bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2021‒02‒28
28 papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. Med Ref Serv Q. 2021 Jan-Mar;40(1):40(1): 67-78
      The COVID-19 pandemic has affected libraries across the globe, including academic health sciences libraries, in many ways. This manuscript describes the challenges, solutions, and practices employed by the Stony Brook University Health Sciences Library in order to maintain continuity of services to patrons including faculty, hospital staff, students, and clinicians while operating in one of the earliest epicenters of the pandemic. Some of the major changes the library underwent in response to the pandemic included implementing new online anatomy resources, contactless circulation, remote interlibrary loan services and modified operating practices.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; disaster planning; emergency preparedness; library access; library services; resource sharing; virtual services
  2. Med Ref Serv Q. 2021 Jan-Mar;40(1):40(1): 1-10
      COVID-19, a novel respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, was first recognized in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Health science librarians continue to navigate the global health crisis while providing critical information services to their institutions. An informal survey was conducted to obtain some general information on the types of responses by health science librarians to this event. Among the findings is an opportunity for librarians to strengthen interdepartmental relationships and disaster response plans in preparation for future pandemics and disaster events.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Coronavirus; SARS-COV-2; disaster response; epidemic; health sciences libraries; information services; librarians; librarianship; pandemic
  3. Med Ref Serv Q. 2021 Jan-Mar;40(1):40(1): 48-55
      An ongoing collaboration between physicians and librarians provided critical information during the COVID-19 pandemic. A development team, which consisted of the hospital and medical school disaster preparedness medical director, the medical library director, professional librarians, and the Departments of IT and Marketing in a multi-state healthcare system worked together to develop a shared website to distribute and curate timely resources during COVID-19. The initial impacts of this collaboration and the website show the benefits of this novel partnership.
    Keywords:  COVID-19 pandemic; Collaboration; healthcare providers; healthcare system; medical librarians
  4. Med Ref Serv Q. 2021 Jan-Mar;40(1):40(1): 23-34
      In March 2020, the Dean of the George Washington (GW) University School of Medicine and Health Sciences (SMHS) and the GW COVID-19 Incident Management Team asked the Senior Associate Dean for Clinical Public Health to initiate a daily report that surveyed COVID-19 literature/resources. This COVID-19 Intelligence Report would serve as a concise, authoritative source of COVID-19 information for clinicians, the Incident Management Team, and operational leaders. The Senior Associate Dean established an Intelligence Gathering Team comprised of clinicians and librarians. Himmelfarb librarians facilitated the collection, distribution, and archiving of COVID-19 resources and Intelligence Reports.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; emergency response; health sciences library; medical librarians; pandemic; situation report
  5. Med Ref Serv Q. 2021 Jan-Mar;40(1):40(1): 35-47
      In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent Stay At Home order, the Southern Illinois University Medical Library utilized new technologies and implemented new virtual service models in order to improve internal communication, and to continue providing services and resources to patrons remotely. The changes happened quickly, and the librarians faced several challenges during this time, but things went smoothly overall and there were some considerable silver linings. Several of the newly adopted technologies, service models, and virtual resource offerings proved to be extremely effective and their use will continue beyond the duration of the pandemic.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; interlibrary loan; reference services; virtual services
  6. Med Ref Serv Q. 2021 Jan-Mar;40(1):40(1): 56-66
      The ability to be flexible and adapt quickly to changing circumstances is a crucial skill for librarians to develop in a world increasingly characterized by rapid change. It can take a crisis to learn how effective librarians have become in developing the needed adaptive behaviors, including a willingness to change workstyles, experiment with new technologies and readily move on from failed experiments. In this paper, librarians from the Preston Medical Library at the University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, prompted by the crisis of COVID-19, present their response. Beginning with a description of how services were provided prior to the pandemic, librarians detail their response in several key areas and show how they implemented new approaches to teaching, collaboration, and mutual support, working together to handle patron issues and pursue scholarly activities.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; disaster planning; library services; onboarding; remote learning
  7. Med Ref Serv Q. 2021 Jan-Mar;40(1):40(1): 90-102
      The Librarian Reserve Corps (LRC) is a volunteer network of medical, health sciences, and public health librarians who have responded to the urgent need for public health information during the early days of the COVID-19 crisis. The LRC was first formed to assist with the indexing of daily publication lists distributed within the World Health Organization's Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN). With the explosion of information related to COVID-19 beginning in December 2019, librarians have brought critical skills and experience to the response, providing comprehensive literature searching and indexing to COVID-19 research publications. The evolution of this effort follows the trajectory of scientific publication trends and developments related to COVID-19.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Coronavirus; indexing; librarians; library services; public health surveillance
  8. J Community Psychol. 2021 Feb 24.
      AIMS: This study aims to interrogate the occupational identity of youth services public library workers across the United States and to understand specifically how this study is related to the learning ecosystem. Public library workers, especially those who work specifically with youth, are underrepresented in academic literature.METHOD: We adapted an interview method that allows participants to explain how they think different stakeholders perceive their work and used it in a digital survey with 306 youth services public library workers.
    RESULTS: Overall, the participants described their work as deeply connected to learning, specifically connecting people to resources, facilitating learning activities, and providing a space for learning. This reflects the evolving nature of public library services.
    CONCLUSION: Unfortunately, many library workers feel significant friction between their own understanding of their job and the views of outside stakeholders. We address this friction and its implications in our recommendations for future research and practice.
    Keywords:  occupational identity; out of school time; professional identity; public libraries; youth workers
  9. Med Ref Serv Q. 2021 Jan-Mar;40(1):40(1): 130-138
      Health sciences libraries offer core resources and services to expand the knowledge and efficiencies of their communities. Increasingly with the growth of big data, open data, and electronic health records, clinical and translational researchers must be more fluent in finding, manipulating, managing, visualizing, and sharing data. To meet such needs, libraries are increasingly creating roles to educate and collaborate on topics related to health informatics and health data. This column provides examples of the work of the health library informaticist at the Blaisdell Medical Library, University of California, Davis, and how the role facilitates health professions students, faculty and staff to access, manage, and use data assets and software tools for working with data.
    Keywords:  Biomedical informatics; data science; instruction; libraries; medical informatics
  10. Med Ref Serv Q. 2021 Jan-Mar;40(1):40(1): 79-89
      At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Mountain Area Health Education Center formed a response team with the goal of building capacity across Western North Carolina health systems to collectively identify needs, coordinate resources to fill gaps, and strategically manage the regional threats of the pandemic. The library team collaborated on interprofessional projects by gathering information and using LibGuides to quickly and easily organize and share resources. The team met challenges, including moving to telecommuting, balancing a growing workload, and navigating a changing information landscape, and in doing so, strengthened relationships across the organization and the region.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Collaboration; LibGuides; North Carolina; information management; library; pandemic; telecommuting; workload
  11. Med Ref Serv Q. 2021 Jan-Mar;40(1):40(1): 11-22
      The University of Central Florida Health Sciences Library is a digital library with 98% of resources being electronic and available online. Though almost all aspects of the library's operations were impacted by the closing of the physical space during the coronavirus pandemic, being a digital library helped the library team transition quickly to remote reference, programming and instruction services.
    Keywords:  Coronavirus; instruction programming; reference; remote library; remote work
  12. Med Ref Serv Q. 2021 Jan-Mar;40(1):40(1): 103-109
      LitCovid is a curated literature hub with more than 60,000 articles about the novel coronavirus and the disease it causes-COVID-19. It is updated daily with scientific information from new PubMed articles that are relevant to COVID-19. Relevant articles are manually assigned to eight broad categories for ease of searching: general, mechanism, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, case report, and forecasting. Users can filter by location and what clinical trials are happening. As a centralized location curated daily with the most authoritative information on coronavirus and COVID-19, LitCovid is an effective source of credible up-to-date research.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Coronavirus; National Library of Medicine; SARS-CoV-2; online databases; pandemic; review
  13. Health Info Libr J. 2021 Feb 22.
      BACKGROUND: Access to health information is critical for good health. However, residents of rural communities may face more difficulties in accessing health information than residents in rural areas. Problems may be structural, socio-economic and cultural.OBJECTIVES: The study assessed sources and challenges concerning health information access and use among residents of five rural communities in Ibadan, Nigeria.
    METHODS: Descriptive survey design was adopted, and data were elicited from forty respondents through focus group discussions (FGD). Elicited data were thematically analysed.
    RESULTS: Several informal and primary information sources were often used. Residents used the radio to access health information, and they also visited hospitals/health centres, asked doctors, participated in health sensitisation programmes and consulted traditional herbalists. However, the barriers included financial problems, infrastructure problems (bad road network, unreliable electricity supplies), living far from health centres and finding suitable health information in their own language. These are individual and systemic/structural challenges.
    DISCUSSION: The focus group participants were aware of the importance of reliable health information sources, but often had to use a mixture of sources. Traditional herbalists were valued sources (more available and affordable). Health literacy problems concern education and language.
    CONCLUSIONS: Service provision could be improved to make health information more efficient and effective for rural communities, by building on what works (e.g. health sensitisation programmes, radio programmes providing health education) and providing more multi-lingual services. The study also confirmed the importance of evaluating traditional herbal medicine.
    Keywords:  Africa,west; consumer health information; demography; health education; health literacy; information-seeking behaviour; mass media
  14. JMIR Med Inform. 2021 Feb 25. 9(2): e22976
      BACKGROUND: Currently, existing biomedical literature repositories do not commonly provide users with specific means to locate and remotely access biomedical databases.OBJECTIVE: To address this issue, we developed the Biomedical Database Inventory (BiDI), a repository linking to biomedical databases automatically extracted from the scientific literature. BiDI provides an index of data resources and a path to access them seamlessly.
    METHODS: We designed an ensemble of deep learning methods to extract database mentions. To train the system, we annotated a set of 1242 articles that included mentions of database publications. Such a data set was used along with transfer learning techniques to train an ensemble of deep learning natural language processing models targeted at database publication detection.
    RESULTS: The system obtained an F1 score of 0.929 on database detection, showing high precision and recall values. When applying this model to the PubMed and PubMed Central databases, we identified over 10,000 unique databases. The ensemble model also extracted the weblinks to the reported databases and discarded irrelevant links. For the extraction of weblinks, the model achieved a cross-validated F1 score of 0.908. We show two use cases: one related to "omics" and the other related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
    CONCLUSIONS: BiDI enables access to biomedical resources over the internet and facilitates data-driven research and other scientific initiatives. The repository is openly available online and will be regularly updated with an automatic text processing pipeline. The approach can be reused to create repositories of different types (ie, biomedical and others).
    Keywords:  biomedical knowledge; biomedical databases; deep learning; internet; natural language processing
  15. Healthc Inform Res. 2021 Jan;27(1): 29-38
      OBJECTIVES: We incorporated the Korean Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) vocabulary into Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) vocabulary using a semi-automated process. The goal of this study was to improve the Korean EDI as a standard medical ontology in Korea.METHODS: We incorporated the EDI vocabulary into OMOP vocabulary through four main steps. First, we improved the current classification of EDI domains and separated medical services into procedures and measurements. Second, each EDI concept was assigned a unique identifier and validity dates. Third, we built a vertical hierarchy between EDI concepts, fully describing child concepts through relationships and attributes and linking them to parent terms. Finally, we added an English definition for each EDI concept. We translated the Korean definitions of EDI concepts using Google.Cloud.Translation.V3, using a client library and manual translation. We evaluated the EDI using 11 auditing criteria for controlled vocabularies.
    RESULTS: We incorporated 313,431 concepts from the EDI to the OMOP Standardized Vocabularies. For 10 of the 11 auditing criteria, EDI showed a better quality index within the OMOP vocabulary than in the original EDI vocabulary.
    CONCLUSIONS: The incorporation of the EDI vocabulary into the OMOP Standardized Vocabularies allows better standardization to facilitate network research. Our research provides a promising model for mapping Korean medical information into a global standard terminology system, although a comprehensive mapping of official vocabulary remains to be done in the future.
    Keywords:  Biological Ontologies; Controlled Vocabulary; Knowledge Bases; Medical Informatics; National Health Programs
  16. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2021 Feb 22. 21(1): 69
      BACKGROUND: The large volume of medical literature makes it difficult for healthcare professionals to keep abreast of the latest studies that support Evidence-Based Medicine. Natural language processing enhances the access to relevant information, and gold standard corpora are required to improve systems. To contribute with a new dataset for this domain, we collected the Clinical Trials for Evidence-Based Medicine in Spanish (CT-EBM-SP) corpus.METHODS: We annotated 1200 texts about clinical trials with entities from the Unified Medical Language System semantic groups: anatomy (ANAT), pharmacological and chemical substances (CHEM), pathologies (DISO), and lab tests, diagnostic or therapeutic procedures (PROC). We doubly annotated 10% of the corpus and measured inter-annotator agreement (IAA) using F-measure. As use case, we run medical entity recognition experiments with neural network models.
    RESULTS: This resource contains 500 abstracts of journal articles about clinical trials and 700 announcements of trial protocols (292 173 tokens). We annotated 46 699 entities (13.98% are nested entities). Regarding IAA agreement, we obtained an average F-measure of 85.65% (±4.79, strict match) and 93.94% (±3.31, relaxed match). In the use case experiments, we achieved recognition results ranging from 80.28% (±00.99) to 86.74% (±00.19) of average F-measure.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that this resource is adequate for experiments with state-of-the-art approaches to biomedical named entity recognition. It is freely distributed at: . The methods are generalizable to other languages with similar available sources.
    Keywords:  Clinical Trials; Evidence-Based Medicine; Inter-Annotator Agreement; Natural Language Processing; Semantic Annotation
  17. Health Info Libr J. 2021 Feb 18.
      BACKGROUND: Systematic reviewing is a time-consuming and resource-intensive process. Information specialists are maintaining study-based registers to facilitate efficient conduct of systematic reviews. Classification of study-level meta-data -such as interventions -can result in much more accurate searches, saving time in the early steps of systematic reviewing.OBJECTIVE: To classify all pharmacological interventions from all schizophrenia trials.
    METHODS: We used Cochrane Schizophrenia's Study-based Register as the source of trials, Emtree and MeSH for synonyms, AdisInsight and for research drugs and WHO ATC for marketed drugs.
    RESULTS: One third of tested interventions on patients with schizophrenia are pharmacological (816; belonging to 106 clinical classes) with antipsychotic drugs being the most researched (15.1%). Only 528 of these medications are listed in WHO ATC. Around one third of these drug interventions are seen only in research (236; from 21 pharmacological/biochemical classes). Within the pharmacological interventions, we identified 28 'qualifiers' including dose, route and timing of drug delivery.
    CONCLUSION: Identification and classification of pharmacological interventions from trials require use of many sources of information none of which are inclusive of all drugs. Limitations of each source are helpful to understand. Classification of non-pharmacological interventions is now a priority for clinical and information scientists and professionals.
    Keywords:  Cochrane Collaboration; The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System; World Health Organization; classification; pharmacological interventions; randomised controlled trials; schizophrenia; study-based registers; systematic reviews
  18. J Biomed Inform. 2021 Feb 18. pii: S1532-0464(21)00035-6. [Epub ahead of print] 103706
      Automatic text summarization methods generate a shorter version of the input text to assist the reader in gaining a quick yet informative gist. Existing text summarization methods generally focus on a single aspect of text when selecting sentences, causing the potential loss of essential information. In this study, we propose a domain-specific method that models a document as a multi-layer graph to enable multiple features of the text to be processed at the same time. The features we used in this paper are word similarity, semantic similarity, and co-reference similarity, which are modelled as three different layers. The unsupervised method selects sentences from the multi-layer graph based on the MultiRank algorithm and the number of concepts. The proposed MultiGBS algorithm employs UMLS and extracts the concepts and relationships using different tools such as SemRep, MetaMap, and OGER. Extensive evaluation by ROUGE and BERTScore shows increased F-measure values.
    Keywords:  Automatic text summarization; concept-based summarization; domain-specific summary; multi-graph text modeling; text mining
  19. Sex Med Rev. 2021 Feb 17. pii: S2050-0521(20)30102-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      INTRODUCTION: YouTube is the most used social media website, and there is a growing body of literature examining the reliability of healthcare information on this platform. Patients seeking men's health information may be more likely to use YouTube owing to the sensitivity of these issues.OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to review the literature for studies related to the reliability of YouTube videos about men's health topics.
    METHODS: A literature review was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar for publications related to the reliability of YouTube videos about men's health as of July 1, 2020.
    RESULTS: There were 17 studies related to YouTube and Men's Health. Most videos were found to be unreliable, and videos uploaded by physicians or healthcare organizations were usually more reliable. However, there were no studies in which more reliable videos had higher metrics of user engagement (views, likes, comments) than unreliable videos and there were several studies where unreliable videos had higher metrics of user engagement. In addition, the methods used to evaluate YouTube videos are not uniform across studies including the way that terms are searched (filtering by relevance vs view count) and the way in which reliability is assessed. For example, some studies create custom evaluation forms based on clinical guidelines, whereas others use validated questionnaires. The only validated questionnaire used across multiple studies was the DISCERN score criterion.
    CONCLUSIONS: Most information on YouTube about men's health is unreliable. Videos created by physicians and healthcare organizations are more reliable, and videos that are advertisements are less reliable. Physicians and healthcare systems should continue to upload educational YouTube videos but work to increase their views and user engagement. It may benefit patients if physician organizations could work with YouTube to create verified videos disseminating healthcare information that are favored in the search algorithm. Warren CJ, Sawhney R, Shah T, et al. YouTube and Men's Health: A Review of the Current Literature. Sex Med Rev 2020;XX:XXX-XXX.
    Keywords:  Men's Health; Patient Education; Sexual Medicine; Social Media; YouTube
  20. J Med Internet Res. 2021 Feb 25. 23(2): e19134
      BACKGROUND: Empirical research has demonstrated that people frequently use social media for gathering and sharing online health information. Health literacy, social media use, and self-efficacy are important factors that may influence people's health behaviors online.OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the associations between health literacy, health-related social media use, self-efficacy, and health behavioral intentions online.
    METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adults 18 years and older (n=449) to examine predictors of health-related behavioral intentions online including health literacy, social media use, and self-efficacy in China using 2 moderated mediation models. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted.
    RESULTS: Self-efficacy mediated the effects of health literacy (Bindirect=0.213, 95% CI 0.101 to 0.339) and social media use (Bindirect=0.023, 95% CI 0.008 to 0.045) on health behavioral intentions on social media. Age moderated the effects of health literacy on self-efficacy (P=.03), while previous experience moderated the effects of social media use on self-efficacy (P<.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: Health literacy and health-related social media use influenced health behavioral intentions on social media via their prior effects on self-efficacy. The association between health literacy and self-efficacy was stronger among younger respondents, whereas the association between health-related social media use and self-efficacy was stronger among those who previously had positive experiences with health information on social media. Health practitioners should target self-efficacy among older populations and increase positive media experience related to health.
    Keywords:  behavioral intention; health literacy; self-efficacy; social media
  21. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2021 Feb 22. pii: 20-191. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the information quality of YouTube videos on hallux valgus.METHODS: A YouTube search was performed using the keyword 'hallux valgus' to determine the first 300 videos related to hallux valgus. A total of 54 videos met our inclusion criteria and evaluated for information quality by using DISCERN, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and hallux valgus information assessment (HAVIA) scores. Number of views, time since the upload date, view rate, number of comments, number of likes, number of dislikes, video power index (VPI) values were calculated to determine video popularity. Video length (sec), video source and video content were also noted. The relation between information quality and these factors were statistically evaluated.
    RESULTS: The mean DISCERN score was 30.35{plus minus}11.56 (poor quality) (14-64), the mean JAMA score was 2.28{plus minus}0.96 (1-4), and the mean HAVIA score was 3.63{plus minus}2.42 (moderate quality) (0.5-8.5). Although videos uploaded by physicians had higher mean DISCERN, JAMA, and HAVIA scores than videos uploaded by non-physicians, the difference was not statistically significant. Additionally, view rates and VPI values were higher for videos uploaded by health channels, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between video length and DISCERN (r= 0.294, p= 0.028), and HAVIA scores (r= 0.326, p= 0.015).
    CONCLUSIONS: This present study demonstrated that the quality of information available on YouTube videos about hallux valgus was low and insufficient. Videos containing accurate information from reliable sources are needed to educate patients on hallux valgus, especially in less frequently mentioned topics such as postoperative complications and healing period.
    Keywords:  YouTube video; hallux valgus; patient education; quality assessment
  22. J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod. 2021 Feb 22. pii: S2468-7847(21)00044-1. [Epub ahead of print] 102102
      OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study is to evaluate the information available on YouTube regarding FGCS procedures in terms of content, accuracy, reliability and quality.METHODS: Videos were listed on YouTube on 01.10.2020 by searching the terms "plastic surgery for female genital", "vaginoplasty", "labiaplasty" and selecting their relevance from the filtering options. Among these listed videos, the 50 most watched videos were listed and recorded excluding commercials, repeating videos, those shorter than 60 seconds and non-English ones. The videos were scored by two researchers using DISCERN and JAMA scales. The DISCERN scale varies between0-75 points and according to the scores obtained from the scale, videos are classified as 63-75: (excellent); as 51-62: (good); as 39-50: (moderate) as 28- 38: poor and as <28 very poor. JAMA scale is a scale that evaluates the accuracy, usefulness and reliability of video sources between 0-4. Insufficient data on 1 point video source obtained from the scale, refers to. 2-3 (partially sufficient data) and 4: (completely sufficient data).
    RESULTS: The evaluation on DISCERN scores given to the videos revealed that the average DISCERN score of the first researcher was 45.65 ± 13.271 and the average of the second researcher's DISCERN score was 44.65 ± 14.235. The average of JAMA scores was 2.67 ± 0.826 for the first researcher and 2.49 ± 0.845 for the second researcher. Accordingly, a statistically significant linear relationship was found between DISCERN (r = 0.812) scores and JAMA (r = 0.622) scores by the researchers.
    CONCLUSION: We found that YouTube has the potential to provide patients with easy access to a large amount of information on FGCS, although almost all of the videos we included in the study were uploaded by health professionals, the overall quality of the content on the subject was moderate. We strongly suggest that any videos on health should be uploaded by experts and these videos should definitely be reviewed by a referee.
    Keywords:  DISCERN; Female genital cosmetic surgery; JAMA; YouTube; labiaplasty
  23. Dermatol Surg. 2021 Feb 19.
      BACKGROUND: Patients interested in aesthetic surgery actively search the Internet, a source that contains important but biased information.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of patient information on autologous fat grafting available on the Internet.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The quantitative and qualitative assessment of websites was based on a modified Ensuring Quality Information for Patients tool (EQIP-36 items). Websites were identified through the most popular search engines (Google, Yahoo, Bing, Ask, and AOL).
    RESULTS: After duplicate and irrelevant sources were excluded, 608 remaining websites were assessed. Only 164 websites addressed >17 of the 36 items. Scores tended to be higher for academic centers and professional societies than for websites developed by private practitioners. The EQIP score achieved by websites ranged between 0 to 28, with a median value of 14 points.
    CONCLUSION: The quality of patient information on lipofilling available on the Internet is very poor, and research on existing websites reveals substantial shortcomings. There is an urgent need for sources offering superior quality and unbiased information on lipofilling for patients who intend to undergo this procedure.
  24. Health Technol (Berl). 2021 Feb 18. 1-5
      This study aims to evaluate the content of information in three different search engines in terms of orthodontics as the source of information at the current stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. An internet search was conducted on April 10th, 2020, using the most popular search engines: GoogleTM, BingTM, and Yahoo!® with the keyword "coronavirus orthodontics". Top 10 websites were evaluated for each search engine. After excluding duplicates the remaining 23 sites were saved in Microsoft Excel programme and evaluated by two independent researchers (HKO and RSO; both experienced orthodontists) using the modified DISCERN tool and JAMA benchmarks. The websites were also classified as "useful, misleading and news updates". Sixty one percent of the websites were classified as useful, 26% as misleading, and 13% as news updates. Most of the authors of the websites were unknown (35%) and followed by orthodontists (30%). The DISCERN and JAMA scores of the four websites were excellent and their target audience were orthodontists. The average modified DISCERN score of 23 websites was moderate (average score 2,8). Useful websites had a significantly higher number of DISCERN and JAMA scores than the misleading websites (p < 0.05). Most of the information available in three different search engines about orthodontics related to COVID-19 were useful. The most reliable websites belonged to American Association of Orthodontists (AAO), Australian Society of Orthodontists (ASO), and British Orthodontic Society (BOS), and they appeared on the first page of the GoogleTM.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Coronavirus; DISCERN; JAMA; Orthodontics
  25. J Community Health. 2021 Feb 27.
      The COVID-19 pandemic first became evident at the end of 2019, and because of the many unknown aspects of this emerging infectious disease, the internet quickly became a source of information for consumers. It is important for any vital information to be written unambiguously, and at a level that can be understood by all people regardless of education levels. The purpose of this study was to assess the readability of 50 sources of COVID19 testing information online. Only 6 websites out of 50 received an appropriate readability score on more than one assessment. One-sample, one-tailed t-tests (α = 0.05, df = 49) were used to see if the websites with information on COVID-19 testing are being written at appropriate reading levels. The resulting p-values indicate that each p-value recorded is substantially below 0.05, it is very unlikely that websites on this topic are being written at the recommended levels. Even the optimal messages on COVID-19 reflect a confusing and rapidly changing public health crisis, however if messages are kept simple and clear, individuals will have the best possible chance of optimizing behavioral mitigation strategies. These are compelling reasons for informational hosts to take necessary steps to ensure that messages are written in as simple terms as possible. To this end, it is suggested that internet sites dispersing COVID-19 testing information build in text analysis methods for all published messages, particularly those meant to inform best health practices in the time of a pandemic.
    Keywords:  COVID-19 testing; Internet; Online; Readability
  26. Inform Health Soc Care. 2021 Feb 23. 1-7
      Videos on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are widely available on YouTube. Individuals with OCD and their caregivers would likely watch these videos to understand this disorder. Videos presenting the information related to symptomatology and available treatment accurately and in an easy-to-understand manner would benefit the patients and the caregivers. On the other hand, inaccurate information may create confusion. Given this, the present research is aimed at analyzing the content, accuracy, and appropriateness of the YouTube videos on OCD. The quality of the YouTube videos on OCD, in terms of accuracy of the information provided, was assessed. Out of 330 videos, resulting from various search terms, 82 were found to be suitable for analysis. The videos were assessed for the accuracy of presented content on clinical symptoms, biological underpinnings, and treatment (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) as well as their educational utility. Majority of the videos provided accurate description of obsessions (82.9%) and compulsions (74.4%) and 21.9% of the videos mentioned biological underpinnings of OCD. Treatment options, both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, were mentioned in 32.71% and 41.5% of the videos, respectively. Overall, 69.5% of the videos had useful educational utility. Findings have been discussed in terms of their practical utility.
    Keywords:  Obsessive-compulsive disorder; YouTube; compulsions; obsessions
  27. Semin Ophthalmol. 2021 Feb 26. 1-8
      PURPOSE: To evaluate the content quality, accuracy, and readability of commonly visited websites by cataract patients contemplating cataract surgery.SETTING: Freely available online information.
    DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
    METHODS: Ten websites were evaluated in a cross-sectional study for content analysis using a grading sheet of 40 questions individually scored by three ophthalmologists. JAMA benchmarks were used to assess the quality. An online readability tool, Readable, was used to assess the readability.
    RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the content and accuracy of each website according to a Kruskal-Wallis test (H = 22.623, P = .007). The average score for all websites using the grading sheet was 90.85 out of 160 points, or 57% (SD 29.93, CI 95%±17.69). There was no significant correlation between website rank on and content quality of the website (r = 0.049, P = .894). No websites complied with all 4 JAMA criteria for authorship. There was no significant correlation between content quality of each website and number of JAMA requirements met (r = -0.563, P = .09). The average Flesch Reading Ease Score for all websites was 52.64 (SD 11.94, CI 95%±7.40), and the average Mean Reading Grade was 10.72 (SD 1.58, CI 95%±0.98). There was a significant difference in Mean Reading Grades between websites (H = 23.703, P = .005). There was no significant correlation between content quality of the website and Mean Reading Grade (r = -0.552, P = .098).
    CONCLUSION: Commonly accessed online resources on cataracts and cataract surgery are insufficient to provide patients with a clear and complete understanding of their condition as well as available medical and surgical treatment options.
    Keywords:  Cataract surgery; online resources; patient education; readability
  28. Semin Ophthalmol. 2021 Feb 22. 1-6
      Purpose: The objective of this study was to analyze the quality of videos on YouTube as educational resources about keratoplasty surgery. Methods: The first 100 videos found after the keyword "keratoplasty for patients" was used in the YouTube search engine were included in the study. General video assessment included duration, views, likes, dislikes, and comments. The quality and accuracy of the information were evaluated by 2 independent ophthalmologists using DISCERN score, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) score, global quality score and usefulness scoring system. Interobserver agreement and individual correlations of the data of each video were statistically analyzed. Results: Eighty-four of the first 100 videos met the inclusion criteria. The mean DISCERN score was 42.11, the mean JAMA score was 1.82, the mean global quality score was 2.35, and the mean usefulness score was 2.01. Twenty-eight (33.3%) of the surgical procedures described in the videos were penetrating keratoplasty, 18 (21.4%) were DMEK, 13 (15.5%) were DALK, four (4.8%) were DSAEK, and one (1.2%) was keratoprosthesis, while the remaining 20 (23.8%) videos did not mention any surgical procedure. Of the 84 videos, 26 (31%) had been uploaded by physicians, 46 (54.8%) by university/private health institutions, 11 (13.1%) by health channels, and one (1.2%) by a patient. Conclusion: YouTube is an important platform that can be used by patients to acquire information about keratoplasty. Increasing the number of uploads of informative keratoplasty videos by healthcare professionals will provide higher quality, more reliable, and more instructive content in this area.
    Keywords:  DISCERN; Journal of the American Medical Association score; Keratoplasty; YouTube; global quality score