bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2021‒12‒19
eighteen papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. Proc Assoc Inf Sci Technol. 2021 ;58(1): 827-829
      Rural communities in the United States struggle with many health inequities that predate the COVID-19 Pandemic. This poster analyzes how public libraries responded to COVID-19 from March 2020 through March 2021 by utilizing the social media platform Facebook to continue sharing content that supports community health and wellness. It situates these responses in the context of health inequities in rural America. Although libraries in different parts of the country responded to COVID-19 in unique ways, common practices include sharing timely information about the pandemic and social services; adapting services to continue serving communities safely; and providing enriching educational content that also addresses social determinants of health. The poster concludes with a call to better understand the work small and rural public librarians do to address health inequities.
    Keywords:  COVID‐19; Health; community engagement; public libraries; rural communities
  2. J Taibah Univ Med Sci. 2021 Dec;16(6): 799-806
      A well-organized literature search is a fundamental requirement for research-based dental education. The execution of a literature search is not beneficial unless researchers possess basic knowledge about it. In this article, all basic strategies and research tools essentially required for a literature search, including Boolean operators, correct use of keywords, database selection, and the evaluation of filtered data and limitations, are discussed. The present article offers vital information and literature search guidelines for early career dental researchers and dental students. In addition, it contains a collection of all the essential information related to the generally used electronic databases in dentistry research. This will be helpful for dental students, residents, consultants, and allied science researchers.
    Keywords:  Databases; Dental education; Dentistry; Literature search; Research; Search strategy
  3. Account Res. 2021 Dec 15.
      Preprint servers can enhance the access to scientific literature by bidirectional linkage from published papers (postprints) to their counterpart preprint versions. The current state of linkage is to link preprints to their corresponding postprints (peer-reviewed articles published in journals). Here, I suggest an opposite linkage, from postprints to preprints wherever and whenever preprints are posted on a preprint server. Such connection from paid postprints to free versions (preprints) makes sense as it removes the barriers to get access to paywalled publications freely and easily.
    Keywords:  article processing charge (APC); journal publication; journal publishing; open access; open science repository; postprint to preprint linkage; preprint servers; preprint to postprint linking; scientific literature indexation
  4. Front Public Health. 2021 ;9 755808
      The global COVID-19 pandemic has put everyone in an urgent need of accessing and comprehending health information online. Meanwhile, there has been vast amount of information/misinformation/disinformation generated over the Internet, particularly social media platforms, resulting in an infodemic. This public health crisis of COVID-19 pandemic has put each individual and the entire society in a test: what is the level of eHealth literacy is needed to seek accurate health information from online resources and to combat infodemic during a pandemic? This article aims to summarize the significances and challenges of improving eHealth literacy in both communicable (e.g., COVID-19) and non-communicable diseases [e.g., cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)]. Also, this article will make our recommendations of a general framework of AI-based approaches to improving eHealth literacy and combating infodemic, including AI-augmented lifelong learning, AI-assisted translation, simplification, and summarization, and AI-based content filtering. This general framework of AI-based approaches to improving eHealth literacy and combating infodemic has the general advantage of matching the right online health information to the right people.
    Keywords:  AI; eHealth literacy; education; infodemic; public health
  5. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2021 Dec 15. 284 374-378
      With the popularity of the Internet, consumers are likely to resort to websites for dementia information. However, they may not have the knowledge or experience in distinguishing quality information from opinion pieces. This study investigated the developing methods, instruments and parameters for evaluating the content quality of dementia websites. By reviewing 18 existing instruments from the relevant literature, we identified four developing methods - questionnaire survey, automatic evaluation, Delphi method and focus group discussion. These instruments include six parameters - reliability, currency, readability, disclosure, objectivity and relevance - to evaluate the content quality. With the significant social and economic impact of dementia, developing specific instruments to measure the content quality of dementia websites is necessary.
    Keywords:  Health information; dementia; evaluation; method; quality; websites
  6. Res Synth Methods. 2021 Dec 17.
      Systematic reviews are resource-intensive. The machine learning tools being developed mostly focus on the study identification process, but tools to assist in analysis and categorization are also needed. One possibility is to use unsupervised automatic text clustering, in which each study is automatically assigned to one or more meaningful clusters. Our main aim was to assess the usefulness of an automated clustering method, Lingo3G, in categorizing studies in a simplified rapid review, then compare performance (precision and recall) of this method compared to manual categorization. We randomly assigned all 128 studies in a review to be coded by a human researcher blinded to cluster assignment (mimicking two independent researchers) or by a human researcher non-blinded to cluster assignment (mimicking one researcher checking another's work). We compared time use, precision and recall of manual categorization versus automated clustering. Automated clustering and manual categorization organized studies by population and intervention/context. Automated clustering failed to identify two manually identified categories but identified one additional category not identified by the human researcher. We estimate that automated clustering has similar precision to both blinded and non-blinded researchers (e.g., 88% vs 89%), but higher recall (e.g., 89% vs 84%). Manual categorization required 33% more time than automated clustering. Using a specific clustering algorithm, automated clustering can be helpful with categorization of and identifying patterns across studies in simpler systematic reviews. We found that the clustering was sensitive enough to group studies according to linguistic differences that often corresponded to the manual categories. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  Lingo3G; clustering; machine learning; scoping reviews; systematic review
  7. J Biomed Inform. 2021 Dec 14. pii: S1532-0464(21)00299-9. [Epub ahead of print] 103970
      Systematic reviews are labor-intensive processes to combine all knowledge about a given topic into a coherent summary. Despite the high labor investment, they are necessary to create an exhaustive overview of current evidence relevant to a research question. In this work, we evaluate three state-of-the-art supervised multi-label sequence classification systems to automatically identify 24 different experimental design factors for the categories of Animal, Dose, Exposure, and Endpoint from journal articles describing the experiments related to toxicity and health effects of environmental agents. We then present an in depth analysis of the results evaluating the lexical diversity of the design parameters with respect to model performance, evaluating the impact of tokenization and non-contiguous mentions, and finally evaluating the dependencies between entities within the category entities. We demonstrate that in general, algorithms that use embedded representations of the sequences out-perform statistical algorithms, but that even these algorithms struggle with lexically diverse entities.
    Keywords:  Named Entity Recognition; Natural Language Processing; Systematic Review
  8. J Clin Epidemiol. 2021 Dec 08. pii: S0895-4356(21)00402-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this scoping review are to identify the reliability and validity of the available tools, their limitations and any recommendations to further improve the use of these tools.STUDY DESIGN: A scoping review methodology was followed to map the literature published on the challenges and solutions of conducting evidence synthesis using the JBI scoping review methodology.
    RESULTS: A total of 47 publications were included in the review. The current scoping review identified that LitSuggest, Rayyan, Abstractr, BIBOT, R software, RobotAnalyst, DistillerSR, ExaCT and NetMetaXL have potential to be used for the automation of systematic reviews. However, they are not without limitations. The review also identified other studies that employed algorithms that have not yet been developed into user friendly tools. Some of these algorithms showed high validity and reliability but their use is conditional on user knowledge of computer science and algorithms.
    CONCLUSION: Abstract screening has reached maturity; data extraction is still an active area. Developing methods to semi-automate different steps of evidence synthesis via machine learning remains an important research direction. Also, it is important to move from the research prototypes currently available to professionally maintained platforms.
    Keywords:  Abstract screening; Artificial intelligence; Automation; Machine learning; Systematic review; reliability
  9. Menopause. 2021 Dec 13.
      OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality and readability of 24 of the most accessed menopause hormone therapy (MHT) websites by Canadian women.METHODS: The top 24 websites from Google, Bing, and Yahoo were identified using the search term "hormone replacement therapy." Five menopause specialists assessed website content quality using the DISCERN Instrument, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmarks, and Abbott's Scale. Two reviewers assessed website credibility using the Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct certification, and website readability using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, and Flesch-Kincaid Read Ease formulae.
    RESULTS: Scores for quality of information varied. The mean JAMA score was low at 2.3 ± 1.1 (out of 4). Only one website met all benchmarks. Fourteen websites (58%) had a good/excellent DISCERN score, while four (17%) had a poor/very poor score. For Abbott's Scale, both the mean authorship score at 2.2 ± 1.0 (out of 4) and mean content score at 45.9 ± 9.8 (out of 100) were low. Inter-rater reliability was high for all tools. Fifteen websites (63%) were Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct certified. The mean Flesch-Kincaid Read Ease was 42.7 ± 10.3, mean Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level was 12.3 ± 1.9, and mean Simple Measure of Gobbledygook grade level was 11.3 ± 1.5. Only one website presented content at a reading level recommended for the public. Websites meeting more JAMA benchmarks were significantly less readable (P < 0.05).
    CONCLUSION: Although good quality MHT information exists online, several resources are inaccurate or incomplete. Overall, these resources are not considered comprehensible by the public. There is a need to disseminate accurate, comprehensive, and understandable MHT information online.
  10. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2021 Dec 11.
      Given the long-term complications of undiagnosed slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) and the importance of readable health information materials on positive, equitable health outcomes, the objective of this study was to determine if the online patient education materials regarding SCFE are written at or below accepted recommendations. The secondary objective was to determine whether the readability of these materials varied when stratified by the type of website. 'Slipped capital femoral epiphysis', 'SCFE', and 'slipped femoral head' were used as search queries in three common search engines. The readability of each website was evaluated using five established metrics, and the scores were compared by website type and by the complexity of the search query. In this study of 53 unique websites about SCFE, we demonstrated that only one of the web pages was written at the recommended sixth-grade level, and the mean reading level of the online material was above the 10th-grade level. Post hoc testing showed that only websites associated with pediatric academic institutions were written at a significantly lower grade level than general health websites [P < 0.05 for all, range (0.003, 0.04)]. The materials about SCFE that are available to patients and their families continue to be written at an inappropriate level. To increase accessibility and allow for equitable long-term health outcomes, physicians, universities, hospitals and medical societies must ensure that they produce readable education to increase patients' understanding of SCFE, its symptoms and available treatment options. Future studies evaluating progress regarding these metrics are warranted.
  11. Ear Nose Throat J. 2021 Dec 13. 1455613211062447
      OBJECTIVES: Online surgical videos are an increasingly popular resource for surgical trainees, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our objective was to assess the instructional quality of the YouTube videos of the transsphenoidal surgical approach (TSA), using LAParoscopic surgery Video Educational Guidelines (LAP-VEGaS).METHODS: YouTube TSA videos were searched using 5 keywords. Video characteristics were recorded. Two fellowship-trained rhinologists evaluated videos using LAP-VEGaS (scale 0 [worst] to 18 [best]).
    RESULTS: The searches produced 43 unique, unduplicated videos for analysis. Mean video length 7 minutes (standard deviation [SD] = 13), mean viewership was 16 017 views (SD = 29 415), and mean total LAP-VEGaS score was 9 (SD = 3). The LAP-VEGaS criteria with the lowest mean scores were presentation of the positioning of the patient/surgical team (mean = 0.2; SD = 0.6) and the procedure outcomes (mean = 0.4; SD = 0.6). There was substantial interrater agreement (κ = 0.71).
    CONCLUSIONS: LAP-VEGaS, initially developed for laparoscopic procedures, is useful for evaluating TSA instructional videos. There is an opportunity to improve the quality of these videos.
    Keywords:  COVID-19 pandemic; YouTube; curriculum; endoscopy; otolaryngology surgical education; surgical training; virtual
  12. Breast. 2021 Nov 25. pii: S0960-9776(21)00994-2. [Epub ahead of print]61 29-34
      PURPOSE: To evaluate the readability, understandability, and actionability of online patient education materials (OPEM) related to breast cancer risk assessment.MATERIAL AND METHODS: We queried seven English-language search terms related to breast cancer risk assessment: breast cancer high-risk, breast cancer risk factors, breast cancer family history, BRCA, breast cancer risk assessment, Tyrer-Cuzick, and Gail model. Websites were categorized as: academic/hospital-based, commercial, government, non-profit or academic based on the organization hosting the site. Grade-level readability of qualifying websites and categories was determined using readability metrics and generalized estimating equations based on written content only. Readability scores were compared to the recommended parameters set by the American Medical Association (AMA). Understandability and actionability of OPEM related to breast cancer high-risk were evaluated using the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT) and compared to criteria set at ≥70%. Descriptive statistics and inter-rater reliability analysis were utilized.
    RESULTS: 343 websites were identified, of which 162 met study inclusion criteria. The average grade readability score was 12.1 across all websites (range 10.8-13.4). No website met the AMA recommendation. Commercial websites demonstrated the highest overall average readability of 13.1. Of the 26 websites related to the search term breast cancer high-risk, the average understandability and actionability scores were 62% and 34% respectively, both below criteria.
    CONCLUSIONS: OPEM on breast cancer risk assessment available to the general public do not meet criteria for readability, understandability, or actionability. To ensure patient comprehension of medical information online, future information should be published in simpler, more appropriate terms.
    Keywords:  Breast cancer; Patient education; Readability; Risk assessment
  13. Cureus. 2021 Nov;13(11): e19457
      Introduction The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of YouTube videos about retinal detachment surgery as a resource. Methods The first 100 videos were evaluated when they were scanned by typing "retinal detachment surgery " in the YouTube search engine. These videos were also analyzed and scored using DISCERN, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), and Global Quality (GQ) scoring systems. Results The DISCERN score of the evaluated videos was 39.5±8.4; JAMA score was 1.9±0.5; and the GQ score was 2.1±0.5. According to the results, retinal detachment surgery videos, DISCERN score is medium; The JAMA score was evaluated as low quality and poor quality in the GQ score. Conclusion Although there are enough videos on YouTube with retinal detachment surgery, its usefulness as a resource is low, and its quality is poor.
    Keywords:  discern score; global quality score; jama score; retinal detachment surgery; youtube
  14. Mod Rheumatol. 2021 Sep 03. pii: roab062. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVES: To evaluate musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) video contents on YouTube, regarding their quality, reliability, and educational value.METHOD: The first three pages for the keywords 'Musculoskeletal Ultrasound', 'joint ultrasound', and 'articular ultrasound' were searched through YouTube website. The quality of the videos was assessed according to the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Guidelines and EULAR Competency Assessment in MSUS. The reliability was evaluated with modified DISCERN tool.
    RESULTS: After the exclusion criteria applied, 58 videos were evaluated. The video quality analysis showed that probe holding (68.9%; median: 5, range: 0-5), scanning technique (63.8%; median: 4, range: 0-5), identification of anatomic structures (72.4%; median: 4, range: 0-5), and description of ultrasound findings (65.5%; median: 4, range: 0-5) were found to be sufficient, whereas ultrasound machine settings adjustments (1.7%; median: 0, range: 0-4) and final ultrasound diagnosis (12.1%; median: 0, range: 0-5) were insufficient. The total median value of the modified DISCERN scale was 2 (percentile: 2-2, range: 0-3).
    CONCLUSION: MSUS video contents on YouTube are insufficient for educational purposes on MSUS training. There is a need for affordable, easily accessed, standardized, and peer-reviewed online training programmes on MSUS and MSUS-guided injections.
    Keywords:  DISCERN; YouTube; musculoskeletal ultrasound; rheumatology
  15. Environ Int. 2021 Dec 14. pii: S0160-4120(21)00650-4. [Epub ahead of print]159 107025
      INTRODUCTION: There has been limited development and uptake of machine-learning methods to automate data extraction for literature-based assessments. Although advanced extraction approaches have been applied to some clinical research reviews, existing methods are not well suited for addressing toxicology or environmental health questions due to unique data needs to support reviews in these fields.OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate a flexible, web-based tool for semi-automated data extraction that: 1) makes data extraction predictions with user verification, 2) integrates token-level annotations, and 3) connects extracted entities to support hierarchical data extraction.
    METHODS: Dextr was developed with Agile software methodology using a two-team approach. The development team outlined proposed features and coded the software. The advisory team guided developers and evaluated Dextr's performance on precision, recall, and extraction time by comparing a manual extraction workflow to a semi-automated extraction workflow using a dataset of 51 environmental health animal studies.
    RESULTS: The semi-automated workflow did not appear to affect precision rate (96.0% vs. 95.4% manual, p = 0.38), resulted in a small reduction in recall rate (91.8% vs. 97.0% manual, p < 0.01), and substantially reduced the median extraction time (436 s vs. 933 s per study manual, p < 0.01) compared to a manual workflow.
    DISCUSSION: Dextr provides similar performance to manual extraction in terms of recall and precision and greatly reduces data extraction time. Unlike other tools, Dextr provides the ability to extract complex concepts (e.g., multiple experiments with various exposures and doses within a single study), properly connect the extracted elements within a study, and effectively limit the work required by researchers to generate machine-readable, annotated exports. The Dextr tool addresses data-extraction challenges associated with environmental health sciences literature with a simple user interface, incorporates the key capabilities of user verification and entity connecting, provides a platform for further automation developments, and has the potential to improve data extraction for literature reviews in this and other fields.
    Keywords:  Automation; Literature review; Machine learning; Natural language processing; Scoping review; Systematic evidence map; Systematic review; Text mining
  16. Cureus. 2021 Nov;13(11): e19356
      Introduction The internet continues to expand in both size and number of users, and patients are using the internet with increasing frequency to research orthopedic conditions and treatment options. Despite the prevalence of patients searching for medical information, the quality of the available information varies substantially. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and accuracy of the information available on the internet for Dupuytren's disease. We hypothesized that the informational content found on the internet regarding this condition would be of acceptable quality. Methods The search phrasing "'Dupuytren' OR 'Dupuytren's'" was used to mimic how patients would likely search for information on the disease. These terms were entered into the five English-language search engines with the most frequent use on the internet. On each search engine, the first 50 URLs were recorded, including sponsored sites. The 250 total sites were filtered to remove duplicate sites and URLs linking to other search engines, resulting in a final list of 84 websites for informational scoring. A previously published information evaluation protocol was used to grade each website. Each site was graded according to these guidelines by two authors and scored based on authorship, content, disease summary, treatment options, pathogenesis, complications, and results. A third author resolved any conflict on authorship or content before analysis. The resultant "informational value" is the sum of the disease summary, treatment options, pathogenesis, complications, and results and can range from 0-100.  Results The mean total information score for all sites was 47.5 out of 100 points. Forty-three (51.2%) of the websites evaluated were authored by a physician or academic institution, and thirty-four (40.5%) of the sites were commercial in nature. The final seven websites (8.3%) had nonphysician, unidentified, or lay authorship. Physician and academic institution authored websites had an average informational score of 55.5 out of 100 points, compared to 39.7 out of 100 for all other websites. This difference was statistically significant (p <0.01). The mean informational score for the 10 sponsored websites was 16.4 out of 100. Conclusion We concluded that internet information on Dupuytren's disease is of poor quality and incomplete. Academic and physician authored sites have higher quality than commercial sites, but significant room for improvement still exists. Patients should be advised to identify the authorship of the websites they obtain information from and avoid advertisements and commercial sites.
    Keywords:  content; dupuytren's disease; information; internet; quality
  17. Acad Pediatr. 2021 Dec 11. pii: S1876-2859(21)00621-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Parents are increasingly using social media to inform health decisions for their children.OBJECTIVE: This scoping review examines (1) How do parents use social media to find health information for their children? (2) What motivates parents to engage with social media to seek health information for their children? (3) How do parents seek to understand and evaluate the health information they find on social media, and how does social media impact parental health information-seeking?
    METHODS: Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, and Embase databases were searched, with open date parameters. Peer-reviewed studies that examined parents' and responsible caregivers' use of social media as a source of health information for their children (aged <18 years) were included.
    RESULTS: The 42 included studies spanned 2011 to 2020. More than half (n=24, 57%) were published in 2019 and 2020. Parents use social media for information about specific health concerns both before and after a medical diagnosis for their child. Parents are motivated to engage with social media as they seek out extensive information based on lived experience from other parents, as well as social support and community.
    CONCLUSION: This scoping review reveals parents' motivation to use social media for health information, and how that can interact with, and impose on, clinical practice. It is important for those that provide pediatric health care to both understand and accommodate this permanent shift facilitated by social media, when working with parents that are seeking health information when making health decisions for their children.
    Keywords:  adolescent; child; health behavior; infant; information-seeking behavior; parents; preschool; social media