bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2021‒09‒05
27 papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2021 Sep;28(9): 5061-5064
      Museums are the main sources of cultural, political, economic, scientific and historic information in the communities. Pests in a museum, library or archive environment can cause serious damage to highly valuable and irreplaceable materials. A survey was conducted in the Manuscripts Library of the Coptic Museum (Egypt) to determine the biodiversity of insect pests infest the place. Sampling were done monthly for a year (from October 2018 to September 2019) using sticky traps with a nontoxic sticky substance. The sticky traps were placed at the corners of the library, behind doors and on the windows edges. A total of 1047 specimens belonging to nine species under six families and five orders were collected and identified. The most abundant species was Monomorium pharaonic with a total of 639 collected specimens followed by Ochetellus glaber, Thermobia domestica, Gibbium psylloides, Anthrenus verbasci, Periplaneta Americana, Lasioderma serricorne, Liposcelis bostrychophila, Attagenus fasciatus with total number of 193, 62, 45, 39, 23, 21, 13, 12 collected specimens, respectively. The traps which sited in the corners of the library trapped 60% of the total recorded specimens.
    Keywords:  Antiquities; Egypt; Museum pests; Survey
  2. PLoS One. 2021 ;16(9): e0256833
      OBJECTIVES: To determine whether librarian or information specialist authorship is associated with better reproducibility of the search, at least three databases searched, and better reporting quality in dental systematic reviews (SRs).METHODS: SRs from the top ten dental research journals (as determined by Journal Citation Reports and Scimago) were reviewed for search quality and reproducibility by independent reviewers using two Qualtrics survey instruments. Data was reviewed for all SRs based on reproducibility and librarian participation and further reviewed for search quality of reproducible searches.
    RESULTS: Librarians were co-authors in only 2.5% of the 913 included SRs and librarians were mentioned or acknowledged in only 9% of included SRs. Librarian coauthors were associated with more reproducible searches, higher search quality, and at least three databases searched. Although the results indicate librarians are associated with improved SR quality, due to the small number of SRs that included a librarian, results were not statistically significant.
    CONCLUSION: Despite guidance from organizations that produce SR guidelines recommending the inclusion of a librarian or information specialist on the review team, and despite evidence showing that librarians improve the reproducibility of searches and the reporting of methodology in SRs, librarians are not being included in SRs in the field of dental medicine. The authors of this review recommend the inclusion of a librarian on SR teams in dental medicine and other fields.
  3. Dela J Public Health. 2020 Sep;6(4): 58-65
      Objective: This article describes how funding from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) provided resources for state and public libraries to deliver health information to their patrons.Methods: Three IMLS publicly available data collections were used: State Library Administrative Agency Survey data; State Program Report system; and the Awarded Grants Search portal. Data about health related projects from these two administrative data sources for 36 competitive award projects since 2015 and 143 projects supported via the formula-funded Grants to States Program between 2015-2018 (inclusive) were included. Descriptive statistics about projects with a health and wellness focus were presented within the context of others supported by Grants to States.
    Results: Competitive projects supported public libraries' health resources and built librarians' skills to facilitate patron access to health information. The Grants to States program supported 143 projects associated with health undertaken by 29 states plus Puerto Rico between 2015 and 2018. The IMLS $14.4 million investment during this period leveraged an additional $5 million from state and local sources to support health information projects in public libraries. Finally, data from the State Library Administrative Agency Survey showed that in addition to projects that relied on IMLS Grants to States funds, 29 state libraries provided program assistance in health literacy to the public libraries in their jurisdictions in 2018.
    Conclusions: The findings point to a need to determine whether there are ways to collect additional information via IMLS's data systems to further support state and public libraries in meeting patron health information needs. The lessons learned in the analyses in this article offer useful food-for-thought about how IMLS might work with our data stakeholders to continue to modify each of these data sources to describe the role of libraries in an increasingly complex information landscape.
  4. Med Sci Educ. 2021 Apr;31(2): 375-380
      Resident conferences are primary educational endeavors for trainees and faculty alike. We describe the development of collaborative clinician-librarian educational blogs within the Internal Medicine (2009), Pediatrics (2012), and General Surgery (2018) residency programs. Clinical librarians attended resident conferences and generated evidence-based blog posts based on learning topics and clinical questions encountered during the conferences. In the decade since introduction of the blogs, this partnership has resulted in over 2000 blog posts and generated over 1800 individual views per month. The development of a clinical librarian-managed blog serves as a relevant resource for promoting evidence-based practices within a case-based learning curriculum, engages interdisciplinary collaboration through existing resources, and is generalizable across various clinical practice disciplines and trainees.
    Keywords:  Clinical librarians; Evidence-based practice; Web logs
  5. Univers Access Inf Soc. 2021 Aug 21. 1-16
      This study explores whether US post-secondary institutions (PPI) follow philosophies to foster inclusive communities, providing resources for those individuals with disabilities thrive socially, personally, and academically, while there have been no thorough studies conducted to determine web accessibility of the nation's top-ranked PPI library webpages. Additionally, this study pioneers in comparison with the accessibility of PPI's library homepages fighting COVID-19. The study evaluated the library homepages of the premium PPIs based on's 2019 list of "The Best Colleges in America" via the WAVE web accessibility evaluation tool. The outcomes determined that most of the library homepages analyzed were littered with numerous errors, and the shift to online-based research in learning had no significant impact on the number of errors WAVE detected. The disconcerting findings of this study demonstrate the overall failure to recognize the importance of web accessibility or perhaps even the indifference toward accessibility on the part of the PPI community.
    Keywords:  ADA; Academic libraries; Accessibility; COVID-19; Disability; Private colleges and universities; Section 508; WAVE; WCAG
  6. JMIR Infodemiology. 2021 Jan-Dec;1(1):1(1): e28740
      Background: The emergency authorization of COVID-19 vaccines has offered the first means of long-term protection against COVID-19-related illness since the pandemic began. It is important for health care professionals to understand commonly held COVID-19 vaccine concerns and to be equipped with quality information that can be used to assist in medical decision-making.Objective: Using Google's RankBrain machine learning algorithm, we sought to characterize the content of the most frequently asked questions (FAQs) about COVID-19 vaccines evidenced by internet searches. Secondarily, we sought to examine the information transparency and quality of sources used by Google to answer FAQs on COVID-19 vaccines.
    Methods: We searched COVID-19 vaccine terms on Google and used the "People also ask" box to obtain FAQs generated by Google's machine learning algorithms. FAQs are assigned an "answer" source by Google. We extracted FAQs and answer sources related to COVID-19 vaccines. We used the Rothwell Classification of Questions to categorize questions on the basis of content. We classified answer sources as either academic, commercial, government, media outlet, or medical practice. We used the Journal of the American Medical Association's (JAMA's) benchmark criteria to assess information transparency and Brief DISCERN to assess information quality for answer sources. FAQ and answer source type frequencies were calculated. Chi-square tests were used to determine associations between information transparency by source type. One-way analysis of variance was used to assess differences in mean Brief DISCERN scores by source type.
    Results: Our search yielded 28 unique FAQs about COVID-19 vaccines. Most COVID-19 vaccine-related FAQs were seeking factual information (22/28, 78.6%), specifically about safety and efficacy (9/22, 40.9%). The most common source type was media outlets (12/28, 42.9%), followed by government sources (11/28, 39.3%). Nineteen sources met 3 or more JAMA benchmark criteria with government sources as the majority (10/19, 52.6%). JAMA benchmark criteria performance did not significantly differ among source types (χ 2 4=7.40; P=.12). One-way analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in mean Brief DISCERN scores by source type (F 4,23=10.27; P<.001).
    Conclusions: The most frequently asked COVID-19 vaccine-related questions pertained to vaccine safety and efficacy. We found that government sources provided the most transparent and highest-quality web-based COVID-19 vaccine-related information. Recognizing common questions and concerns about COVID-19 vaccines may assist in improving vaccination efforts.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; content; frequently asked questions; internet; machine learning; natural language processing; quality; question; search analytics; search engine; transparency; vaccine; vaccine hesitancy; web-based health information
  7. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2021 Aug 31. 37(1): e85
      OBJECTIVE: In 2019, members of the Health Technology Assessment international (HTAi) Interest Group for Disinvestment and Early Awareness (DEA-IG) and the HTAi Interest Group for Information Retrieval (IR-IG) agreed to produce quarterly current awareness alerts for members of the DEA-IG. The purpose was to pilot a predefined strategy for sharing new publications on methods and topical issues in this area.METHODS: Literature search strategies for PubMed and Google were developed. Retrieved citations were posted on the DEA-IG Web site. Members of the DEA-IG received an email notification when new alerts were available. An informal survey of the DEA-IG members was used to provide feedback after the pilot.
    RESULTS: Six alerts were issued during the pilot (June 2019-September 2020) with a total of 170 citations. The bulk of the information were 124 PubMed indexed citations, and of these, 96 were retrieved by the PubMed search strategies. Google searches were not found to be useful, but ongoing horizon scanning work at the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) provided additional information. Based on retrospective sorting, we considered thirty-five PubMed citations to be highly relevant for health technology assessment (HTA). The response rate to the survey was limited (seventeen respondents), but most respondents found the alerts useful for their work.
    CONCLUSIONS: The results of this pilot project can be used to revise search strategies and information sources, improve the relevance of the alerts, and plan for expanded dissemination strategies.
    Keywords:  Disinvestment; Early awareness; Emerging health technologies; Health Technology Reassessment; Horizon scanning
  8. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2021 ;2021 672-679
      The exponential growth of public datasets in the era of Big Data demands new solutions for making these resources findable and reusable. Therefore, a scholarly recommender system for public datasets is an important tool in the field of information filtering. It will aid scholars in identifying prior and related literature to datasets, saving their time, as well as enhance the datasets reusability. In this work, we developed a scholarly recommendation system that recommends research-papers, from PubMed, relevant to public datasets, from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Different techniques for representing textual data are employed and compared in this work. Our results show that term-frequency based methods (BM25 and TF-IDF) outperformed all others including popular Natural Language Processing embedding models such as doc2vec, ELMo and BERT.
  9. J Med Internet Res. 2021 Sep 01. 23(9): e30409
      BACKGROUND: Diabetes has become one of the most prevalent chronic diseases, and many people living with diabetes use social media to seek health information. Recently, an emerging social media app, TikTok, has received much interest owing to its popularity among general health consumers. We notice that there are many videos about diabetes on TikTok. However, it remains unclear whether the information in these videos is of satisfactory quality.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the quality of the information in diabetes-related videos on TikTok.
    METHODS: We collected a sample of 199 diabetes-related videos in Chinese. The basic information presented in the videos was coded and analyzed. First, we identified the source of each video. Next, 2 independent raters assessed each video in terms of the completeness of six types of content (the definition of the disease, symptoms, risk factors, evaluation, management, and outcomes). Then, the 2 raters independently assessed the quality of information in the videos, using the DISCERN instrument.
    RESULTS: In regard to the sources of the videos, we found 6 distinct types of uploaders; these included 3 kinds of individual users (ie, health professionals, general users, and science communicators) and 3 types of organizational users (ie, news agencies, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit organizations). Regarding content, our results show that the videos were primarily about diabetes management and contained limited information on the definition of the disease, symptoms, risk factors, evaluation, and outcomes. The overall quality of the videos was acceptable, on average, although the quality of the information varied, depending on the sources. The videos created by nonprofit organizations had the highest information quality, while the videos contributed by for-profit organizations had the lowest information quality.
    CONCLUSIONS: Although the overall quality of the information in the diabetes videos on TikTok is acceptable, TikTok might not fully meet the health information needs of patients with diabetes, and they should exercise caution when using TikTok as a source of diabetes-related information.
    Keywords:  TikTok; diabetes; infodemiology; information quality; short video apps; social media
  10. Dela J Public Health. 2021 Mar;7(2): 18
  11. Patient Educ Couns. 2021 Aug 26. pii: S0738-3991(21)00574-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of language preference and health literacy on health information-seeking experiences in a multilingual, low-income cohort.METHODS: We administered a modified Health Information National Trends Survey in English, Spanish, and Chinese to a sample of San Francisco city/county residents. Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, we assessed how language and health literacy impact health information-seeking experiences (confidence, effort, frustration, quality concerns, and difficulty understanding information), adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, usual place of care, health status, information-seeking behaviors, and smartphone ownership.
    RESULTS: Of 1000 participants (487 English-speaking, 256 Spanish-speaking, 257 Chinese-speaking), 820 (82%) reported at least one negative health information-seeking experience. Chinese-language was associated with frustration (aOR = 2.56; 1.12-5.86). Difficulty understanding information was more likely in Spanish-language respondents (aOR = 3.58; 1.25-10.24). Participants with limited health literacy reported more effort (aOR = 1.97; 1.22-3.17), frustration (aOR = 2.09; 1.28-3.43), concern about quality (aOR = 2.72; 1.60-4.61), and difficulty understanding information (aOR = 2.53; 1.58-4.05). Language and literacy impacted confidence only in the interaction term between Chinese-speakers and health literacy.
    CONCLUSION: We found that negative health information-seeking experiences were common in non-English speaking populations those with limited health literacy.
    PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Health communication efforts should consider both language preference and health literacy to ensure accessibility for all patients.
    Keywords:  Health information-seeking; Health literacy; Language preference
  12. Br J Neurosurg. 2021 Sep 02. 1-6
      BACKGROUND: A recent trend of looking for health-related conditions on the Internet has been described, with up 70% of searchers stating that online sources have affected their medical decision-making. Patients with vestibular schwannomas (VS) use online sources, including videos, to seek information about treatment alternatives and outcomes and surgeons experience. Our study investigates the reliability and quality of VS-related online videos.METHODS: In April 2020, a search was launched on YouTube for the key terms 'vestibular schwannoma,' 'acoustic neuroma,' 'eighth cranial nerve schwannoma,' and 'eighth cranial nerve neuroma.' Results were screened for possible inclusion. Three authors independently used the DISCERN instrument to evaluate the reliability and quality of the included videos. Factors possibly influencing popularity were investigated.
    RESULTS: The initial search yielded 6416 videos. 38 videos were included in the final analysis. The average DISCERN score was 2.76, indicating overall poor quality and reliability of information. Only 5% scored 4.0 or more (unbiased videos that offer evidence-supported information); 31% scored between 3.0 and 3.99, and 63% scored 2.99 or less. Videos describing symptoms or the patient's clinical presentation were slightly more popular than videos without these characteristics. Surgical videos (videos containing clips of surgical procedures) were significantly more popular than non-surgical videos (p = .024) despite being of similarly poor quality (DISCERN score 2.85 vs. 2.74, respectively).
    CONCLUSIONS: Available patient educational videos for VS are of mixed quality and reliability: the authors describe the strengths and pitfalls of existing YouTube videos. Considering that VS is a pathology with multiple available management modalities, and that patients' decision-making is affected by the information available on the Internet, it is of great importance that good-quality informative material be released by medical, academic, or educational institutions.
    Keywords:  Vestibular Schwannoma; acoustic neuroma; neurosurgery; patient education
  13. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2021 Aug 31. 1-24
      OBJECTIVE: As the COVID-19 vaccine is introduced, it is critical to recognize that public opinion on vaccines is largely influenced by health communications, with YouTube being a major source of information and misinformation. This analysis graded the accuracy, quality, and reliability of the most viewed YouTube videos depicting COVID-19 and vaccinations over a six-month period.METHODS: We collected hyperlinks for the 150 most viewed YouTube videos discussing COVID-19 from January through June 2020. Closed captioning data was searched for the term "vaccine," yielding 32 videos. This sample was evaluated for quality, accuracy, and reliability using a rubric that incorporated existing instruments: Global Quality Scale (GQS), JAMA Benchmark Criteria, and DISCERN.
    RESULTS: These 32 videos had 139,764,188 views at the time of data collection. The majority of videos received low scores, with network news sources receiving the lowest scores overall.
    CONCLUSIONS: The overall quality of COVID-19 YouTube videos related to vaccines may be low and raises a precautionary alert for the public consuming these videos and for healthcare providers working to provide the best information to their patients. Existing scoring tools may not capture the complexities of social media. New tools could allow for a better understanding of the modern landscape of health communications.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Quality; Social Media; Vaccinations; YouTube
  14. Z Rheumatol. 2021 Sep 01.
      BACKGROUND: YouTube is an increasingly used platform for medical information. However, the validity of health-related information on psoriatic arthritis (PsA) on YouTube has not been determined.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and quality of YouTube videos concerning PsA.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A YouTube search was performed on April 18, 2021, using the keyword "psoriatic arthritis." Two independent raters accessed the content, source, and detailed characteristics of the included videos. The reliability and quality of the videos were analyzed using the modified DISCERN score, Journal of the American Medical Association benchmark criteria score, and global quality scale score.
    RESULTS: Of the 200 videos screened, 155 were included in the study after applying the exclusion criteria. A total of 132 (85.2%) videos revealed useful information about PsA, whereas the remaining 23 (14.8%) were misleading. Video interaction parameters including the median number of views, views per day, likes, dislikes, and comments demonstrated no significant difference between the two groups. The videos posted by universities and professional organizations displayed the highest reliability and quality scores.
    CONCLUSION: The majority of YouTube videos on PsA contained useful information. However, physicians should alert patients to the possibility of misinformation and non-validated sources. Professional organizations in the field of rheumatology, such as the American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism, should consider collaborating with YouTube to deliver high-quality content.
    Keywords:  Internet; Misinformation; Rheumatology; Social Media; Video
  15. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2021 08 30. 21(1): 255
      BACKGROUND: Institutions, government departments, and healthcare professionals engage in social media because it facilitates reaching a large number of people simultaneously. YouTube provides a platform whereby anyone can upload videos and gain feedback on their content from other users. Many YouTube videos are related to health and science, and many people search YouTube for health-related information. YouTube has been acknowledged as a key public information source in recent crises caused by Zika, H1N1, swine flu, and most recently, COVID-19.METHODS: YouTube videos were collected from the YouTube Application Programming Interface (API) using the search terms COVID-19, coronavirus, COVID19, and corona. The search was conducted on April 4 and 5, 2020. The initial investigation found a total of 1084 videos. The second step involved identifying and verifying the videos for their relationship to COVID-19 information and excluding videos that did not relate to COVID-19 or were in a language other than English and Hindi.
    RESULTS: An analysis of YouTube videos covering COVID-19, uploaded in early 2020, in English and Hindi. The sample comprised 349 videos (n = 334 English). Videos were characterized by contributor, duration, content, and reception (views/likes/dislikes/comments). The majority contained general information, with only 4.01% focusing on symptoms and 11.17% on treatment and outcomes. Further, the majority (n = 229) were short videos of under 10 min duration. Videos provided by government and health care professionals comprised 6.87% and 5.74% % of the sample, respectively. News channels uploaded 71.63% of videos.
    CONCLUSIONS: YouTube may provide a significant resource for disseminating of information on public health issues like outbreaks of viral infections and should be utilized by healthcare agencies for this purpose. However, there is currently no way to determine whether a video has been produced or verified by authorized healthcare professionals. This limitation needs to be addressed so that the vital distribution services offered by platforms like YouTube can be fully utilized for increasing public understanding of healthcare science, particularly during a crisis such as a pandemic.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Content analysis; Coronavirus; Video analysis; YouTube
  16. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2021 ;14 3541-3550
      Purpose: This study compared the most used sources of information by caregivers for scheduled childhood vaccination in Saudi Arabia before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and examined the effect of this decision-making.Methods: An electronic survey was administered to 577 caregivers of children aged ≤2 years residing in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic curfew. The sources of information on childhood vaccination considered by the caregivers and their influence on the caregivers' decision to delay scheduled vaccination were assessed and statistically analyzed.
    Results: Most participants (90.8%) were mothers aged 32.6 ± 5.7 years. Before the pandemic, most caregivers sought information about children's vaccinations personally from the healthcare workers, or trustworthy sources, including the Ministry of Health (MOH), MOH call center 937, and MOH Sehha app. However, during the pandemic, there was a noticeable decrease in the searches for health information through professional consultations (in person and health websites) and a significant increase in the use of social media platforms. Twitter was the most used platform (29.9%) and the use of Snapchat was significantly higher during the lockdown period compared to its use before the pandemic (21.9% vs 17.2%, P < 0.001). The use of social media not only increased the level of fear among the caregivers but also had a negative effect on their decisions about children's vaccinations. Searches on YouTube and Facebook particularly increased the odds of delaying vaccinations by 2.63 times (P = 0.008) and 3.66 times (P = 0.025), respectively.
    Conclusion: During the pandemic, caregivers' health-information seeking behavior was directed towards social media networking. In Saudi Arabia, YouTube and Facebook, in particular, played an important role in the caregivers' decision-making about childhood vaccinations. The results of this survey provide valuable information on how to reach the Saudi population and launch an effective awareness campaign using the most commonly accessed and influential sources of information.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; caregivers’ decision; health apps; immunization; pandemic; social media; telehealth
  17. Med Sci Educ. 2020 Dec;30(4): 1775-1782
      YouTube has emerged as a growing educational resource for medical learners and educators; yet, its broad implementation may lack guidance from evidence-based evaluations. This article presents a scoping review of the utility, effectiveness, and validity of YouTube video resources in medical education. Of the 113 articles identified, 31 articles met inclusion criteria that focused on use of YouTube in medical education. Only 19.4% of the articles (n = 6) reported evaluative outcomes related to the use of YouTube for instructional purposes. Recommendations are offered for improving the usefulness and quality of YouTube videos as an educational resource in medical education.
    Keywords:  Evaluation; Medical education; Scoping review; Social media; YouTube
  18. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2021 May-Jun 01;36(3):36(3): 139-148
      OBJECTIVE: Basic concussion symptom knowledge is fundamental to concussion identification; however, racial disparities in concussion knowledge exist in high school and youth sports. It is unknown whether similar differences exist in collegiate-athletes. Identifying racial disparities in concussion knowledge and sources of concussion information is essential to inform equitable approaches to knowledge translation and educational interventions. This study examined how Black and White collegiate-athletes differed in their knowledge of concussion symptoms and use of concussion information sources.SETTING: National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions.
    PARTICIPANTS: Collegiate-athletes.
    DESIGN: Cross-sectional.
    MAIN MEASURES: Collegiate-athletes completed a questionnaire that assessed personal and sports demographics, concussion symptom knowledge, and use of concussion information sources. Fisher's exact tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests examined differences in outcome measures between Black and White collegiate-athletes. A multivariable Poisson regression model examined the association between race and concussion symptom knowledge scores while accounting for sex, sports contact level, NCAA division, concussion history, and specific concussion information sources. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs excluding 1.00 were deemed significant.
    RESULTS: A total of 768 (82.6% White, 17.4% Black) collegiate-athletes completed the questionnaire. Black athletes were more likely to have lower concussion symptom knowledge scores than White athletes (P < .001). In the multivariable Poisson regression model controlling for covariates, this finding was retained (IRR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.997). White athletes were more likely to report school-based professional (P < .001), online medical sources (P = .02), and the NCAA (P = .008) as sources of concussion information. Black athletes were more likely to report referees (P = .03) as a source of concussion knowledge.
    CONCLUSION: Despite NCAA concussion education requirements for athletes, Black collegiate-athletes were found to have lower concussion knowledge than White collegiate-athletes. The findings highlight the need for equitable strategies to disseminate concussion information to diverse populations by improving the physician-patient relationship and investing in culturally appropriate educational materials.
  19. J Imaging. 2021 Apr 23. pii: 76. [Epub ahead of print]7(5):
      This paper describes in detail VISIONE, a video search system that allows users to search for videos using textual keywords, the occurrence of objects and their spatial relationships, the occurrence of colors and their spatial relationships, and image similarity. These modalities can be combined together to express complex queries and meet users' needs. The peculiarity of our approach is that we encode all information extracted from the keyframes, such as visual deep features, tags, color and object locations, using a convenient textual encoding that is indexed in a single text retrieval engine. This offers great flexibility when results corresponding to various parts of the query (visual, text and locations) need to be merged. In addition, we report an extensive analysis of the retrieval performance of the system, using the query logs generated during the Video Browser Showdown (VBS) 2019 competition. This allowed us to fine-tune the system by choosing the optimal parameters and strategies from those we tested.
    Keywords:  Ad-hoc video search; content-based video retrieval; image search; information systems applications; known item search; multimedia and multimodal retrieval; multimedia information systems; retrieval models and ranking; surrogate text representation; users and interactive retrieval; video search