bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2021‒07‒04
thirty-one papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. Health Info Libr J. 2021 Jul 03.
      This article acquaints health science librarians with digital health interventions (DHIs) and suggests ways they can become involved with initiatives in their own organisations. Examples of DHIs are provided and the risks and benefits of these applications are examined, including increasing accuracy of diagnosis & treatment, and health care efficiencies within legal and ethical frameworks. The WHO Guideline on digital interventions for health system strengthening is a useful resource which highlights ways that countries can use digital health technology to improve people's health and essential services. JM proposes the creation of a road map to assist health science librarians in becoming involved in digital health, providing practical suggestions to inform the development of action plans within your local service provision. J.M.
    Keywords:  digital information resources; evaluation; health sciences; mobile health (mHealth)
  2. Health Info Libr J. 2021 Jun;38(2): 79-80
      When you think about a journal you probably think of it in terms of its interactions with authors, but relations extend beyond this and are embodied in the actions and values of the editorial team and board. The Health Information and Libraries Journal editorial team and board pride themselves in the support they provide to enable and build confidence in the contributing authors, and the referees who collaborate with them by providing constructive peer review.
    Keywords:  peer review; publication output; research support; scholarly communication
  3. Health Info Libr J. 2021 Jun 30.
      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We examined whether the use of visual abstracts on social media platforms can improve comprehensive social media and conventional metrics such as total altmetric attention score, full text page views and citation counts (study outcomes) through retrospective cohort study.METHODS: We included all original research articles (Total 307 articles: N = 69 in visual abstract group and N = 238 in control group) published between July 2018 and January 2019 in the JAMA, BMJ and the NEJM and used negative binomial regression to adjust for article characteristics.
    RESULTS: Adjusted analysis showed no significant differences between articles with and without visual abstracts in the altmetric attention score (p = 0.37) and in number of page views (p = 0.44). Citations in the Web of Science core collection were found to be statistically significant favouring control group (p = 0.028). We also found no significant differences in altmetric attention score and page views after stratification for article type [randomised controlled trial (RCT) vs. non-RCT]. Citations counts were found to be borderline significant for RCT (p = 0.04) and non-significant for non-RCT.
    CONCLUSION: Visual abstracts might not be effective in disseminating scientific research. We should look at other innovative ways to improve the visibility of the research.
    Keywords:  abstracting and indexing; information dissemination; publishers and publishing; research impact; social media; statistics
  4. IEEE Access. 2020 ;8 155961-155970
      Online social networks (ONSs) such as Twitter have grown to be very useful tools for the dissemination of information. However, they have also become a fertile ground for the spread of false information, particularly regarding the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Best described as an infodemic, there is a great need, now more than ever, for scientific fact-checking and misinformation detection regarding the dangers posed by these tools with regards to COVID-19. In this article, we analyze the credibility of information shared on Twitter pertaining the COVID-19 pandemic. For our analysis, we propose an ensemble-learning-based framework for verifying the credibility of a vast number of tweets. In particular, we carry out analyses of a large dataset of tweets conveying information regarding COVID-19. In our approach, we classify the information into two categories: credible or non-credible. Our classifications of tweet credibility are based on various features, including tweet- and user-level features. We conduct multiple experiments on the collected and labeled dataset. The results obtained with the proposed framework reveal high accuracy in detecting credible and non-credible tweets containing COVID-19 information.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Classification; Twitter; machine learning; misinformation
  5. Proteomes. 2021 Jun 10. pii: 29. [Epub ahead of print]9(2):
      The complexity of data has burgeoned to such an extent that scientists of every realm are encountering the incessant challenge of data management. Modern-day analytical approaches with the help of free source tools and programming languages have facilitated access to the context of the various domains as well as specific works reported. Here, with this article, an attempt has been made to provide a systematic analysis of all the available reports at PubMed on Proteome using text mining. The work is comprised of scientometrics as well as information extraction to provide the publication trends as well as frequent keywords, bioconcepts and most importantly gene-gene co-occurrence network. Out of 33,028 PMIDs collected initially, the segregation of 24,350 articles under 28 Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) was analyzed and plotted. Keyword link network and density visualizations were provided for the top 1000 frequent Mesh keywords. PubTator was used, and 322,026 bioconcepts were able to extracted under 10 classes (such as Gene, Disease, CellLine, etc.). Co-occurrence networks were constructed for PMID-bioconcept as well as bioconcept-bioconcept associations. Further, for creation of subnetwork with respect to gene-gene co-occurrence, a total of 11,100 unique genes participated with mTOR and AKT showing the highest (64) number of connections. The gene p53 was the most popular one in the network in accordance with both the degree and weighted degree centrality, which were 425 and 1414, respectively. The present piece of study is an amalgam of bibliometrics and scientific data mining methods looking deeper into the whole scale analysis of available literature on proteome.
    Keywords:  NLP; bio-concepts; gene–gene network; proteome; scientometrics; text mining
  6. Dementia (London). 2021 Jun 29. 14713012211028495
      Background: Current policy emphasises the role of digital technologies in facilitating the management of long-term conditions. While digital resources have been developed for carers, there has been little attention to their development for people with dementia. The Caregiverspro-MMD website was developed as a joint resource for people with dementia and carers, delivering access to information, informal content, games and peer support. Research Design and Methods: This study explored the experiences of dyads consisting of people with dementia and carers of using the website. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 43 participants. Findings: Thematic analysis identified 10 subthemes grouped under three superordinate themes which highlight participants' experiences of and responses to the website functions; important aspects of the website design and delivery; and barriers to use. Discussion: Findings highlight the value of a credible information source which negated the need for arduous online searches, the pleasure associated with playing games and interacting with others online. However, participants were reluctant to share personal information online, preferring to create 'informal content' which celebrated everyday life, and were reluctant to 'friend' people online who they had not met in person. The importance of training and support to use the website was highlighted. Health problems, lack of interest or difficulties using technology, and time were all identified as barriers to use.
    Keywords:  carers; dementia; digital technologies; information; peer support; qualitative research; website
  7. J Inf Sci. 2021 Jun 01. 47(3): 373-386
      The use of online information sources in most professions is widespread, and well researched. Less understood is how the use of these sources vary across the strata within a single profession, and how question context affects search behaviour. Using the dental profession as a case of a highly stratified discipline, we examine search preferences for sources by professional strata among dentists in a practice-based network. Results show that variation exists in information search behaviour across professional strata of dental clinicians. This study highlights the importance of addressing information literacy across different levels of a profession. Findings also underscore that search behaviour and source preference vary with perceived question relevance.
    Keywords:  Dentistry; information literacy; information preferences; online sources; professional stratification
  8. JMIR Form Res. 2021 Jun 24. 5(6): e23293
      BACKGROUND: The usability of a digital library depends on a myriad of factors ranging from the end users' ability to website complexity. Although digital libraries provide instant access to online content, offering an efficient reference platform, their usability is highly variable.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure users' perspectives and usability of the digital library of the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties (SCFHS).
    METHODS: A web-based questionnaire survey was conducted using a validated System Usability Scale (SUS) containing 5 positive and 5 negative items on the usability of the digital library. The SUS standard cut-off score of 68 was considered for interpretation.
    RESULTS: The overall mean SUS score of digital library usability was 52.9 (SD 15.2) with a grade "D" categorization, indicating low usability. The perceived measures of attributes of the 10 SUS items of findability, complexity, consistency, and confidence obtained below average scores. Only item 1 relating to perceived willingness to use the digital library frequently obtained a score above the targeted benchmark score (mean score 3.6). Higher SUS scores were associated with training (P=.02). Men felt the digital library to be more complex (P=.04) and board-certified physicians perceived a greater need for training on digital library use (P=.05). Only the UpToDate database was widely used (72/90, 80%).
    CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the low usability of the extensive facilities offered by the SCFHS digital library. It is pivotal to improve awareness of the availability of the digital library and popularize the databases. There is also a need for improved user training to enhance the accessibility and usability of the multiple databases.
    Keywords:  Saudi Arabia; digital library usability; medical education; medical residents; system usability scale
  9. Soc Media Soc. 2020 Jul;6(3): 2056305120948158
      Since the coronavirus outbreak, YouTube has altered its content moderation policies to surface more "authoritative information" while removing videos that contain "medically unsubstantiated claims." This was made urgent by incidents like a live-stream interview of renowned British conspiracy theorist David Icke-in which he falsely linked the spread of the coronavirus to 5G technology-that gained substantial traction online. Behind these events, however, lies a tension between the need for authoritative medical information and the socio-technical mediation that enables multiple, competing voices to lay claim to such authority on YouTube; a tension exacerbated by the current pandemic. Following an investigation into the sources and types of video content average users were likely to see when searching for information about the coronavirus on the site, we suggest that through its incentive structure and participatory affordances, YouTube may have subordinated expertise to a logic of likability-leaving institutional experts trailing behind.
    Keywords:  YouTube; content analysis; expertise; socio-technical mediation; visual media
  10. Soc Netw Anal Min. 2021 ;11(1): 58
      COVID-19 has impacted all lives. To maintain social distancing and avoiding exposure, works and lives have gradually moved online. Under this trend, social media usage to obtain COVID-19 news has increased. Also, misinformation on COVID-19 is frequently spread on social media. In this work, we develop CHECKED, the first Chinese dataset on COVID-19 misinformation. CHECKED provides a total 2,104 verified microblogs related to COVID-19 from December 2019 to August 2020, identified by using a specific list of keywords. Correspondingly, CHECKED includes 1,868,175 reposts, 1,185,702 comments, and 56,852,736 likes that reveal how these verified microblogs are spread and reacted on Weibo. The dataset contains a rich set of multimedia information for each microblog including ground-truth label, textual, visual, temporal, and network information. Extensive experiments have been conducted to analyze CHECKED data and to provide benchmark results for well-established methods when predicting fake news using CHECKED. We hope that CHECKED can facilitate studies that target misinformation on coronavirus. The dataset is available at
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Dataset; Fake news; Infodemic; Information credibility; Multimedia; Social media
  11. Health Info Libr J. 2021 Jun;38(2): 139-142
      In this article, Chandrani Maitra, with her supervisor, Prof. Jennifer Rowley, reports on her PhD research conducted at Manchester Metropolitan University. This research aimed to develop understanding of the benefits of, and the challenges associated with the use of social media to disseminate eye health information in deprived communities in India. Such communities typically have a low level of access to health information, as the result of poor literacy, poverty, lack of women's empowerment, cultural practices, society dynamics, and medical malpractice. This study used an intervention based on the social media platform, WhatsApp, to educate a group of women volunteers so that they were able to contribute to the management of the eye health of their family, friends, and neighbours. Interviews were conducted with deprived community members (DCMs), community healthcare advocates (CHAs) and, healthcare professionals (HCPs). The DCMs reported a number of benefits associated with their participation in the eye health intervention. CHAs and HCPs agreed that an extended roll out of the intervention had potential to deliver benefits, but expressed concerns that some of the ongoing social challenges facing deprived communities might act as barriers to progress. F.J.
    Keywords:  Asia, south; developing economies; health care; health eduction; social media
  12. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jun 23. pii: 6764. [Epub ahead of print]18(13):
      The overload of health information has been a major challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health authorities play a primary role in managing this information. However, individuals have to apply critical health literacy to evaluate it. The objective of this paper is to identify targets for strengthening critical health literacy by focusing on the field of argumentation theory. This paper is based on the textual analysis of instances of health information through the lens of argumentation theory. The results show that critical health literacy benefits from: (1) understanding the concept of argument and the supporting reasons, (2) identifying the main argument schemes, and (3) the knowledge and use of the main critical questions to check the soundness of arguments. This study operationalizes the main aspects of critical health literacy. It calls for specific educational and training initiatives in the field. Moreover, it argues in favor of broadening the current educational curricula to empower individuals to engage in informed and quality decision making. Strengthening individuals' critical health literacy involves interventions to empower in argument evaluation. For this purpose, argumentation theory has analytical and normative frameworks that can be adapted within a lay-audience education concept.
    Keywords:  argumentation theory; critical health literacy; critical thinking; disinformation; health communication; health information; health literacy; information appraisal; misinformation
  13. J Nurs Manag. 2021 Jul 01.
      AIM: To investigate the relationship between nurses' harmonious work passion and work-related internet information seeking. In doing so, we examine intrinsic motivation as an underlying mechanism of this relationship.BACKGROUND: Nurses seek and utilize information to respond effectively to their tasks and to develop their skills and competencies. Internet consists one of the easiest and richest sources of information. Both nurses and organizations need to identify potential antecedents of work-related internet information seeking.
    METHODS: Data were collected from 239 nurses and nurse assistants in a Greek University hospital and were analyzed using bootstrap analysis with PROCESS macro.
    RESULTS: Harmonious work passion was positively related to intrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation related positively to work-related internet information seeking. The mediating role of intrinsic motivation was also supported.
    CONCLUSIONS: Nurses with harmonious work passion seek more regularly work-related information on the internet because they experience high levels of intrinsic motivation.
    IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Healthcare organizations and managers need to recruit passionate nurses and cultivate a workplace culture that will trigger higher levels of harmonious work passion. Recruitment tools and methods such as interviews, situational judgment tests or role-playing could be very beneficial towards uncovering potential candidates with an elevated passion for their work.
    Keywords:  Work passion; intrinsic motivation; mediation; nurses; work-related internet information seeking
  14. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct. 2021 Aug;62 102414
      COVID-19 pandemic is devastating the health, social, and economic well-being of citizens worldwide. The high rates of morbidity and mortality and the absence of vaccines cause fear among the people regardless of age, gender, or social status. People's fear is heightened by misinformation spread across all media types, especially on social media. Filipino college students are one of the top Internet users worldwide and are very active in social media. Hence they are very prone to misinformation. This paper aims to ascertain the levels of knowledge, precaution, and fear of COVID-19 of the college students in Iloilo, Philippines, and determine the effects of their information-seeking behavior on the variables above. This paper is a cross-sectional survey that used a qualitative-quantitative method and snowball sampling technique. Data were gathered among 228 college students using an online survey instrument a few months after the pandemic began. College students were knowledgeable of the basic facts about the highly infectious COVID-19. However, the majority were inclined to believe the myths and misinformation regarding the pandemic. Television was the primary, most believable, and preferred source when seeking information. The Internet as a preferred source of information was significantly associated with a high level of knowledge. In contrast, the information sourced from interpersonal channels were found to make college students very cautious. The local presence of COVID-19 cases had caused college students to fear, likely exacerbated by the plethora of information about the pandemic, mostly from Facebook. This is the first study conducted on the effects of the information-seeking behavior on the levels of knowledge, precaution, and fear of COVID-19 of the college students in Iloilo, Philippines.
    Keywords:  Facebook; Health crisis; Information sources; Interpersonal channels; Mass media; Social media
  15. BMJ Open Ophthalmol. 2021 ;6(1): e000693
      Objective: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are commonly used in clinical trials and research. Yet, in order to be effective, a PROM needs to be understandable to respondents. The aim of this cross-sectional analysis was to assess reading level of PROMs validated for use in common eye conditions.Methods and analysis: Readability measures determine the level of education a person is expected to have attained to be able to read a passage of text; this was calculated using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, FORCAST and Gunning-Fog tests within readability calculations software package Oleander Readability Studio 2012.1. Forty PROMs, previously validated for use in at least one of age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and/or diabetic retinopathy, were identified for inclusion via a systematic literature search. The American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend patient materials should not exceed a sixth-grade reading level. Number of PROMs exceeding this level was calculated.
    Results: Median (IQR) readability scores were 7.9 (5.4-10.5), 9.9 (8.9-10.7) and 8.4 (6.9-11.1) for Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, FORCAST and Gunning-Fog test, respectively. Depending on metric used, this meant 61% (95% CI 45% to 76%), 100% (95% CI 91% to 100%) and 80% (95% CI 65% to 91%) exceeded the recommended threshold.
    Conclusion: Most PROMs commonly used in ophthalmology require a higher reading level than that recommended by the AMA and NIH and likely contain questions that are too difficult for many patients to read. Greater care is needed in designing PROMs appropriate for the literacy level of a population.
    Keywords:  degeneration; glaucoma; macula; public health; retina
  16. J Surg Orthop Adv. 2021 ;30(2): 96-100
      There are 16 million Hispanic people in the United States who rely on Spanish as their only effective method of communication. However, there is a scarcity of literature evaluating if patient education resources in Spanish meet the average American reading level or National Institute of Health (NIH) and American Medical Association (AMA) grade-level recommendations, especially in the field of orthopaedics. Representative orthopaedic search terms were input into Google and ten articles pertaining to patient education were selected. Videos, scientific journals, and surgical technique guides were excluded. Articles were then digitally analyzed and compared. Mean United States grade level equivalent was 11.26 ± 2.23 for English articles and 10.55 ± 1.45 for Spanish articles. English orthopaedic materials featured a significantly more difficult grade level (p < 0.01) than equivalent Spanish works. Spanish orthopaedic materials generated in the United States featured significantly lower (p < 0.01) readability scores than those written outside the United States. Our study demonstrated both English and Spanish materials were written at a high school level. Spanish materials were written at more appropriate grade-levels than their English counterparts. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 30(2):096-100, 2021).
  17. J Child Orthop. 2021 Jun 01. 15(3): 291-297
      Purpose: To determine the availability and readability of online patient information (OPI) provided by paediatric hospitals in the United States using clubfoot as a model condition.Methods: The websites of the top 95 paediatric hospitals identified using US News & World Report were included. The names of paediatric hospitals and the terms "clubfoot", "clubfeet" and "talipes equinovarus" were entered into the Google search engine. Readability was assessed using five validated metrics and the composite grade level (CGL). The number of unpaid monthly visits was calculated with the Ahrefs Organic Traffic Score (OTS) tool. Data for paediatric hospitals were compared with the same metrics for the top ten Google search results.
    Results: Of 95 paediatric hospitals, 29 (30.5%) did not have at least one web page dedicated to clubfoot. The 128 web pages representing 66 paediatric hospitals had an average CGL of 9.4, representing a readability level requiring some high school education. The mean OTS for all paediatric hospitals was 116 estimated visits per month, which was significantly less than that for the top ten Google clubfoot search results (3035.1; p < 0.0001).
    Conclusion: Paediatric hospital web pages on clubfoot were visited much less frequently than those from the top ten Google search results. Only two web pages (1.6%) from paediatric hospitals offered OPI on clubfoot that met the American Medical Association recommended reading level (sixth-grade level). Paediatric hospitals should create OPI on clubfoot with appropriate readability and accessibility for patient families.
    Level of Evidence: N/A.
    Keywords:  availability; clubfoot; e-health; online patient information; readability
  18. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2021 Jun 28.
      STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the quality and accuracy of the content surrounding cervical radiculopathy available on the internet.
    SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Those experiencing cervical radiculopathy and their families are increasingly browsing the world wide web for medical information. As the information offered is likely to influence their health care choices, spine care providers must understand the quality and accuracy of that information.
    METHODS: Independent searches were conducted on the three most commonly accessed search engines (Google, Yahoo and Bing) using the keyword "cervical radiculopathy". The searches were performed on June 28th, 2019. The top 50 sites from each search engines were reviewed. The websites were evaluated using quality, accuracy and usability markers.
    RESULTS: 77 unique websites were analyzed. 54.5% were physician or medical group professional sites, 20.8% as non-physician, 10.4% as unidentified, 7.8% as academics and 6.5% were commercial. Accuracy ranged from less than 25% to more than 75% were recorded with a mean accuracy of 3.5 signifying 50-75% agreement. Overall, website categories had a significant effect on Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) score, content quality, accuracy, total summary scores, distraction index, reading ease and grade level (p < 0.05). Academic sites had the highest mean quality content, accuracy and total summary scores. Four of the top five websites with the highest total summary scores were physician driven. On average, Health on the Net code (HONcode) certified websites had lower grade level readability with greater reading ease and higher DISCERN and JAMA scores than un-certified sites (p < 0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS: Despite the wide number of sources available, the quality, accuracy, pertinence and intelligibility of the information remains highly variable. Clinicians treating patients with cervical radiculopathy should direct them to verifiable sites with regulated information and, where possible, contribute high quality information to those sites.Level of Evidence: 4.
  19. Health Technol (Berl). 2021 Jun 24. 1-7
      High quality, readable health information is vital to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to assess the quality and readability of online COVID-19 information using 6 validated tools. This is a cross-sectional study. "COVID-19" was searched across the three most popular English language search engines. Quality was evaluated using the DISCERN score, Journal of the American Medical Association benchmark criteria and Health On the Net Foundation Code of Conduct. Readability was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease Score, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level and Gunning-Fog Index. 41 websites were suitable for analysis. 9.8% fulfilled all JAMA criteria. Only one website was HONCode certified. Mean DISCERN score was 47.8/80 ("fair"). This was highest in websites published by a professional society/medical journal/healthcare provider. Readability varied from an 8th to 12th grade level. The overall quality of online COVID-19 information was "fair". Much of this information was above the recommended 5th to 6th grade level, impeding access for many.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Coronavirus; Information; Internet; Quality; Readability
  20. Health Informatics J. 2021 Apr-Jun;27(2):27(2): 1460458221994878
      Dispersal of COVID-19 related information from YouTube plays a vital role in containing the pandemic and diminishes associated anxiety in the population. This study investigated the characteristics of popular YouTube videos related to COVID-19 outbreak. YouTube videos were searched using the COVID-19 related specific keywords with the eligibility of at least 1 million views. The videos were classified as types of videos (News, TV Shows, Educational, and Documentary) and sentiment-based titled videos (Positive and Negative). Total viewership, length of videos, comments, likes, subscribers of the channel, and the number of days since upload was recorded as video and user engagement characteristics. A total of 93 videos were found eligible to include in the study. About 44.1% of videos were educational and 32.3% of videos were news updates related to COVID-19. Furthermore, 45.7% of videos had a positive sentiment-based title whereas 53.2% of videos had a negative sentiment-based title. Viewer's comment responses were classified into nine various categories; most frequent comments were sarcastic/humorous (21.5%) category. Results revealed the differences in audience behavior in response to different types of videos and sentiment-based titled videos. YouTube has a significant amount of informative COVID-19 videos and incorporating certain characteristics can increase YouTube video popularity.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Coronavirus; YouTube; health
  21. Healthcare (Basel). 2021 Jun 21. pii: 773. [Epub ahead of print]9(6):
      With a growing trend in the popularity of web-based resources, it is important to evaluate residency program websites for providing accurate information for dermatology residency applicants. Little is known about the quality of dermatology residency websites in Taiwan. The aim of the study is to assesses the quality of official websites of dermatology training programs in Taiwan. A literature search for all related studies from inception to 31 July 2020 was performed using PubMed without restriction on language. We used criteria that had 6 domains and 25 items to evaluate 23 official websites of the dermatology training programs in Taiwan from August to September 2020. Of the 23 training programs, only 6 (26%) of the websites met more than half of the criteria. Notably, the items "features of the department" and "comprehensive faculty listing" were included in all websites. The criteria for interview process, board pass rates, social activities and information on the surrounding area were not met by all websites. Evidently, there is much room for improvement for the dermatology training program websites in Taiwan.
    Keywords:  dermatology; residency training; residency website
  22. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2021 Jun 01. 1-8
      PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficiency of YouTube videos as a source of information for the treatment of amblyopia.METHODS: The authors searched YouTube (Google) using the keywords "amblyopia treatment" and analyzed the first 200 most relevant videos. Videos were classified as useful or misleading by two independent ophthalmologists. Videos were scored on 5-point scales to evaluate global quality, reliability, and comprehensiveness. General characteristics, viewer interactions, and sources of videos were also recorded.
    RESULTS: Eighty-seven of 200 videos were appropriate to be included in the current study. Fifty videos (57.5%) were classified as useful and 37 videos (42.5%) were classified as misleading. General characteristics and viewer interactions were not significantly different between useful and misleading videos (P > .05). The mean Global Quality Score, reliability, and comprehensiveness scores were 3.64 ± 1.1, 3.02 ± 1.0, and 2.74 ± 1.2 in useful videos and 2.03 ± 0.9, 2.08 ± 0.8, and 1.62 ± 0.7 in misleading videos, respectively (P < .05). The data suggested that most of the videos uploaded by university channels or non-profit professionals were useful (79.2%), whereas most of the videos uploaded by medical advertisements or for-profit companies were misleading (59.1%).
    CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current cross-sectional study demonstrated that the number of useful videos for the treatment of amblyopia was higher on YouTube. However, there was still a significant number of misleading videos (42.5%). Therefore, more videos on amblyopia treatment that have sufficient reliability, quality, and comprehensiveness should be uploaded to YouTube. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 20XX;XX(X):XX-XX.].
  23. Rev Port Cardiol. 2021 Jun 25. pii: S0870-2551(21)00154-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The Internet is a fundamental aspect of health information. However, the absence of quality control encourages misinformation. We aim to assess the relevance and quality of acute myocardial infarction videos shared on YouTube ( in Portuguese.METHODS: We analyzed 1,000 videos corresponding to the first 100 search results on YouTube using the following terms (in Portuguese): "cardiac + arrest"; "heart + attack"; "heart + thrombosis"; "coronary + thrombosis"; "infarction - brain", "myocardial + infarction" and "acute + myocardial + infarction". Irrelevant (n=316), duplicated (n=345), without audio (n=24) or non-Portuguese (n=106) videos were excluded. Included videos were assessed according to source, topic, target audience and scientific inaccuracies. Quality of information was assessed using The Health on the Net Code (HONCode from 0 to 8) and DISCERN (from 0 to 5) scores - the higher the score, the better the quality.
    RESULTS: 242 videos were included. The majority were from independent instructors (n=95, 39.0%) and were addressed to the general population (n=202, 83.5%). One third of the videos (n=79) contained inaccuracies while scientific society and governmental/health institution videos had no inaccuracies. The mean video quality was poor or moderate; only one video was good quality without any inaccuracies. Governmental/health institutions were the source with the best quality videos (HONCode 4±1, DISCERN 2±1).
    CONCLUSIONS: One third of the videos had irrelevant information and one third of the relevant ones contained inaccuracies. The average video quality was poor; therefore it is important to define strategies to improve the quality of online health information.
    Keywords:  Comunicação em saúde; Educação em saúde; Enfarte agudo miocárdio; Gestão de informação médica; Health communication; Health education; Health information management; Myocardial infarction; YouTube
  24. J Laryngol Otol. 2021 Jun 28. 1-4
      BACKGROUND: YouTube is increasingly used as a source of healthcare information. This study evaluated the quality of videos on YouTube about cochlear implants.METHODS: YouTube was searched using the phrase 'cochlear implant'. The first 60 results were screened by two independent reviewers. A modified Discern tool was used to evaluate the quality of each video.
    RESULTS: Forty-seven videos were analysed. The mean overall Discern score was 2.0 out of 5.0. Videos scored higher for describing positive elements such as the benefits of a cochlear implant (mean score of 3.4) and scored lower for negative elements such as the risks of cochlear implant surgery (mean score of 1.3).
    CONCLUSION: The quality of information regarding cochlear implant surgery on YouTube is highly variable. These results demonstrated a bias towards the positive attributes of cochlear implants, with little mention of the risks or uncertainty involved. Although videos may be useful as supplementary information, critical elements required to make an informed decision are lacking. This is of particular importance when patients are considering surgery.
    Keywords:  Cochlear Implantation; Information; Patient; Video
  25. JMIR Med Inform. 2021 Jun 29. 9(6): e28272
      BACKGROUND: With the development of biomedicine, the number of biomedical documents has increased rapidly bringing a great challenge for researchers trying to retrieve the information they need. Information retrieval aims to meet this challenge by searching relevant documents from abundant documents based on the given query. However, sometimes the relevance of search results needs to be evaluated from multiple aspects in specific retrieval tasks, thereby increasing the difficulty of biomedical information retrieval.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to find a more systematic method for retrieving relevant scientific literature for a given patient.
    METHODS: In the initial retrieval stage, we supplemented query terms through query expansion strategies and applied query boosting to obtain an initial ranking list of relevant documents. In the re-ranking phase, we employed a text classification model and relevance matching model to evaluate documents from different dimensions and then combined the outputs through logistic regression to re-rank all the documents from the initial ranking list.
    RESULTS: The proposed ensemble method contributed to the improvement of biomedical retrieval performance. Compared with the existing deep learning-based methods, experimental results showed that our method achieved state-of-the-art performance on the data collection provided by the Text Retrieval Conference 2019 Precision Medicine Track.
    CONCLUSIONS: In this paper, we proposed a novel ensemble method based on deep learning. As shown in the experiments, the strategies we used in the initial retrieval phase such as query expansion and query boosting are effective. The application of the text classification model and relevance matching model better captured semantic context information and improved retrieval performance.
    Keywords:  biomedical information retrieval; deep learning; document ranking; precision medicine
  26. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2021 Jun 28. pii: ocab095. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVE: PubMed has suffered from the author ambiguity problem for many years. Existing studies on author name disambiguation (AND) for PubMed only used internal metadata for development. However, some of them are incomplete (eg, a large number of names are only abbreviated and their full names are not available) or less discriminative. To this end, we present a new disambiguation method, namely AggAND, by aggregating information from external databases.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We address this issue by exploring Microsoft Academic Graph, Semantic Scholar, and PubMed Knowledge Graph to enhance the built-in name metadata, and extend the internal metadata with some external and more discriminative metadata.
    RESULTS: Experimental results on enhanced name metadata demonstrate comparable performance to 3 author identifier systems, as well as show superiority over the original name metadata. More importantly, our method, AggAND, incorporating both enhanced name and extended metadata, yields F1 scores of 95.80% and 93.71% on 2 datasets and outperforms the state-of-the-art method by a large margin (3.61% and 6.55%, respectively).
    CONCLUSIONS: The feasibility and good performance of our methods not only help better understand the importance of external databases for disambiguation, but also point to a promising direction for future AND studies in which information aggregated from multiple bibliographic databases can be effective in improving disambiguation performance. The methodology shown here can be generalized to broader bibliographic databases beyond PubMed. Our code and data are available online (
    Keywords:  PubMed; author name disambiguation; bibliographic database; digital library
  27. Clin Exp Allergy. 2021 Jul 02.
      BACKGROUND: Biomedical research increasingly relies on computational approaches to extract relevant information from large corpora of publications.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the consequence of the ambiguity between the use of terms "Eczema" and "Atopic Dermatitis" (AD) from the Information Retrieval perspective, and its impact on meta-analyses, systematic reviews and text mining.
    METHODS: Articles were retrieved by querying the PubMed using terms "eczema" (D003876) and "dermatitis, atopic" (D004485). We used machine learning to investigate the differences between the contexts in which each term is used. We used a decision tree approach and trained model to predict if an article would be indexed with eczema or AD tags. We used text-mining tools to extract biological entities associated with eczema and AD, and investigated the discrepancy regarding the retrieval of key findings according to the terminology used.
    RESULTS: AD query yielded more articles related to veterinary science, biochemistry, cellular and molecular biology; the eczema query linked to public health, infectious disease and respiratory system. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms associated with 'AD' or 'Eczema' differed, with an agreement between the top 40 lists of 52%. The presence of terms related to cellular mechanisms, especially allergies and inflammation, characterized AD literature. The metabolites mentioned more frequently than expected in articles with AD tag differed from those indexed with eczema. Fewer enriched genes were retrieved when using eczema compared to AD query.
    CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: There is a considerable discrepancy when using text mining to extract bio-entities related to eczema or AD. Our results suggest that any systematic approach (particularly when looking for metabolites or genes related to the condition) should be performed using both terms jointly. We propose to use decision tree learning as a tool to spot and characterize ambiguity, and provide the source code for disambiguation at
    Keywords:  Atopic dermatitis; Eczema; Information Retrieval; Medical terminology; Text Mining
  28. Health Inf Sci Syst. 2021 Dec;9(1): 25
      Purpose: It has been over a year since the first known case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged, yet the pandemic is far from over. To date, the coronavirus pandemic has infected over eighty million people and has killed more than 1.78 million worldwide. This study aims to explore "how useful is Reddit social media platform to surveil COVID-19 pandemic?" and "how do people's concerns/behaviors change over the course of COVID-19 pandemic in North Carolina?". The purpose of this study was to compare people's thoughts, behavior changes, discussion topics, and the number of confirmed cases and deaths by applying natural language processing (NLP) to COVID-19 related data.Methods: In this study, we collected COVID-19 related data from 18 subreddits of North Carolina from March to August 2020. Next, we applied methods from natural language processing and machine learning to analyze collected Reddit posts using feature engineering, topic modeling, custom named-entity recognition (NER), and BERT-based (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) sentence clustering. Using these methods, we were able to glean people's responses and their concerns about COVID-19 pandemic in North Carolina.
    Results: We observed a positive change in attitudes towards masks for residents in North Carolina. The high-frequency words in all subreddit corpora for each of the COVID-19 mitigation strategy categories are: Distancing (DIST)-"social distance/distancing", "lockdown", and "work from home"; Disinfection (DIT)-"(hand) sanitizer/soap", "hygiene", and "wipe"; Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)-"mask/facemask(s)/face shield", "n95(s)/kn95", and "cloth/gown"; Symptoms (SYM)-"death", "flu/influenza", and "cough/coughed"; Testing (TEST)-"cases", "(antibody) test", and "test results (positive/negative)".
    Conclusion: The findings in our study show that the use of Reddit data to monitor COVID-19 pandemic in North Carolina (NC) was effective. The study shows the utility of NLP methods (e.g. cosine similarity, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic modeling, custom NER and BERT-based sentence clustering) in discovering the change of the public's concerns/behaviors over the course of COVID-19 pandemic in NC using Reddit data. Moreover, the results show that social media data can be utilized to surveil the epidemic situation in a specific community.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Named-entity recognition; Natural language processing; Sentence clustering; Social media; Topic modeling
  29. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2021 06 26. 21(1): 199
      BACKGROUND: With the development and application of medical information system, semantic interoperability is essential for accurate and advanced health-related computing and electronic health record (EHR) information sharing. The openEHR approach can improve semantic interoperability. One key improvement of openEHR is that it allows for the use of existing archetypes. The crucial problem is how to improve the precision and resolve ambiguity in the archetype retrieval.METHOD: Based on the query expansion technology and Word2Vec model in Nature Language Processing (NLP), we propose to find synonyms as substitutes for original search terms in archetype retrieval. Test sets in different medical professional level are used to verify the feasibility.
    RESULT: Applying the approach to each original search term (n = 120) in test sets, a total of 69,348 substitutes were constructed. Precision at 5 (P@5) was improved by 0.767, on average. For the best result, the P@5 was up to 0.975.
    CONCLUSIONS: We introduce a novel approach that using NLP technology and corpus to find synonyms as substitutes for original search terms. Compared to simply mapping the element contained in openEHR to an external dictionary, this approach could greatly improve precision and resolve ambiguity in retrieval tasks. This is helpful to promote the application of openEHR and advance EHR information sharing.
    Keywords:  Information retrieval; Interoperability; Nature language processing; OpenEHR
  30. Genes (Basel). 2021 Jun 29. pii: 998. [Epub ahead of print]12(7):
      This study builds a coronavirus knowledge graph (KG) by merging two information sources. The first source is Analytical Graph (AG), which integrates more than 20 different public datasets related to drug discovery. The second source is CORD-19, a collection of published scientific articles related to COVID-19. We combined both chemo genomic entities in AG with entities extracted from CORD-19 to expand knowledge in the COVID-19 domain. Before populating KG with those entities, we perform entity disambiguation on CORD-19 collections using Wikidata. Our newly built KG contains at least 21,700 genes, 2500 diseases, 94,000 phenotypes, and other biological entities (e.g., compound, species, and cell lines). We define 27 relationship types and use them to label each edge in our KG. This research presents two cases to evaluate the KG's usability: analyzing a subgraph (ego-centered network) from the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and revealing paths between biological entities (hydroxychloroquine and IL-6 receptor; chloroquine and STAT1). The ego-centered network captured information related to COVID-19. We also found significant COVID-19-related information in top-ranked paths with a depth of three based on our path evaluation.
    Keywords:  knowledge base management; knowledge engineering methodologies; knowledge management applications