bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2021‒08‒01
seventeen papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. Front Genet. 2021 ;12 621683
      The current COVID-19 pandemic has unfortunately resulted in many significant concerns for individuals with genetic disorders and their relatives, regarding the viral infection and, particularly, its specific implications and additional advisable precautions for individuals affected by genetic disorders. To address this, the resulting requirement for guidance and information for the public and for genetics professionals was discussed among colleagues nationally, on the ScotGEN Steering Committee, and internationally on the Education Committee of the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG). It was agreed that the creation of an online hub of genetics-related COVID-19 information resources would be particularly helpful. The proposed content, divided into a web page for professionals and a page for patients, was discussed with, and approved by, genetics professionals. The hub was created and provided online at and linked from the ESHG's educational website for genetics and genomics, at The new hub provides links, summary information and representative illustrations for a wide range of selected international resources. The resources for professionals include: COVID-19 research related hubs provided by Nature, Science, Frontiers, and PubMed; clinical guidelines; the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; the World Health Organisation; and molecular data sources including coronavirus 3D protein structures. The resources for patients and families include links to many accessible sources of support and relevant information. Since the launch of the pages, the website has received visits from over 50 countries worldwide. Several genetics consultants have commented on usefulness, clarity, readability, and ease of navigation. Visits have originated most frequently in the United Kingdom, Kuwait, Hong Kong, Moldova, United States, Philippines, France, and Qatar. More links have been added since the launch of the hub to include additional international public health and academic resources. In conclusion, an up-to-date online hub has been created and made freely available for healthcare professionals, patients, relatives and the public, providing categorised easily navigated links to a range of worldwide resources related to COVID-19. These pages are receiving a rapidly growing number of return visits and the authors continue to maintain and update the pages' content, incorporating new developments in this field of enormous worldwide importance.
    Keywords:  COVID–19; coronavirus; data; education; genetics; genomics; online; resources
  2. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2021 Jul 29. 21(1): 157
      BACKGROUND: To develop and test an approach to test reproducibility of SRs.METHODS: Case study. We have developed an approach to test reproducibility retrospectively while focusing on the whole conduct of an SR instead of single steps of it. We replicated the literature searches and drew a 25% random sample followed by study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias (ROB) assessments performed by two reviewers independently. These results were compared narratively with the original review.
    RESULTS: We were not able to fully reproduce the original search resulting in minor differences in the number of citations retrieved. The biggest disagreements were found in study selection. The most difficult section to be reproduced was the RoB assessment due to the lack of reporting clear criteria to support the judgement of RoB ratings, although agreement was still found to be satisfactory.
    CONCLUSION: Our approach as well as other approaches needs to undergo testing and comparison in the future as the area of testing for reproducibility of SRs is still in its infancy.
    Keywords:  Data extraction; Information storage and retrieval; Methodological quality; Reproducibility of Results; Risk of bias; Systematic reviews
  3. Proc ACM Conf Health Inference Learn (2020). 2020 Apr;2020 139-150
      Systematic review (SR) is an essential process to identify, evaluate, and summarize the findings of all relevant individual studies concerning health-related questions. However, conducting a SR is labor-intensive, as identifying relevant studies is a daunting process that entails multiple researchers screening thousands of articles for relevance. In this paper, we propose MMiDaS-AE, a Multi-modal Missing Data aware Stacked Autoencoder, for semi-automating screening for SRs. We use a multi-modal view that exploits three representations, of: 1) documents, 2) topics, and 3) citation networks. Documents that contain similar words will be nearby in the document embedding space. Models can also exploit the relationship between documents and the associated SR MeSH terms to capture article relevancy. Finally, related works will likely share the same citations, and thus closely related articles would, intuitively, be trained to be close to each other in the embedding space. However, using all three learned representations as features directly result in an unwieldy number of parameters. Thus, motivated by recent work on multi-modal auto-encoders, we adopt a multi-modal stacked autoencoder that can learn a shared representation encoding all three representations in a compressed space. However, in practice one or more of these modalities may be missing for an article (e.g., if we cannot recover citation information). Therefore, we propose to learn to impute the shared representation even when specific inputs are missing. We find this new model significantly improves performance on a dataset consisting of 15 SRs compared to existing approaches.
    Keywords:  Applied computing → Health informatics; Information systems → Clustering and classification; Missing Data Imputation; Multi-modal Stacked Autoencoder; Systematic Review
  4. J Health Commun. 2021 Jul 25. 1-13
      Guided by Uncertainty Management Theory, UMT, we tested a model that explicates how uncertainty arising from contradictory health information is managed through information seeking. In an online experiment, 763 U.S. adults were randomly assigned to one of three message conditions: contradictory, non-contradictory, or control. Participants in the contradictory and non-contradictory conditions answered questions about their perceptions of contradiction, issue and decision uncertainty, negative appraisals and emotions, and information-seeking intentions. They also completed measures of several moderator variables, including information overload, intolerance for uncertainty, and health self-efficacy. Baseline levels of issue and decision uncertainty were measured in the control condition. Model tenets were confirmed: perceptions of contradiction led to issue uncertainty which, in turn, prompted cognitive appraisals directly, and indirectly through increased decision uncertainty. The effects of issue and decision uncertainty on information-seeking intentions were mediated by negative appraisals and threat emotions. Individuals with high health self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations of information search were more likely to manage uncertainty through information seeking. These results support the use of the CHIP model when perceptions of contradiction and decision uncertainty need to be accounted for, while also validating UMT for its original purposes. Model refinements and implications are discussed.
  5. Proc ACM/IEEE Joint Conf Digit Libr. 2020 Aug;2020 217-226
      Scientific digital libraries speed dissemination of scientific publications, but also the propagation of invalid or unreliable knowledge. Although many papers with known validity problems are highly cited, no auditing process is currently available to determine whether a citing paper's findings fundamentally depend on invalid or unreliable knowledge. To address this, we introduce a new framework, the keystone framework, designed to identify when and how citing unreliable findings impacts a paper, using argumentation theory and citation context analysis. Through two pilot case studies, we demonstrate how the keystone framework can be applied to knowledge maintenance tasks for digital libraries, including addressing citations of a non-reproducible paper and identifying statements most needing validation in a high-impact paper. We identify roles for librarians, database maintainers, knowledgebase curators, and research software engineers in applying the framework to scientific digital libraries.
    Keywords:  Knowledge maintenance; argument retrieval; argumentation theory; citation; citation contexts; citation of retracted papers; knowledge claims; retraction of research; scientific literature
  6. Front Res Metr Anal. 2021 ;6 689059
      The literature knowledge panels developed and implemented in PubChem are described. These help to uncover and summarize important relationships between chemicals, genes, proteins, and diseases by analyzing co-occurrences of terms in biomedical literature abstracts. Named entities in PubMed records are matched with chemical names in PubChem, disease names in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), and gene/protein names in popular gene/protein information resources, and the most closely related entities are identified using statistical analysis and relevance-based sampling. Knowledge panels for the co-occurrence of chemical, disease, and gene/protein entities are included in PubChem Compound, Protein, and Gene pages, summarizing these in a compact form. Statistical methods for removing redundancy and estimating relevance scores are discussed, along with benefits and pitfalls of relying on automated (i.e., not human-curated) methods operating on data from multiple heterogeneous sources.
    Keywords:  PubChem; data mining; information retrieval; knowledge discovery; knowledge graph; knowledge panels; knowledge summarization; natural language processing
  7. J Med Internet Res. 2021 Jul 29. 23(7): e24436
      BACKGROUND: Concern regarding the reliability and accuracy of the health-related information provided by online newspaper articles has increased. Numerous criteria and items have been proposed and published regarding the quality assessment of online information, but there is no standard quality assessment tool available for online newspapers.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop the Health Information Quality Assessment Tool (HIQUAL) for online newspaper articles.
    METHODS: We reviewed previous health information quality assessment tools and related studies and accordingly developed and customized new criteria. The interrater agreement for the new assessment tool was assessed for 3 newspaper articles on different subjects (colorectal cancer, obesity genetic testing, and hypertension diagnostic criteria) using the Fleiss κ and Gwet agreement coefficient. To compare the quality scores generated by each pair of tools, convergent validity was measured using the Kendall τ ranked correlation.
    RESULTS: Overall, the HIQUAL for newspaper articles comprised 10 items across 5 domains: reliability, usefulness, understandability, sufficiency, and transparency. The interrater agreement for the article on colorectal cancer was in the moderate to substantial range (Fleiss κ=0.48, SE 0.11; Gwet agreement coefficient=0.74, SE 0.13), while for the article introducing obesity genetic testing it was in the substantial range, with values of 0.63 (SE 0.28) and 0.86 (SE 0.10) for the two measures, respectively. There was relatively low agreement for the article on hypertension diagnostic criteria at 0.20 (SE 0.10) and 0.75 (SE 0.13), respectively. Validity of the correlation assessed with the Kendall τ showed good correlation between tools (HIQUAL vs DISCERN=0.72, HIQUAL vs QUEST [Quality Evaluation Scoring Tool]=0.69).
    CONCLUSIONS: We developed a new assessment tool to evaluate the quality of health information in online newspaper articles, to help consumers discern accurate sources of health information. The HIQUAL can help increase the accuracy and quality of online health information in Korea.
    Keywords:  assessment tools; information seeking; newspaper articles; online health information; quality assessment
  8. Nutr J. 2021 Jul 27. 20(1): 72
      BACKGROUND: Given the high prevalence of dietary and herbal supplement (DHS) use in tandem with the growing ease of internet access, patients commonly search online for consumer health information about these products. One common reason for DHSs use includes weight loss. Healthcare providers need to be aware of the quality of online information about DHSs for weight loss so they can adequately counsel their patients and provide them with guidance surrounding the identification of high-quality information resources. This study aimed to assess the quality of online DHSs consumer health information for weight loss that a "typical" patient might access online.METHODS: Six search terms were used to generate the first 20 websites on the Google search engine in four countries: Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States (n = 480 websites). After applying exclusion criteria, eligible websites were quality assessed using the DISCERN instrument. This tool is comprised of 16 questions, each evaluated on a 5-point scale. The averages and standard deviations for each DISCERN instrument item, in addition to overall summed scores between 15 and 75 were calculated.
    RESULTS: Across 87 eligible websites, the mean summed score was 44.80 (SD = 11.53), while the mean overall DISCERN score of each website was 2.72 (SD = 0.99). In general, websites detailed and achieved their specified aims and described treatment benefits. However, most websites failed to describe the impact of treatment on overall quality of life and the impact of a no treatment option. The highest-scoring websites were largely government or health portal websites, while the lowest-scoring websites were largely commercial in nature.
    CONCLUSION: High variability in DISCERN instrument scores was found across all websites assessed. Healthcare providers should be aware of the fact that their patients may be accessing misinformation online surrounding the use of DHSs for weight loss. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to ensure that they are providing their patients with guidance on how to identify high-quality resources online, in order that safe, effective, and evidence-based decisions are made surrounding the use of DHSs for weight loss.
    Keywords:  Consumer health information; DISCERN; Dietary and herbal supplements; Information assessment; Internet; Quality of information; Website; Weight loss
  9. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2021 Jul 30.
      PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to assess the quality of videos on YouTube as educational resources for patients and physicians about blepharoplastic surgery.METHODS: This study is a retrospective and cross-sectional study. A YouTube search for the term "blepharoplasty" was made and the first 210 videos were recorded (all video searches were done by clearing all search history without any user login). The number of views, likes and dislikes, upload time (i.e. age) of all videos, video duration, and source (i.e. physicians, non- physicians) were recorded. The video uploader, physicians, healthcare provider, health-related channels were gathered in a group. Video sources were evaluated as physician and non-physician. The DISCERN, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), and Global Quality scores of all videos were also evaluated and recorded by two experienced oculoplastic surgeons.
    RESULTS: Considering our exclusion criteria from 210 videos we evaluated, 186 videos were included in the study. 147 (79%) of these videos were uploaded by physicians and 39 (21%) by non-physicians users. The total viewing average was 69,548 ± 14,533. The average length (min) of all videos was 7.59 ± 8.75 min. The average of total likes was 301.72 ± 578.89, dislike was 28.47 ± 68.90. The mean DISCERN score was 45.06 ± 12.88 (fair quality), the mean JAMA score was 1.39 ± 1.06 (poor quality), and the mean Global Quality score was 2.39 ± 1.03 (intermediate quality). DISCERN, JAMA, GQS scores were statistically significant between videos uploaded by physicians and non- physicians (p< 0.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: As a result of the videos reviewed, YouTube videos can be educational and informative for patients and physicians. Only if the video source and content are selected correctly. We hope that YouTube will become more useful in terms of healthcare and education once its role in e-learning is clear.
    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE V: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .
    Keywords:  Blepharoplasty; Discern; Global quality score; YouTube
  10. Am J Perinatol. 2021 Jul 29.
      OBJECTIVE:  As the awareness of the accompanying morbidity of placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) has increased over recent decades. We sought to analyze the precision and reliability of the currently available content regarding PAS on YouTube.STUDY DESIGN:  A YouTube search was performed on June 17, 2019 by using the search terms "placenta accreta," "PAS," and "invasive placentation." Search results were sorted by relevance, and up to 200 videos per search term were systematically evaluated by four independent reviewers. A quality assessment checklist relating to aspects of PAS was developed with a Likert's scale from 0 to 12 points to quantify video content. Videos were classified as poor educational quality (grade 0 to ≤4), moderate quality (grade >4-8), and high quality (grade >8-12).
    RESULTS:  Of the 318 videos identified, 99 videos met inclusion criteria. The majority of videos (61.6%) were produced by a professional source, that is, appearing to be from a hospital, university, or educational service. Of the remaining videos, 16.2% were classified as personal, that is, posted from personal YouTube accounts and depicting a personal or family member experience, and 22.2% were classified as other. The majority of the "other" category consisted of news segments and short clips from talk shows. Overall, 60.6% of videos were of poor educational quality, 32.3% were of moderate quality, and 7.1% were deemed high quality. All seven of the high-quality videos were produced by a professional source and intended for an audience of medical professionals. There were neither high-quality videos intended for the general public nor the likely affected and relevant patient population.
    CONCLUSION:  This study suggests that the currently available videos on YouTube regarding PAS are poor educational sources for patients seeking information, and demonstrates a need for high-quality content videos produced by medical professionals specifically focused on meeting the needs of patient population.
    KEY POINTS: · Awareness of the accompanying morbidity of placenta accreta spectrum has increased over recent decades.. · YouTube videos are poor educational sources for patients seeking information regarding PAS.. · YouTube videos and all social media warrant improvements regarding patient's information..
  11. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2021 Jul 13. pii: S0301-2115(21)00350-X. [Epub ahead of print]264 135-140
      OBJECTIVE: To investigate the comprehensiveness, quality, and reliability of YouTube videos that target teaching patients gonadotropin self-injections.STUDY DESIGN: Videos demonstrating gonadotropin self-injections were searched using the keywords "Gonal-f injection," "Puregon injection," "Menapur injection," "Merional injection," "Fostimon injection," and "Menagon injection," on December 20th, 2020. The videos were divided into two categories as including "useful information" and "misleading information" by two physicians. A 5-point global quality scale (GQS) and 5-point modified DISCERN scale were used for the assessments of quality and reliability, respectively.
    RESULTS: Among 110 videos, 90 (81.8%) were found to include useful information and 20 (18.2%) were found to give misleading information. The kappa statistic for inter-observer agreement was 0.817 (p < 0.001). Useful videos were the most comprehensive and had the highest reliability and quality scores. We found that all videos uploaded by universities or professional organizations included useful information. However, there was no significant difference between useful and misleading videos regarding audience interaction analysis parameters (p > 0.05). On the other hand, mean reliability, GQS, and comprehensiveness scores were higher in the useful information group than in the other group. As the subgroup analysis was performed by source, patient opinion videos had lower reliability, comprehensiveness, and GQS scores than videos created by other sources (p < 0.001).
    CONCLUSION: Our analysis revealed that there were a significant number of English-language YouTube videos, with high quality, rich content, and reliability that could be sources of information on the accurate technique of gonadotropin self-injections. However, some misleading information videos may lead to negative outcomes. Therefore, physicians should ensure that online sources are comprehensive and reliable for the use of their patients with infertility. Also, YouTube health videos should be checked for both reliability and ethical standards.
    Keywords:  Gonadotropin; Infertility; Internet; Patient education; YouTube
  12. J Med Internet Res. 2021 Jul 30. 23(7): e24994
      BACKGROUND: YouTube is one of the most popular open-access video-sharing websites, and it is also used to obtain health care information. Cesarean delivery is the most common major surgical intervention in many countries. Videos related to cesarean delivery have also been uploaded to YouTube. However, no study has explored the overall quality of cesarean delivery videos on the platform.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the content and evaluate the quality of the most frequently viewed videos related to cesarean delivery that are accessible on YouTube.
    METHODS: We searched for a total of 18 terms by combining the 6 terms retrieved from Google AdWords and the 3 terms c section, cesarean section, and cesarean delivery, which are used interchangeably. Videos were sorted by view count, and the 100 videos with the highest view counts were chosen. The number of views, duration, likes and dislikes, content type, and source of each video were recorded. In evaluating the quality of the videos, we referred to a previous study. Additionally, we developed a detailed scoring method that comprehensively evaluates the videos related to cesarean delivery by including the necessary information for each element of the cesarean delivery and whether scientific evidence was presented.
    RESULTS: Of the 100 videos analyzed, the most prevalent content (n=28) was videos that contained the actual surgical procedure of a cesarean delivery, and the most common source of cesarean delivery videos was physicians (n=30). Videos directly related to cesarean delivery, such as explanation of the surgery and the actual surgical procedure, were mainly uploaded by medical groups and scored higher than the videos indirectly related to cesarean delivery, which were mainly uploaded by nonmedical groups. In addition, videos directly related to cesarean delivery were more often uploaded earlier in time, with lower like ratios compared to indirect videos.
    CONCLUSIONS: YouTube is currently not an appropriate source for patients seeking information on cesarean delivery.
    Keywords:  YouTube; cesarean delivery; internet; quality of information
  13. Pediatr Surg Int. 2021 Jul 27.
      BACKGROUND: Surgery residents often consider learning from the operative videos on YouTube, however, the quality of these videos is questionable. We aim to compare the quality and reliability of operative videos on thoracoscopic lobectomy (TL) in children available on YouTube (YT) and WebSurg (WS).METHODS: Using a defined search strategy, the most-viewed YT videos and all available WS videos on TL in children were identified. The quality and reliability of the two groups of videos were compared using the video popularity index (VPI), Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark criteria, and LAP-VEGaS quality assessment tool. On the basis of the LAP-VEGaS score, the videos were divided into acceptable quality (score ≥ 11) or poor quality (score < 11).
    RESULTS: Ten most-viewed YT videos were compared with six relevant videos on WS. The median %VPI among the WS and YT videos were 83.3 (range 71.5-404.4) and 49.4 (range 0-270), respectively (p = 0.017). The median JAMA score of the WS videos was also significantly higher than the YT videos (p = 0.0003). In terms of the LAP-VEGaS scores, all WS videos versus only three YT had an acceptable quality.
    CONCLUSIONS: As compared to the WS videos, the quality and reliability of the YT videos on TL were significantly poorer.
    Keywords:  E-learning; LAP-VEGaS; Thoracoscopic lobectomy; WebSurg; YouTube
  14. J Am Board Fam Med. 2021 Jul-Aug;34(4):34(4): 724-731
      BACKGROUND: Black men are disproportionately impacted by prostate cancer. Guidelines agree that Black men should make informed decisions about whether to engage in prostate cancer screening. YouTube is widely used among Black men and impacts understanding of health conditions.OBJECTIVES: Given that misleading online health information might be especially harmful to Black men, the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of information regarding prostate cancer screening for Black men available on YouTube.
    METHODS: Four viewers watched the top 50 videos using the search term "Prostate Cancer Screening in Black Men." Videos were scored using the previously validated DISCERN quality criteria for consumer health information and the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT). Results were compared based on video characteristics like presenter perceived demographics and viewer engagement metrics.
    RESULTS: Inter-rater reliability testing showed consistency for the PEMAT (interclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.69) and DISCERN (ICC= 0.85). Few videos (16%) met the DISCERN quality threshold (54.4/80), and 28% of videos met the PEMAT threshold (10.5/15). Less than half of videos addressed racial disparities in prostate cancer. There was no difference in quality based on perceived race of the presenter (DISCERN P = .06, PEMAT P = .43).
    CONCLUSIONS: The overall quality of videos about prostate cancer screening in Black men is poor, including those with Black presenters. Clinicians should be aware of potential misinformation that Black patients receive from YouTube and the opportunity to improve the quality of available information about prostate cancer screening in Black men.
    Keywords:  Black Men; Communications Media; Early Detection of Cancer; Family Medicine; Health Behavior; Health Care Disparities; Mass Screening; Patient Education; Primary Health Care; Prostate Cancer; Prostate-Specific Antigen; Social Media; YouTube
  15. J Med Internet Res. 2021 07 26. 23(7): e27539
      BACKGROUND: The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has also emerged as an infodemic, thereby worsening the harm of the pandemic. This situation has highlighted the need for a deeply rooted understanding of the health information-seeking behaviors (HISBs) of people.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to review and provide insight regarding methodologies and the construct of content in HISB surveys by answering the following research question: what are the characteristics of the measurement tools for assessing HISBs in nationally representative surveys around the world?
    METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses was used as the framework for this study. A data search was performed through 5 international and 2 Korean databases covering the years between 2008 and 2020. Initially, studies performed among nationally representative samples were included to discover HISB survey instruments. The methodologies of the studies using HISB surveys were analyzed. For content analysis, 2 researchers reached a consensus through discussion by scrutinizing the contents of each survey questionnaire.
    RESULTS: A total of 13 survey tools from 8 countries were identified after a review of 2333 records from the search results. Five survey tools (Health Information National Trends Survey, Health Tracking Survey, Annenberg National Health Communication Survey, National Health Interview Survey, and Health Tracking Household Survey) from the United States, 2 instruments from Germany, and 1 tool from each of the countries of the European Union, France, Israel, Poland, South Korea, and Taiwan were identified. Telephone or web-based surveys were commonly used targeting the adult population (≥15 years of age). From the content analysis, the domains of the survey items were categorized as follows: information (information about health and patient medical records), channel (offline and online), and health (overall health, lifestyle, and cancer). All categories encompassed behavioral and attitude dimensions. A theoretical framework, that is, an information-channel-health structure for HISBs was proposed.
    CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study can contribute to the development and implementation of the survey tools for HISB with integrated questionnaire items. This will help in understanding HISB trends in national health care.
    Keywords:  consumer health information; health care surveys; health information–seeking behavior; information seeking behavior; medical informatics; surveys
  16. Public Health Nutr. 2021 Jul 29. 1-34
      OBJECTIVE: As part of an update of feeding benchmarks targeting children aged 0 to 3 years, this study aimed to explore parental perceptions, information-seeking practices and needs concerning infant and young child feeding (IYCF) to design an efficient communication strategy.DESIGN: Participants were recruited using the quota sampling to complete an online survey. Effects of parity, child age, prematurity, parental education and financial situation on parents' responses were evaluated separately.
    SETTING: France.
    PARTICIPANTS: A nationally representative sample of 1001 parents of children <4 years.
    RESULTS: Parents whose child had any medical condition affecting feeding (CMC, 17%) were considered separately from healthy children's parents. All the healthy children's parents recognized the importance of IYCF for children's health and growth; however, one-third considered the available advice contradictory and not guilt-free. The most used information sources were healthcare professionals (HCPs, 81%), internet (72%) and parental networks (63%). The most influential sources (mean influence ± SDs) included HCPs (7.7±1.7/10), childcare professionals (7.3±1.8/10) and parental networks (6.9±1.8/10). Parents searched for practical tips for implementing IYCF starting when their child was 5 months old. Differences regarding the type of source used by parents with higher vs. lower educations were small. Search strategies differed according to parity or child age but not to prematurity. The CMC parents reported slightly different practices and needs.
    CONCLUSIONS: Parents receive information from multiple sources, which can lead to confusion when deciding which advice to follow. A public health communication strategy adapted to the current parental needs should target these various sources.
    Keywords:  child feeding guidelines; complementary feeding information; infant feeding; parents’ information sources; public health communication
  17. Transl Psychiatry. 2021 Jul 26. 11(1): 408
      As massive amounts of information are becoming available to people, understanding the mechanisms underlying information-seeking is more pertinent today than ever. In this study, we investigate the underlying motivations to seek out information in healthy and addicted individuals. We developed a novel decision-making task and a novel computational model which allows dissociating the relative contribution of two motivating factors to seek out information: a desire for novelty and a general desire for knowledge. To investigate whether/how the motivations to seek out information vary between healthy and addicted individuals, in addition to healthy controls we included a sample of individuals with gambling disorder-a form of addiction without the confound of substance consumption and characterized by compulsive gambling. Our results indicate that healthy subjects and problem gamblers adopt distinct information-seeking "modes". Healthy information-seeking behavior was mostly motivated by a desire for novelty. Problem gamblers, on the contrary, displayed reduced novelty-seeking and an increased desire for accumulating knowledge compared to healthy controls. Our findings not only shed new light on the motivations driving healthy and addicted individuals to seek out information, but they also have important implications for the treatment and diagnosis of behavioral addiction.