMIR Diabetes. 2022 Jan 11. 7(1): e27221
      BACKGROUND: While diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are a common complication of diabetes, little is known about the content and readability of online patient education materials (PEM) for DFU. The recommended reading grade level for these materials is grades 6-8.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the quality and readability of online PEM on DFU.
    METHODS: A Google search was performed using 4 different search terms related to DFU. Two readability formulas were used to assess the readability of the included PEM. These included the Flesch-Kincaid grade level and the Flesch-Reading ease score. The DISCERN tool was used to determine quality and reliability.
    RESULTS: A total of 41 online PEM were included. The average Flesch-Reading ease score for all PEM was 63.43 (SD 14.21), indicating a standard difficulty level of reading. The average reading grade level was 7.85 (SD 2.38), which is higher than the recommended reading level for PEM. The mean DISCERN score was 45.66 (SD 3.34), and 27% (11/41) of the articles had DISCERN scores of less than 39, corresponding to poor or very poor quality.
    CONCLUSIONS: The majority of online PEM on DFU are written above the recommended reading levels and have significant deficiencies in quality and reliability. Clinicians and patients should be aware of the shortcomings of these resources and consider the impact they may have on patients' self-management.
    Keywords:  diabetes; diabetic foot; diabetic foot ulcer; online eduction; online resources; patient education; patient education materials; readability
  14. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2022 ;15 21-25
      Purpose: Vitiligo is a skin condition characterized by patchy depigmentation in the skin, affecting not just the physical well-being of patients, but also the mental, emotional, and social aspects of their lives. Social media provides a platform where patients can interact and share experiences, and for physicians and experts to disseminate knowledge on the disease. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and overall quality of vitiligo-related content on YouTube.Methods: Thirty videos were screened by relevance according to the inclusion criteria. Videos were categorized as either healthcare or non-healthcare sources, and viewer engagement ratio was calculated for each. Three independent vitiligo experts rated the content using the following assessment tools: DISCERN, Accuracy in Digital-health Instrument (ANDI), and Global Quality Scale (GQS). Lastly, Cronbach's alpha was used to estimate the inter-rater reliability and consistency.
    Results: Most of the screened videos came from health-care sources (57%). Non-healthcare sources achieved a slightly higher viewer engagement ratio, although the difference is not statistically significant (p = 0.23). DISCERN score was low overall in most videos. However, DISCERN score was higher for health-care sources as compared to non-healthcare sources (30.5 ± 9.4 vs 22.7 ± 4,2, p = 0.009). Scores of ANDI and GQS were higher for health-care sources but not statistically significant. There was a good internal consistency in DISCERN rating among the evaluators (0.86).
    Conclusion: Our study shows a low overall accuracy and quality of YouTube videos on vitiligo. It is recommended that health-care sources improve their information material in terms of quality and viewer engagement, as very little can be done to prevent non-healthcare sources in publishing their own videos. Efforts in educating the public on making distinction between evidence and non-evidence-based claims should also be taken.
    Keywords:  DISCERN; YouTube; social media; vitiligo
  15. J Cancer Educ. 2022 Jan 14.
      The COVID-19 pandemic brought considerable change to the practice of radiotherapy. In the meantime, patients are increasingly turning to online resources for health information, with YouTube being one of the biggest platforms. However, little is known about what information is being disseminated to cancer patients about radiotherapy in the context of COVID-19. Therefore, this study aims to characterize and assess YouTube videos on radiotherapy during COVID-19. A YouTube search using the terms "Radiation therapy COVID-19", "Radiation therapy coronavirus", "Radiotherapy COVID-19", and "Radiotherapy coronavirus" was completed using a clear-cache web browser. The top 50 videos were collected from each search. After applying pre-determined exclusion criteria, each video was assessed for general parameters, source, and content. Two raters were used to ensure interrater reliability. One hundred five unique videos resulted from the four searches. Ninety-eight per cent were published in the last year. The median video length was 6 min and 54 s, and the median number of views was 570. Most videos were from the USA (58%). The majority of videos were published by a commercial channel (31%), non-profit organization (28%), or healthcare facility (26%). Forty-two per cent of the videos covered a topic related to radiotherapy during the pandemic. Bias was identified in 6% of videos. YouTube information on radiotherapy during COVID-19 is non-specific and can be misleading. The results of this study highlight the need for healthcare providers to proactively address patient information needs and guide them to appropriate sources of information.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Online health information; Patient education; Quality assessment; Radiation therapy; Radiotherapy