bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2021‒06‒06
twenty papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. Health Info Libr J. 2021 May 29.
      Health literacy is key to person-centred, preventative healthcare and is both a societal and individual responsibility. This feature describes work undertaken by Health Education England, the Community Health and Learning Foundation and NHS Library and Knowledge Services to raise awareness among NHS staff and other key partners of the impact of low health literacy. It highlights a range of health literacy resources and ideas for developing and adapting these tools for remote delivery during and post-pandemic. D.I.
    Keywords:  consumer health information; health information needs; health literacy; patient information
  2. Am J Primatol. 2021 May 31. e23287
      Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are widely studied across many scientific disciplines using a variety of techniques in diverse environments. Due to the wide scope of NHP research, substantial overlap in research topics and questions can occur, whose resulting scientific evidence is synthesized by literature reviews. Identifying all relevant research on a particular topic involving NHPs can be difficult and time consuming. By adopting objective search development techniques from systematic reviews, we developed search filters to detect all scientific publications involving NHPs in PubMed, PsycINFO (via EBSCOhost), and Web of Science. We compared the performance of our comprehensive NHP search filters to search strings typical of a novice database user (i.e., NHP simple search strings) and validated their sensitivity by combining these searches with a topic search of cortisol related studies. For all comparisons, our comprehensive NHP search filters retrieved considerably more scientific publications than the NHP simple search strings. Importantly, our comprehensive NHP search filters are easy to use (text can be copied and pasted into the database search engine) and detect the most recent publications that have yet to be indexed by the bibliographic databases queried. Additionally, we developed filterNHP, an R package and web-based application (, for researchers interested in literature searches involving a taxonomic sub-group of NHPs. filterNHP alleviates time necessary for adapting our comprehensive NHP search filters for a particular NHP sub-group by automatizing the creation of these search filters. Altogether, our comprehensive NHP search filters and those for taxonomic sub-groups generated by filterNHP will enable swift and easy retrieval of the available scientific literature involving NHPs, and thereby help enhance the quality of new NHP literature reviews that guide future scientific research (new experiments) and public policy (e.g., on welfare and conservation).
    Keywords:  literature review; nonhuman primates; search filter; systematic review
  3. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2021 Jun 04. 282 183-198
      Providing access to high quality books for all types of readers is a premise for cultural democracy. Many people, however, have challenges reading mainstream books. There might be diverse reasons why people find reading challenging. Some examples are reading impairments, reduced vision, cognitive impairments, learning a new language, or due to stress, fatigue or illness. To ensure everyone access to literature, it is therefore vital to produce books that can (and will) be read by a wide range of users. This case study addresses the following research questions: Do adapted books represent accessible or universal design? Can adapted books be perceived as motivating to read for all types of readers? Are "special books" necessary to ensure that all users have access to high quality literature? In Norway, the association Books for Everyone develops adapted, printed fictional books to accommodate various types of reading challenges. This paper examines the production of these books and uses this collection to investigate the research questions. The main finding is that most of the books by Books for Everyone can be considered examples of universal design, rather than "special books" directed at a very narrow user group. Moreover, there seems to be a limited need for "special books", except for books targeting readers with severe cognitive or sensory impairments. By applying the universal design approach, fictional literature can potentially make books more accessible for all types of readers.
    Keywords:  Adapted literature; Books for everyone; cultural democracy; reading challenges; universal design
  4. J Am Board Fam Med. 2021 May-Jun;34(3):34(3): 648-660
      PURPOSE: To assess how primary care practitioners use reports of general health care (GHC) and primary care (PC) research and how well reports deliver what they need to inform clinical practice.METHODS: International, interprofessional online survey, 2019, of primary care clinicians who see patients at least half time. Respondents used frequency scales to report how often they access both GHC and PC research and how frequently reports meet needs. Free-text short comments recorded comments and suggestions.
    RESULTS: Survey yielded 252 respondents across 29 nations, 55% (121) women, including 88% (195) physicians, nurses 5% (11), and physician assistants 3% (7). Practitioners read research reports frequently but find they usually fail to meet their needs. For PC research, 33% (77) accessed original reports in academic journals weekly or daily, and 36% found reports meet needs "frequently" or "always." They access reports of GHC research slightly more often but find them somewhat less useful.
    CONCLUSIONS: PC practitioners access original research in academic journals frequently but find reports meet information needs less than half the time. PC research reflects the unique PC setting and so reporting has distinct focus, needs, and challenges. Practitioners desire improved reporting of study context, interventions, relationships, generalizability, and implementation.
    Keywords:  Biomedical Research; Evidence-Based Medicine; Family Medicine; Health Communication; Health Services Research; Medical Informatics; Primary Health Care; Publishing; Research Design; Research Report; Surveys and Questionnaires; Translational Medical Research
  5. J Comput Biol. 2021 Jun 02.
      Biomedical Entity Explorer (BEE) is a web server that can search for biomedical entities from a database of six biomedical entity types (gene, miRNA, drug, disease, single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP], pathway) and their gene associations. The search results can be explored using intersections, unions, and negations. BEE has integrated biomedical entities from 16 databases (Ensemble, PharmGKB, Genetic Home Reference, Tarbase, Mirbase, NCI Thesaurus, DisGeNET, Linked life data, UMLS, GSEA MsigDB, Reactome, KEGG, Gene Ontology, HGVD, SNPedia, and dbSNP) based on their gene associations and built a database with their synonyms, descriptions, and links containing individual details. Users can enter the keyword of one or more entities and select the type of entity for which they want to know the relationship for and by using set operations such as union, negation, and intersection, they can navigate the search results more clearly. We believe that BEE will not only be useful for biologists querying for complex associations between entities, but can also be a good starting point for general users searching for biomedical entities. BEE is accessible at (
    Keywords:  biomedical entity search; database integration; web server
  6. Qual Quant. 2021 May 25. 1-28
      It is witnessed that the role of technology became crucial, and people are dependent on technologies to continue creative, professional, and academic activities during a pandemic situation when most of the libraries were not accessible physically worldwide. This study aims to know the level of ICT skills, competencies, usage of technologies, challenges, and services offered by library professionals of Gujarat state, India during the lockdown period. Due to the emergence of advanced technologies, the omnipresence of the internet, the explosive growth of e-resource, and pandemic situation, it is imperative for library professionals to acquire new ICT skills, techniques and apply them to disseminate information and reach out to library patrons. This study reveals how library professionals provided services and resources to users when they need resources/ information and which techniques/ methods library professionals adopted to fulfill the requirements of patrons during COVID-19. The methods adopted by patrons to access library resources were also studied. The 100 questionnaires were circulated via social media and email to library professionals of Gujarat state and 77 (77%) responses received in this study.
    Keywords:  Attitude of LIS professionals; COVID-19; Challenges; ICT skills; LIS professionals; Library services; Lockdown; Technologies
  7. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2021 ;18 6
      Background: Most parents believe that teething is associated with some symptoms and commonly use Internet to gain more information about the health of their children. Pediatricians can also serve as a source of information for health-related requirements of parents. This study aimed to compare the information provided by pediatricians regarding tooth eruption and the information available in Persian-language websites.Materials and Methods: This descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study was performed in two phases. In the first phase, the questionnaire was designed by 85 pediatric pediatricians in Isfahan about children's dental eruption and internet resources. The second phase was the study of 22 Persian websites about children's tooth eruption using Google search engine and the keywords "tooth eruption," "tooth eruption symptoms." Then a checklist was prepared to evaluate the quality and completeness of the content. Data were analyzed by the Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test using SPSS (P < 0.05).
    Results: None of the retrieved websites had the health on the net code of conduct. The most common symptoms of teething reported by both pediatricians and websites included irritability, drooling, gingival tenderness, chewing tendency, decreased appetite and sleep disturbances. In non-pharmacological methods to control the symptoms related to tooth eruption in both groups, embracing the baby (P < 0.001), using soft tooth ring (P = 0.049) and chewing hard foods (0.016 P = significant. Use of oral pain medication (P = 0.01) and sedatives and medications (P = 0.04) were significant in the medication method.
    Conclusion: None of the websites reviewed had a valid source code and author. Although websites cannot replace the instructions of pediatricians regarding growth and development of children and their teething, supplementary information can be acquired from high-quality websites because there seems to be no significant difference between these two information sources regarding tooth eruption symptoms and their management.
    Keywords:  Child; internet; pediatricians; tooth eruption
  8. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2021 Jun 02.
      WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Low-quality journals are problematic for the scientific community. They may not provide thorough editorial and peer review services, and may spread low-quality information. Community pharmacists are limited in research time and resources, and are particularly at risk to access low-quality information published in some journals. This may negatively impact their professional decision-making and patient care. This study aimed to assess pharmaceutical journals readily accessible to community pharmacists and classify those journals using multiple quality criteria.METHODS: A Google search was performed using defined English and German keywords. The following quality indicators were utilized: (i) whether the journal was listed on a blacklist or whitelist, (ii) whether the journal or its publisher was a member of a publishing organization, (iii) evaluation of details on the journal's website, (iv) indexation of the journal, and (v) use of journal metrics.
    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Three hundred and eight journals were analysed; 105 (34%) were classified as "high-quality" and 203 (66%) were classified as "other". Forty-six journals (15%) were listed on a blacklist and 152 journals (49%) were listed on a whitelist. Most journals were headquartered in India (39%), followed by the USA (24%) and Europe (20%). Journals classified as "high-quality" charged higher open access article processing charges (APCs) (median APC: USD $960; interquartile range (IQR): USD $27 to USD $3,000) than journals classified as "other" (USD $100, IQR: USD $13 to USD $547), p = 0.003. Similarly, journals indexed in established databases (MEDICUS, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, or SCOPUS) charged higher APCs (median APC: USD $600, IQR: USD $4 to USD $2,500) than journals indexed in non-standard databases (median APC: USD $100, IQR: USD $41 to USD $581), p = 0.001.
    WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: The results indicate that community pharmacists are at risk of accessing journals of questionable quality. Patient care may be negatively impacted by community pharmacists basing their professional decisions on evidence gained from some sources of lower quality. Community pharmacists and other pharmacists and researchers can use the tools and quality indicators provided in this study to preliminarily determine the quality and reliability of a journal to assist their professional decision-making and patient care.
    Keywords:  evidence-based practice; pharmaceutical care; pharmacist consultation; pharmacists; pharmacy; pharmacy practice
  9. J Orthop Res. 2021 May 31.
      The aim of this study was to characterize the educational quality and reliability of YouTube videos related to LBP as well as to identify factors associated with the overall video quality. A review of YouTube was performed using two separate search strings. Video specific characteristics were analyzed for the first 50 videos of each string. Seventy-seven eligible videos were identified as a result. The mean Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) score was 2.25 ± 1.09 (range 0 - 4) out of 4. The mean Global Quality Score (GQS) score was 2.29 ± 1.37 (range 1 - 4) out of 5. The mean low back pain score (LPS) score was 3.83 ± 2.23 (range 0 - 11) out of 15. Video power index (VPI) was a predictor of GQS score (β = 55.78, p = 0.048), whereas the number of likes (β = -2.49, p = 0.047) and view ratio (β = -55.62, p = 0.049) were associated with lower quality scores. Days since initial upload (β = 0.32, p = 0.042) as well as like ratio (β = 0.37, p = 0.019) were independent predictors of higher LPS scores. The results of this study suggest that the overall reliability and educational quality of videos uploaded to YouTube concerning LBP are unsatisfactory. More popular videos demonstrated poorer educational quality than their less popular counterparts. As the prevalence of low back pain rises, more accurate and thorough educational videos are necessary to ensure accurate information is available to patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  Low back pain; YouTube; internet; parent education; patient education; quality; video
  10. East Mediterr Health J. 2021 May 27. 27(5): 443-451
      Background: YouTube can be a powerful educational tool for the dissemination of health information. However, if uploaded health-related videos are inaccurate, it can mislead, create confusion and generate panic.Aims: This study aimed to determine the success of the most-watched Turkish-language COVID-19 YouTube videos regarding information and guidance on the disease for the public. The secondary aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and quality of such video content.
    Methods: The study was conducted during May 2020 and analysed 133 videos. The length of the videos, the number of likes and dislikes, comments and views, how long they have been on YouTube, Medical Information and Content Index (MICI) Score, mDISCERN scores, global quality scores, and the source and target audiences of the videos were all determined.
    Results: The average MICI Scores of videos was 2.48±3.74 and the global quality scores was 1.27±0.64. When MICI Scores were compared between video sources, the scores of academic hospitals and government videos were significantly higher. The global quality scores of videos from news agencies and independent users was significantly lower ( < 0.001). The mDISCERN score of the videos uploaded by news agencies and categorized as useful was higher than the others (P < 0.001). Among the targeted videos, only the global quality scores of the videos made for health-care workers were found to be significantly higher.
    Conclusion: Health-care professionals should upload more videos to improve the quality of health-related video content available on YouTube. Accompanied by evidence-based information, the issues of diagnosis, ways of transmission, prevention and treatment of diseases should be emphasized.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Turkey; YouTube; infodemic; pandemic
  11. J Craniofac Surg. 2021 Jun 02.
      ABSTRACT: One of the challenging aspects of caring for patients with vascular anomalies has been the use of inconsistent terminologies which has resulted in inconsistencies with treatment, miscommunication between clinicians, and subsequently patient misinformation and confusion. In this study, we objectively assessed the quality of online information on vascular anomalies. Our results emphasize the crucial role of vascular anomaly services in the communication and provision of patient information.
  12. Clin Rheumatol. 2021 May 31.
      INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: A progressively growing number of rheumatologists have integrated musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) as a prized tool in their daily clinical practice over the past two decades. Lately, YouTube is often used by healthcare professionals as an educational tool. This study aimed to analyze the quality of educational information available on YouTube pertaining to MSUS.METHOD: We performed a search using the keyword "musculoskeletal ultrasound" on YouTube in January 2021. Of the first 200 videos screened, 147 met the inclusion criteria. The quality and reliability of the videos were evaluated using the global quality score (GQS) and modified DISCERN score, and their popularity was assessed using the Video Power Index (VPI).
    RESULTS: Of the 147 videos evaluated, 58 (39.5%) were of high quality, 30 (20.4%) were of moderate quality, while 59 (40.1%) were of low quality. The modified DISCERN score and the duration of the videos were significantly higher in the high-quality videos than the moderate- and low-quality videos (p < 0.001 for all). The median number of views per day, likes, comments, and the popularity of the videos assessed with VPI were significantly higher in the high- and moderate-quality group compared to the low-quality videos (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.007, and p < 0.001, respectively).
    CONCLUSION: The quality of YouTube videos as an educational source on MSUS is unsatisfactory. Professional organizations and physicians should consider creating more high-quality MSUS videos. YouTube should consider filtering out poor-quality videos in collaboration with experts in the field. Key Points • Although rheumatologists are increasingly using ultrasound as an extension of their exam, accessing musculoskeletal ultrasound training is still facing some challenges. • YouTube is commonly used as an educational source by medical students and healthcare professionals. • Approximately 60% of the videos related to musculoskeletal ultrasound on YouTube revealed high and moderate quality, while the remaining 40% were of low quality and not suitable for medical education. • A filtering mechanism is required to improve the quality of YouTube content on MSUS.
    Keywords:  Musculoskeletal ultrasound; Online education; Quality; Reliability; YouTube
  13. Cureus. 2021 Apr 25. 13(4): e14675
      OBJECTIVE: Patients with umbilical hernias frequently refer to the YouTube videos to learn and perhaps apply traditional treatment methods. It is very difficult for these users to distinguish these videos as useful or harmful. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the scientific quality of YouTube video content on umbilical hernia.METHODS: A total of 50 videos on YouTube pertaining to umbilical hernia were included in the study. All videos were evaluated by two experienced general surgeons. The uploader, video content, length, upload date, time since upload, number of views, numbers of comments, likes, and dislikes and Video Power Index (VPI) rates videos were recorded and evaluated. The videos were scored using the Quality Criteria for Consumer Health Information (DISCERN) and Global Quality Scale (GQS).
    RESULTS: A total of 9,836 comments were made to the videos, 118,478 likes were made, and 15,009 dislikes were made. The mean DISCERN score given to the videos by the researchers was 2.57 ± 1.82 (min-max: 1-5) and the average GQS score was 2.62 ± 1.86. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of both DISCERN and GQS scores of videos uploaded by doctors compared to videos uploaded by nondoctors (p < 0.001). A statistically significant level of good agreement was found among investigators in terms of both DISCERN (p < 0.001, r = 0.778) and GQS (p < 0.001, r = 0.807) scores.  Conclusion: Videos with health content should definitely be uploaded by experts. Studies investigating the scientific quality of health videos uploaded on YouTube and similar platforms should be carried out continuously.
    Keywords:  discern; gqs; internet; quality; umbilical hernia; youtube
  14. Laryngorhinootologie. 2021 Jun 02.
      OBJECTIVES: As a result of digitalization, the internet embodies the essential information medium. Especially, patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) require profound education due to unclear scientific evidence. Thus, our study investigated a German-language internet search about SSNHL.DESIGN: The first 30 Google-search results with the term "Hörsturz" (SSNHL in German) were categorized, readability-statistic with different readability-scores (FRES: 0=complex, 100=easy; FKL; SMOG; GFI) calculated, and misinformation documented. A structured content-analysis was performed with the DISCERN-questionnaire (1=low, 5=high quality). Certification of the Health-On-The-Net-Foundation (HON) assessed the abidance of recommended standards.
    RESULTS: 18 websites (60.0%) accounted for digital media, 7 (23.3%) manufacturers of medical devices, 2 (6.7%) government institutions, and respectively 1 (3.3%) healthcare provider, support-group, and scientific article. Mean word count was 1307.0±840.2, last update 17.1±32.5 months ago, and FRES 36.1±13.9, with the most difficult text by the scientific article (13.7). Mean of DISCERN was 2.2±0.7 with worst rating of manufacturers of medical devices (1.6±0.5). 2 websites (6.7%) were HON-certified, and 14 (46.7%) contained misinformation.
    CONCLUSION: Internet-based patient-information should be assessed cautiously due to poor readability, potential conflict of interests, low quality, or wrong information. Hence, healthcare providers and professional associations are urged to provide high-quality patient-information in the internet.
  15. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Jun 01. 20(6): 623-629
      INTRODUCTION: Many vitiligo patients seek healthcare information online. However, the accuracy and quality of this information is unknown.OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy, quality, viewer engagement, and viewer experience of vitiligo videos on social media.
    METHODS: We searched the term &ldquo;vitiligo&rdquo; on YouTube. Videos were stratified based on source categories. Video accuracy was assessed using DAS and ANDI. Video quality was assessed using GQS. Viewer experience was assessed using AVA.
    RESULTS: Sixty videos were evaluated for inclusion and exclusion criteria. We evaluated 49 videos with a total of 28.2 million views, 431,416 likes, and 61,976 comments. Of these videos, 27 (55%) were from healthcare sources, and 22 (45%) were from non-healthcare sources. When compared to videos from non-healthcare sources, videos from healthcare sources had significantly higher accuracy scores (ANDI = 3.69 &plusmn; 0.16 vs 2.77 &plusmn; 0.36; P=0.017 and DAS = 3.72 &plusmn; 0.13 vs 3.07 &plusmn; 0.28; P=0.029) but significantly fewer views (38,883 vs 1,231,947; P=0.005). Videos from alternative medicine sources had the lowest accuracy scores when compared to the remainder of the videos (ANDI = 0.5 &plusmn; 0.13 vs 3.66 &plusmn; 0.14; P&lt;0.001 and DAS = 1.25 &plusmn; 0.11 vs 3.73 &plusmn; 0.11; P&lt;0.001).
    CONCLUSION: Inaccurate videos on vitiligo are prevalent on social media. Misinformation can lead to potentially harmful interventions and delay in seeking evidence-based care. Videos from healthcare sources were more accurate but were viewed less than those from non-healthcare sources. Further efforts are needed to improve the visibility and viewer experience of accurate healthcare content on social media. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021;20(6):623-629. doi:10.36849/JDD.5835.
  16. Foot Ankle Surg. 2021 May 19. pii: S1268-7731(21)00093-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Online resources on medical conditions often provide misleading or outdated information for patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of online patient information on ankle instability.METHODS: The terms "ankle instability", "ankle instability treatment" and "ankle laxity" were entered into the three largest internet search engines. The quality, accuracy and readability were evaluated using the EQIP36, a custom 25-item list and the Flesch-Kincaid-Score.
    RESULTS: The mean 25-item score of 102 included websites reached 10 ± 5, the mean EQIP36 score was 41 ± 11 and 96% of evaluated websites exceeded the recommended 8th-grade reading level for patient information. The quality was significantly higher with reading levels of college graduates (P < 0.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: Online resources on ankle instability are often inaccurate or at inappropriately high reading level. The quality and accuracy depend on the reading levels, with high reading levels providing more in-depth information. Foot and ankle surgeons should be aware of available online resources to direct patients to adequate websites.
    Keywords:  Ankle instability; Internet; Online; Patient information; Quality; Readability
  17. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 May 07. pii: 4981. [Epub ahead of print]18(9):
      The purpose of this study was to examine Internet trends data and sentiment in tweets mentioning autism, Asperger syndrome, and Greta Thunberg during 2019. We used mixed methods in analyzing sentiment and attitudes in viral tweets and collected 1074 viral tweets on autism that were published in 2019 (tweets that got more than 100 likes). The sample from Twitter was compared with search patterns on Google. In 2019, Asperger syndrome was closely connected to Greta Thunberg, as of the tweets specifically mentioning Asperger (from the total sample of viral tweets mentioning autism), 83% also mentioned Thunberg. In the sample of tweets about Thunberg, the positive sentiment expressed that Greta Thunberg was a role model, whereas the tweets that expressed the most negativity used her diagnosis against her and could be considered as cyberbullying. The Google Trends data also showed that Thunberg was closely connected to search patterns on Asperger syndrome in 2019. The study showed that being open about health information while being an active participant in controversial debates might be used against you but also help break stigmas and stereotypes.
    Keywords:  Asperger syndrome; Google Trends; Twitter messaging; autism spectrum disorders; content analysis; public health; sentiment analysis; social media
  18. Front Public Health. 2021 ;9 635943
      Background: Today the internet is a major source of health information, and younger generations have more confidence in their digital information seeking skills and awareness of online resources than older generations. Older generations, however, are more in demand of health services. The aim of our study was to explore these generational differences as related to self-perceived eHealth literacy and health care system utilization. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study with 522 subjects was done in Hungary. Every subject belonged to one of four generations (Baby boomers, X, Y, and Z). The Web-based survey was designed and tested in English-speaking countries and translated into Hungarian for the present study. Variables include Internet health information seeking, eHealth literacy (measured by eHeals score), the self-perceived gain in empowerment by that information, and the number of health care appointments. One-way ANOVA was used for comparing the scores of the generations, and correlational and linear regression analysis was employed within the generations for further data analysis. Results: We found significant differences among the generations in eHealth literacy as well as in the self-perceived gain in empowerment: while Boomers were the generation with the lowest eHeals scores, they showed the highest empowerment. Internet health information seeking behavior showed no differences. While subjects who use the Internet more frequently to search for health information have worse self-rated health status, the ones with higher eHeals scores report better subjective health status. We also identified the associations of the above variables within the older generations (Boomers and X) with the frequency of using health-care services: within the generation of Boomers the number of health care appointments was only associated with Internet health information seeking, while in Generation X with eHeals. Conclusions: Baby boomers seek Internet health information as often as the younger generations, which provides a solid motivation for developing their eHealth literacy skills. We find it crucial to plan the Hungarian health promotion programmes utilizing this high frequency of Internet health information seeking, since the eHealth literacy skills of older generations have an effect on their subjective health status, and they are the most capable of applying information in making decisions.
    Keywords:  eHeals; eHealth literacy; generations; health empowerment; internet health information seeking
  19. Midwifery. 2021 May 15. pii: S0266-6138(21)00119-4. [Epub ahead of print]100 103040
      OBJECTIVE: To investigate Indonesian pregnant women's experiences in seeking and receiving nutrition information.DESIGN: Qualitative semi-structured interviews analysed with thematic analysis.
    SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three pregnant women in Malang City, Indonesia were interviewed between December 2018 and January 2019.
    FINDINGS: Four key themes emerged concerning pregnant women's nutrition information-seeking behaviour: (i) Most women passively received nutrition information rather than actively seeking it; (ii) Women sought and received nutrition information from multiple sources including health professionals, social networks and the Internet, with varying levels of trust; (iii) Health professionals, including doctors, midwives and nutritionists, did not provide consistent and timely information; and (iv) Most women could identify gaps between nutrition information provided by health professionals and their expectations.
    KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study identified opportunities for Indonesian health authorities to enhance their nutrition education services. This study suggests improvements that could extend the systematic provision of nutrition education to meet the needs of pregnant women in developing countries.
    Keywords:  Nutrition information; adult learning; food literacy; nutrition education; pregnancy