bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2021‒12‒12
nine papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. BJU Int. 2021 Dec 05.
      OBJECTIVES: To determine the credibility of online urological information that medical students are likely to encounter, determine possible discrepancies between the credibility of information pertaining to different areas within urology (especially those less relevant to patients), and assess trends in the sponsorship of online urological educational material.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Health on the Net (HON) principles were used as a validated benchmark to assess the reliability of websites which appeared in the first 150 results of a search using the Google search engine. A variety of urological search terms were used, grouped into three broad categories with varying relevance to patients and medical students. Further analysis focused on the sponsorship of assessed websites.
    RESULTS: 5,400 websites were assessed for validation over a set of 36 search terms. Only 843/5400 (15.6%) of these were HONcode accredited, indicating a large proportion of unverified and potentially unreliable information. Search engine rankings usually favoured accredited websites (P=0.0093), and accreditation peaked at 51.1% (184/360) in the first page of results, but sorting became weaker outside the highest search results. The percentage of accredited websites varied significantly between different subcategories of search terms such as conditions (18.3% (329/1800), P=0.0029) and procedures (13.5% (243/1800), P=0.0426). Governmental/educational and commercial sources supported the majority of websites assessed for sponsorship (21% and 33% (31/150 and 49/150) respectively), and the former were more likely rank highly in search results.
    CONCLUSION: Online urological information frequently lacks validation and is often of indeterminate credibility. There is a marked decrease in the proportion of accredited websites beyond the highest-ranked results and when considering search categories more relevant to students and less relevant to patients. Students cannot necessarily rely on free online sources for accurate information, and could benefit from the development of more rigorous novel tools and platforms.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; FOAMed; HONcode; medical student education; online; open source; urology
  2. J Med Internet Res. 2021 Dec 09. 23(12): e30323
      BACKGROUND: The rapidly evolving digital environment of the social media era has increased the reach of both quality health information and misinformation. Platforms such as YouTube enable easy sharing of attractive, if not always evidence-based, videos with large personal networks and the public. Although much research has focused on characterizing health misinformation on the internet, it has not sufficiently focused on describing and measuring individuals' information competencies that build resilience.OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess individuals' willingness to share a non-evidence-based YouTube video about strengthening the immune system; to describe types of evidence that individuals view as supportive of the claim by the video; and to relate information-sharing behavior to several information competencies, namely, information literacy, science literacy, knowledge of the immune system, interpersonal trust, and trust in health authority.
    METHODS: A web-based survey methodology with 150 individuals across the United States was used. Participants were asked to watch a YouTube excerpt from a morning TV show featuring a wellness pharmacy representative promoting an immunity-boosting dietary supplement produced by his company; answer questions about the video and report whether they would share it with a cousin who was frequently sick; and complete instruments pertaining to the information competencies outlined in the objectives.
    RESULTS: Most participants (105/150, 70%) said that they would share the video with their cousins. Their confidence in the supplement would be further boosted by a friend's recommendations, positive reviews on a crowdsourcing website, and statements of uncited effectiveness studies on the producer's website. Although all information literacy competencies analyzed in this study had a statistically significant relationship with the outcome, each competency was also highly correlated with the others. Information literacy and interpersonal trust independently predicted the largest amount of variance in the intention to share the video (17% and 16%, respectively). Interpersonal trust was negatively related to the willingness to share the video. Science literacy explained 7% of the variance.
    CONCLUSIONS: People are vulnerable to web-based misinformation and are likely to propagate it on the internet. Information literacy and science literacy are associated with less vulnerability to misinformation and a lower propensity to spread it. Of the two, information literacy holds a greater promise as an intervention target. Understanding the role of different kinds of trust in information sharing merits further research.
    Keywords:  YouTube; information literacy; misinformation; science literacy; webcasts as topic
  3. J Med Internet Res. 2021 Dec 10. 23(12): e25963
      BACKGROUND: Worldwide, the internet is an increasingly important channel for health information. Many theories have been applied in research on online health information seeking behaviors (HISBs), with each model integrating a different set of predictors; thus, a common understanding of the predictors of (online) HISB is still missing. Another shortcoming of the theories explaining (online) HISB is that most existing models, so far, focus on very specific health contexts such as cancer. Therefore, the assumptions of the Planned Risk Information Seeking Model (PRISM) as the latest integrative model are applied to study online HISB, because this model identifies the general cognitive and sociopsychological factors that explain health information seeking intention. We shift away from single diseases and explore cross-thematic patterns of online HISB intention and compare predictors concerning different health statuses as it can be assumed that groups of people perceiving themselves as ill or healthy will differ concerning their drivers of online HISB. Considering the specifics of online HISB and variation in individual context factors is key for the development of generalizable theories.OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to contribute to the development of the concept of online HISB in 2 areas. First, this study aimed to explore individual-level predictors of individuals' online HISB intention by applying the postulates of PRISM. Second, we compared relevant predictors of online HISB in groups of people with different health statuses to identify cross-thematic central patterns of online HISB.
    METHODS: Data from a representative sample of German internet users (n=822) served to explain online HISB intentions and influencing patterns in different groups of people. The applicability of the PRISM to online HISB intention was tested by structural equation modeling and multigroup comparison.
    RESULTS: Our results revealed PRISM to be an effective framework for explaining online HISB intention. For online HISB, attitudes toward seeking health information online provided the most important explanatory power followed by risk perceptions and affective risk responses. The multigroup comparison revealed differences both regarding the explanatory power of the model and the relevance of predictors of online HISB. The online HISB intention could be better explained for people facing a health threat, suggesting that the predictors adopted from PRISM were more suitable to explain a problem-driven type of information-seeking behavior.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that attitudes toward seeking health information online and risk perceptions are of central importance for online HISB across different health-conditional contexts. Predictors such as self-efficacy and perceived knowledge insufficiency play a context-dependent role-they are more influential when individuals are facing health threats and the search for health information is of higher personal relevance and urgency. These findings can be understood as the first step to develop a generalized theory of online HISB.
    Keywords:  Planned Risk Information Seeking Model; health status; online health information seeking behavior; personal survey; theory building
  4. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2021 ;27(4): 79-98
      Objectives: To identify the information networks of caregivers and individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and how the health information is accessed and used. Methods: For this qualitative study, participants from the United States were recruited through hospital listservs, websites, social media, and word of mouth to participate in a phone interview. Fourteen individuals living with a traumatic SCI and 18 caregivers of individuals living with a traumatic SCI were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded using NVivo, and analyzed using qualitative thematic methods. Results: Participants reported that medical resources such as SCI specialists were considered the most reliable sources, but due to accessibility barriers the Internet was used the most. The Internet and social resources, such as online and in-person support groups, provided beneficial content information and emotional support, but they posed credibility concerns and left participants feeling unsure of reliability. Information gaps such as lack of education on basic care practices during the transition from acute to chronic care were identified by the participants. Conclusion: Because SCI is an overwhelming experience, it is difficult for patients to retain information in the initial acute care phase, leading to gaps in knowledge about long-term care. Patients are concerned about the reliability of online sources of information; therefore, there is a need for new methods of SCI information dissemination. Potentially, using primary care providers as conduits for information distribution might improve access to reliable long-term SCI information for caregivers and patients.
    Keywords:  caregivers; health information accessibility; spinal cord injury
  5. Cureus. 2021 Oct;13(10): e19150
      Introduction The internet has become a mainstay source of health information for cancer patients. Online patient education videos are common; however, there have been no studies examining the quality of publicly available videos on radiotherapy for lung cancer (one of the most common forms of cancer). To fill this knowledge gap, we aim to systematically map and objectively assess videos discussing radiotherapy for lung cancer on YouTube. Methods The terms "radiotherapy for lung cancer," "radiation for lung cancer," "radiation therapy for lung cancer," and "radiation treatment for lung cancer" were searched on YouTube using a clear-cache browser. Results were sorted by relevance and the top 50 English-language results for each search were recorded. After removing duplicates, each video was assessed for length, Video Power Index (VPI, which is the product of a video's average daily views and like and dislike ratio), source, content, comment moderation, and misinformation. Two raters were used to ensure consistency. Results were evaluated using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results A total of 88 unique videos resulted from the search. The median video length was 4 minutes and 5 seconds. The average VPI was 10.9 (95% CI: 1.5-20.4) and the median number of views was 954.5. All videos were published between July 8, 2009 and November 18, 2020. Of the videos, 44% were published within the past two years. A total of 61% of the videos were from the USA, 14% were from the UK, 6% from Australia, 5% each from Canada and India, and other countries make up the remaining 10%. Most of the videos were published by healthcare facilities (39%) and non-profit organizations (31%). Content-wise, 95% of videos contain information specific to lung cancer. A total of 46 videos (52%) were targeted toward patient education. Of which, 37 covered radiotherapy for lung cancer, 12 covered side effects for radiotherapy, and 11 covered both. The other 42 videos (48%) were designed for a professional audience. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT)/stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) was the most commonly described radiotherapy modality (42%), and the physician interview was the most common format, being used in 59% of videos. Out of the 38 videos with at least one comment, only two (5%) were moderated by the host channel. None of the videos featured misleading information. Conclusions This study comprehensively surveyed YouTube videos pertaining to radiotherapy for lung cancer to provide a high-level overview of the information that patients may find online. Although nearly half of the videos describe lung cancer radiotherapy for patients, only a small proportion comprehensively cover both radiotherapy and its side effects. The results of our study can help guide the development of patient education tools and encourage healthcare providers to recognize the limitations of online health information and proactively address patient questions regarding radiotherapy. Future research could examine videos on other lung cancer treatment options or radiotherapy for other cancers.
    Keywords:  lung cancer; online health information; patient education; radiotherapy (rt); youtube videos
  6. Comput Inform Nurs. 2021 May 03. 39(12): 858-864
      Visual display terminal syndrome is a health problem that occurs when an individual looks at a visual display terminal for a long time. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of YouTube videos on visual display terminal syndrome. YouTube was searched using the keywords "visual display terminal syndrome" and "a prolonged user of a computer or smartphone" on October 16, 2019. A total of 45 videos were evaluated using DISCERN and the Journal of the American Medical Association scoring systems. The variables extracted from the videos were the uploading agency; content; presentation format; days since upload; the number of views, likes, dislikes, and comments; and the video power index. The mean DISCERN and Journal of the American Medical Association scores were 35.64 and 3.08 points, respectively, indicating that the information on visual display terminal syndrome in YouTube videos was inaccurate and unreliable. The major reason for the low quality of the videos was that the sources of information presented in the videos were not provided. The DISCERN and Journal of the American Medical Association scores showed significant differences in the uploading agency and presentation format variables. Nurses must be familiar with evaluating the quality of videos presenting health information. Guidelines informing patients that YouTube might provide misinformation about health need to be developed.
  7. Clin Exp Optom. 2021 Dec 08. 1-5
      CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Keratoconus (KC) treatment in the early stage is usually with glasses or soft toric contact lenses, in advanced stages rigid gas-permeable corneal or scleral contact lenses are used. Optometrists should be aware of misleading information from online platforms when providing information to keratoconus patients.BACKGROUND: Keratoconus is a progressive corneal disease characterised by stromal thinning and corneal ectasia. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study evaluating the popularity, quality, and reliability of videos about keratoconus disease and its treatment published on YouTube. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the credibility, quality, and popularity of YouTube videos about keratoconus.
    METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional, register-based study. A YouTube search was performed using the keywords 'keratoconus', 'keratoconus disease', 'keratoconus treatment', 'keratoconus cross linking'. The quality and reliability of video content were measured using the DISCERN questionnaire, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) score, and the Global Quality Score (GQS). The video power index was used to evaluate the popularity of the videos.
    RESULTS: One hundred videos were included in the study. The average duration was 6.33 min and average total number of views was 14,940. The mean DISCERN, JAMA, and GQS scores were 42.57 ± 12.04 (intermediate quality), 1.77 ± 0.51 (poor quality), and 3.63 ± 1.03 (intermediate quality), respectively. The mean video power index was 11.02 ± 24.55 (range, 0-193). The DISCERN score was significantly positively correlated with GQS and JAMA scores (p ≤ 0.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that YouTube videos about keratoconus contain moderately useful information for patients. So, physicians, being aware of the quality and diversity of online information, should correct any misinformation they encounter while face-to-face with patients.
    Keywords:  DISCERN score; YouTube; keratoconus; quality of YouTube videos
  8. J Burn Care Res. 2021 Dec 08. pii: irab231. [Epub ahead of print]
      The study was designed on whether YouTube videos are useful as an information resource in the field of burn injury prevention and management. Current literature on the educational content and quality of burn-related first aid videos on YouTube was reported as inadequate and inaccurate. However, the quality of YouTube videos on various medical and clinical topics has been the subject of many previous studies, and there has been increasing evidence that the content ratio of usefulness was higher than that of non-useful. While hours and even minutes in burn injuries are as precious as gold in terms of outcomes, it would be a significant loss not to use the most popular and easily accessible free social media platform of our time as a tool that can contribute to the prevention of burns and raise awareness. Analysis was conducted with the remaining 96 videos from 240 videos obtained from YouTube, according to possible search terms and exclusion of videos according to predetermined criteria. The Global Quality Score (GQS) and modified DISCERN (m.DISCERN) tools were used to assess the quality and reliability of the videos. Viewer engagement metrics and video properties were also investigated according to the usefulness criteria (e.g., video length, duration on YouTube, topic contents, source uploads, reliability, and quality). Finally, it was revealed that nearly 80 percent of the YouTube videos contained information in the field of the prevention and management of burn injuries deemed useful in this study, comparable to the other medical disciplines' reports in the literature.
    Keywords:  Internet; Management of burn injuries; Prevention; YouTube
  9. PLoS One. 2021 ;16(12): e0261309
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of periradicular surgery-related YouTube videos available for patients' education. YouTube search was made for videos related to periradicular surgery using specific terms. After exclusions, 42 videos were selected, viewed and assessed by two independent observers. The videos were assessed in terms of duration, days since upload, country of upload, number of views, likes and dislikes, authorship source, viewing rate and interaction index. To grade the content of videos about periradicular surgery, a usefulness score was created with 10 elements based mainly on the American Association of Endodontists guidelines. Each element was given a score of 0 or 1. SPSS software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA) was used to analyze data at a 95% confidence level. An inter-evaluator reliability analysis for the scoring system was performed using the Kappa statistic. The videos received an average of 35103.9 views (range: 9-652378) with an average duration of 338.71 seconds (range: 42-2081), respectively. Most videos were provided by individuals (57%). Half of the videos were posted by authors from the United States. The inter-evaluator reliability for usefulness scoring was 94.5%. No video covered the 10 scoring elements completely, presenting very low usefulness scores (mean: 3.2; range: 1-7). The most discussed elements were supporting media (100%) and steps of the procedure (90.5%) followed by indications and contraindications (45.2%) and symptoms (31%). None of the included videos discussed the procedure's cost or prognosis. In terms of usefulness score, no significant difference was detected between different sources of upload (chi-square test, P > 0.05). Information on periradicular surgery in YouTube videos is not comprehensive and patients should not rely on YouTube as the only source of information. Dental professionals should enrich the content of YouTube with good quality videos by providing full and evidence-based information that will positively affect patients' attitudes and satisfaction.