bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2020‒10‒11
38 papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society


  1. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 564-573
    van der Vegt A, Zuccon G, Koopman B, Deacon A.
      Objective: Clinicians encounter many questions during patient encounters that they cannot answer. While search systems (e.g., PubMed) can help clinicians find answers, clinicians are typically busy and report that they often do not have sufficient time to use such systems. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of time pressure on clinical decisions made with the use of a medical literature search system.Design: In stage 1, 109 final-year medical students and practicing clinicians were presented with 16 clinical questions that they had to answer using their own knowledge. In stage 2, the participants were provided with a search system, similar to PubMed, to help them to answer the same 16 questions, and time pressure was simulated by limiting the participant's search time to 3, 6, or 9 minutes per question.
    Results: Under low time pressure, the correct answer rate significantly improved by 32% when the participants used the search system, whereas under high time pressure, this improvement was only 6%. Also, under high time pressure, participants reported significantly lower confidence in the answers, higher perception of task difficulty, and higher stress levels.
    Conclusions: For clinicians and health care organizations operating in increasingly time-pressured environments, literature search systems become less effective at supporting accurate clinical decisions. For medical search system developers, this study indicates that system designs that provide faster information retrieval and analysis, rather than traditional document search, may provide more effective alternatives.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.915
  2. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 556-563
    Glanville J, Kotas E, Featherstone R, Dooley G.
      Objective: The Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews contains search filters to find randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Ovid MEDLINE: one maximizing sensitivity and another balancing sensitivity and precision. These filters were originally published in 1994 and were adapted and updated in 2008. To determine the performance of these filters, the authors tested them and thirty-six other MEDLINE filters against a large new gold standard set of relevant records.Methods: We identified a gold standard set of RCT reports published in 2016 from the Cochrane CENTRAL database of controlled clinical trials. We retrieved the records in Ovid MEDLINE and combined these with each RCT filter. We calculated their sensitivity, relative precision, and f-scores.
    Results: The gold standard comprised 27,617 records. MEDLINE searches were run on July 16, 2019. The most sensitive RCT filter was Duggan et al. (sensitivity=0.99). The Cochrane sensitivity-maximizing RCT filter had a sensitivity of 0.96 but was more precise than Duggan et al. (0.14 compared to 0.04 for Duggan). The most precise RCT filters had 0.97 relative precision and 0.83 sensitivity.
    Conclusions: The Cochrane Ovid MEDLINE sensitivity-maximizing RCT filter can continue to be used by Cochrane reviewers and to populate CENTRAL, as it has very high sensitivity and a slightly better precision relative to more sensitive filters. The results of this study, which used a very large gold standard to compare the performance of all known RCT filters, allows searchers to make better informed decisions about which filters to use for their work.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.912
  3. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 534-546
    Hirt J, Nordhausen T, Meichlinger J, Braun V, Zeller A, Meyer G.
      Objective: The authors reviewed educational interventions for improving literature searching skills in the health sciences.Methods: We performed a scoping review of experimental and quasi-experimental studies published in English and German, irrespective of publication year. Targeted outcomes were objectively measurable literature searching skills (e.g., quality of search strategy, study retrieval, precision). The search methods consisted of searching databases (CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science), tracking citations, free web searching, and contacting experts. Two reviewers performed screening and data extraction. To evaluate the completeness of reporting, the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) was applied.
    Results: We included 6 controlled trials and 8 pre-post trials from the 8,484 references that we screened. Study participants were students in various health professions and physicians. The educational formats of the interventions varied. Outcomes clustered into 2 categories: (1) developing search strategies (e.g., identifying search concepts, selecting databases, applying Boolean operators) and (2) database searching skills (e.g., searching PubMed, MEDLINE, or CINAHL). In addition to baseline and post-intervention measurement, 5 studies reported follow-up. Almost all studies adequately described their intervention procedures and delivery but did not provide access to the educational material. The expertise of the intervention facilitators was described in only 3 studies.
    Conclusions: The results showed a wide range of study populations, interventions, and outcomes. Studies often lacked information about educational material and facilitators' expertise. Further research should focus on intervention effectiveness using controlled study designs and long-term follow-up. To ensure transparency, replication, and comparability, studies should rigorously describe their intervention.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.954
  4. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 574-583
    Ashrafi-Rizi H, Kazempour Z, Sheikhshoaei F, Ghazavi Z.
      Objective: Developing and promoting professional ethics principles for clinical librarians can help the health care system balance the interests of all stakeholders, including clinical librarians, health care professionals, and patients. Therefore, the goal of this study was to design a model of professional ethics excellence for clinical librarians.Methods: The authors conducted a descriptive applied study using literature review and the delphi method. The delphi panel included eleven experts in medical librarianship, library and information sciences, or information sciences and knowledge studies.
    Results: After the delphi rounds, five concepts and forty-six components were identified and confirmed to provide a model of professional ethics excellence for clinical librarians. The highest-rated concept was excellence in communication. The highest-rated component was mastery in developing search strategies in information resources and databases.
    Conclusions: Identifying and applying principles of professional ethics among clinical librarians can enhance the professionalization of clinical librarians and result in better information services for physicians. Furthermore, incorporating these principles into the curriculum for health sciences library and information sciences students or into workshops for active clinical librarians can further formalize the profession and practice of evidence-based medicine.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.893
  5. J Crit Care. 2020 Sep 17. pii: S0883-9441(20)30687-0. [Epub ahead of print]
    Greiner B, Corcoran A, Wheeler D.
      PURPOSE: Publication bias has a significant impact on the results of systematic reviews. Clinical trial registry searches, which include unpublished research, should be conducted when performing systematic reviews to reduce publication bias. We aimed to analyze the use of clinical trial registry searches in critical care systematic reviews.METHODS: Systematic reviews published between 01/01/2010-02/18/2020 from the top 5 critical care journals were extracted from PubMed and screened for trial registry use. Additionally, of the studies not performing registry searches, we assessed ClinicalTrials.gov for potentially relevant trials that were missed by not performing a registry search.
    RESULTS: Three hundred and twenty six systematic reviews were analyzed, of which 37 (11.3%) performed trial registry searches. Of the studies not performing clinical trial registry searches, 56% had at least 1 potentially relevant trial that was missed.
    CONCLUSIONS: The omission of relevant, unpublished clinical trial results may be negatively impacting the accuracy of critical care systematic reviews. We recommend all systematic reviewers conduct clinical trial registry searches to reduce publication bias.
    Keywords:  Clinical trial registry; Critical care medicine; Publication bias; Systematic review
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.09.010
  6. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 631-638
    Lemley T, Fenske RF.
      Background: Culinary medicine is an innovative approach to teaching health sciences students and other health professionals the basics of healthy eating, food preparation, and nutrition through applied instruction. It is hoped these professionals will, in turn, share their knowledge with patients. The University of South Alabama Mitchell Cancer Institute licensed the Tulane University's Goldring Center for Culinary Medicine curriculum and began teaching medical, nursing, and other health sciences students as well as community members in 2017. The authors describe a collaboration between librarians and health professionals to connect with underserved community members by teaching the basics of good nutrition and healthy meal preparation.Case Presentation: Two health sciences librarians provided instruction to community members in the use of quality health information resources during various modules of the culinary medicine curriculum. Demonstrations of the use of MedlinePlus and ChooseMyPlate were conducted using topics from module content. Evaluations were distributed after each module to evaluate the effectiveness of the library component, the results of which enabled librarians to subsequently increase their instruction time and implement iPad use for more engaging participation.
    Conclusion: Librarians were seen as invaluable partners in this innovative program and became an integral part of the curriculum. Evaluation results helped librarians advocate for more instructional time. As a result of their involvement, librarians were given additional outreach opportunities to educate younger populations at risk of developing chronic health diseases.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.911
  7. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 547-555
    Capdarest-Arest N, Gray JM.
      Academic medical libraries sit at the crossroads of the complex landscape of the health sciences. Medical librarians in these environments must navigate and lead endeavors and services that involve many professions. In addition to being excellent leaders in their own professions, medical librarians must also improve their skills in leading in an interprofessional context by informing themselves of the qualities and skills valued in connected professions. In this project, the authors set out to understand leadership principles from three professions closely affiliated with medical librarianship to identify a core interdisciplinary leadership skill set. To do so, we conducted a mapping review of the existing literature from the last five years around leadership in academic medicine, academic nursing, hospital administration, and medical librarianship to identify core leadership skills across the disciplines and discover potential differences. We used text analysis and descriptive analysis to extract skills that were mentioned and uncover trends in the identified literature. Modern medical librarians must extend their leadership beyond the internal library setting, particularly as they become more involved with connecting and collaborating with leaders across disciplines. To successfully navigate such an interdisciplinary landscape and enhance the impact of the library in the broader organization, it is important to have the skills and vocabulary of leadership across the various professions.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.917
  8. Educ Inf Technol (Dordr). 2020 Sep 30. 1-37
    Mayweg-Paus E, Zimmermann M, Le NT, Pinkwart N.
      In everyday life, people seek, evaluate, and use online sources to underpin opinions and make decisions. While education must promote the skills people need to critically question the sourcing of online information, it is important, more generally, to understand how to successfully promote the acquisition of any skills related to seeking online information. This review outlines technologies that aim to support users when they collaboratively seek online information. Upon integrating psychological-pedagogical approaches on trust in and the sourcing of online information, argumentation, and computer-supported collaborative learning, we reviewed the literature (N = 95 journal articles) on technologies for collaborative online information seeking. The technologies we identified either addressed collaborative online information seeking as an exclusive process for searching for online information or, alternatively, addressed online information seeking within the context of a more complex learning process. Our review was driven by three main research questions: We aimed to understand whether and how the studies considered 1) the role of trust and critical questioning in the sourcing of online information, 2) the learning processes at play when information seekers engage in collaborative argumentation, and 3) what affordances are offered by technologies that support users' collaborative seeking of online information. The reviewed articles that focused exclusively on technologies for seeking online information primarily addressed aspects of cooperation (e.g., task management), whereas articles that focused on technologies for integrating the processes of information seeking into the entire learning processes instead highlighted aspects of collaborative argumentation (e.g., exchange of multiple perspectives and critical questioning in argumentation). Seven of the articles referred to trust as an aspect of seekers' sourcing strategies. We emphasize how researchers', users', and technology developers' consideration of collaborative argumentation could expand the benefits of technological support for seeking online information.
    Keywords:  Collaborative information seeking technologies; Computer-supported collaborative learning and argumentation; Critical thinking; Sourcing of online information
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10345-7
  9. Res Synth Methods. 2020 Oct 08.
    Gusenbauer M, Haddaway NR.
      We researchers have taken searching for information for granted for far too long. The COVID-19 pandemic shows us the boundaries of academic searching capabilities, both in terms of our know-how and of the systems we have. With hundreds of studies published daily on COVID-19, for example, we struggle to find, stay up-to-date, and synthesize information-all hampering evidence-informed decision making. This COVID-19 information crisis is indicative of the broader problem of information overloaded academic research. To improve our finding capabilities, we urgently need to improve how we search and the systems we use. We respond to Klopfenstein and Dampier (Res Syn Meth. 2020) who commented on our 2020 paper and proposed a way of improving PubMed's and Google Scholar's search functionalities. Our response puts their commentary in a larger frame and suggests how we can improve academic searching altogether. We urge that researchers need to understand that search skills require dedicated education and training. Better and more efficient searching requires an initial understanding of the different goals that define the way searching needs to be conducted. We explain the main types of searching that we academics routinely engage in; distinguishing lookup, exploratory, and systematic searching. These three types must be conducted using different search methods (heuristics) and using search systems with specific capabilities. To improve academic searching, we introduce the "Search Triangle" model emphasizing the importance of matching goals, heuristics, and systems. Further, we suggest an urgently needed agenda toward search literacy as the norm in academic research and fit-for-purpose search systems.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.1457
  10. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 672-674
    Hoy MB.
      LibKey Nomad. Third Iron, P.O. Box 270400, St. Paul, MN 55127; https://thirdiron.com/libkey-nomad/; pricing: extension is free for users; institutional subscription to Third Iron products required; requirements: Google Chrome or Microsoft Edge browser (Firefox version currently under development).
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.1017
  11. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 675-677
    Lilly JA, Habegger LL, Anderson A.
      Ovid Discovery. Ovid Technologies, Global Headquarters, 333 Seventh Avenue, 20th Floor, New York, NY 10001; 800.950.2035; support@ovid.com; https://tools.ovid.com/oviddiscovery/index.html; institutional subscriptions only, contact for pricing.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.1089
  12. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 678-682
    Brigham TJ.
      ZoteroBib. Corporation for Digital Scholarship, 8300 Boone Boulevard, Suite 500, Vienna, VA 22182; https://zbib.org/; pricing: free.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.1084
  13. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 643-644
    Mery Y.
      This article describes how two librarians at the University of Arizona created a new e-learning tool, Sidecar Learning, and implemented tutorials aimed at health sciences students and researchers. Librarians at the University of Arizona have used these interactive tutorials to reach thousands of students. Sidecar Learning was created to provide librarians with a scalable means of teaching thousands of students how to use complicated library databases.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.1048
  14. Res Synth Methods. 2020 Oct 08.
    Klopfenstein DV, Dampier W.
      We read with considerable interest the study by Gusenbauer and Haddaway (Gusenbauer and Haddaway, 2020, Research Synthesis Methods, doi:10.1002/jrsm.1378) comparing the systematic search qualities of 28 search systems, including Google Scholar (GS) and PubMed. Google Scholar and PubMed are the two most popular free academic search tools in biology and chemistry, with GS being the number one search tool in the world. Those academics using GS as their principal system for literature searches may be unaware of research which enumerates five critical features for scientific literature tools that greatly influenced Gusenbauer's 2020 study. Using this list as the framework for a targeted comparison between just GS and PubMed, we found stark differences which overwhelmingly favored PubMed. In this comment, we show that by comparing the characteristics of the two search tools, features that are particularly useful in one search tool, but are missing in the other, are strikingly spotlighted. One especially popular feature that ubiquitously appears in GS, but not in PubMed, is the forward citation search found under every citation as a clickable Cited by N link. We seek to improve the PubMed search experience using two approaches. First, we request that PubMed add Cited by N links, making them as omnipresent as the GS links. Second, we created an open-source command-line tool, pmidcite, which is used alongside PubMed to give information to researchers to help with the choice of the next paper to examine, analogous to how GS's Cited by N links help to guide users. Find pmidcite at https://github.com/dvklopfenstein/pmidcite.
    Keywords:  MEDLINE; PubMed; bibliometrics; manuscripts as topic; open access publishing; publications; reproducibility; search engine
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.1456
  15. G3 (Bethesda). 2020 Oct 07. pii: g3.401775.2020. [Epub ahead of print]
    Hu Y, Chung V, Comjean A, Rodiger J, Nipun F, Perrimon N, Mohr SE.
      The accumulation of biological and biomedical literature outpaces the ability of most researchers and clinicians to stay abreast of their own immediate fields, let alone a broader range of topics. Although available search tools support identification of relevant literature, finding relevant and key publications is not always straightforward. For example, important publications might be missed in searches with an official gene name due to gene synonyms. Moreover, ambiguity of gene names can result in retrieval of a large number of irrelevant publications. To address these issues and help researchers and physicians quickly identify relevant publications, we developed BioLitMine, an advanced literature mining tool that takes advantage of the medical subject heading (MeSH) index and gene-to-publication annotations already available for PubMed literature. Using BioLitMine, a user can identify what MeSH terms are represented in the set of publications associated with a given gene of the interest, or start with a term and identify relevant publications. Users can also use the tool to find co-cited genes and a build a literature co-citation network. In addition, BioLitMine can help users build a gene list relevant to a MeSH terms, such as a list of genes relevant to "stem cells" or "breast neoplasms." Users can also start with a gene or pathway of interest and identify authors associated with that gene or pathway, a feature that makes it easier to identify experts who might serve as collaborators or reviewers. Altogether, BioLitMine extends the value of PubMed-indexed literature and its existing expert curation by providing a robust and gene-centric approach to retrieval of relevant information.
    Keywords:  co-citation; literature mining; medical subject heading; model organisms; network; signaling pathways; world cloud
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1534/g3.120.401775
  16. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 625-630
    Petersen DW, Earl M, Watson C, Grabeel K.
      Background: In 2014, the Preston Medical Library underwent a radical change, moving from an academic office building to the main floor of a regional medical center. While the library had previously served the public, health information requests have substantially increased in volume due to the new location. Researchers analyzed request data to see if the service's reach has expanded to counties that previously had not used the service, to see which counties have requested the most health information, and to ascertain whether more requests are from counties with higher poverty rates.Case Presentation: Each health information request is logged with the subject nature and patron contact information. Consumer health request data were downloaded from the library database. Names and other identifying data were removed. Request forms were sorted and reviewed by zip code and county, comparing number of requests as well as poverty levels. Tableau was utilized to create maps, visually showing patron concentrations and poverty levels.
    Conclusions: There were 3,141 health information requests from September 21, 2014, to May 31, 2019. The majority of requests were from local counties. Requests were also received from counties that had not been previously reached and counties with elevated poverty levels. Collecting data on patron interactions is not only critical for institutional reporting, but also for community outreach. Understanding that data require taking additional steps to filter the information, assess local demographics, and customize library services. Researchers anticipate being able to better tailor services to the community based on the results.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.965
  17. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 645-646
    Martin HJ, Schwartz A.
      While institutional repositories are common in medical schools and academic health centers, they have been used by only a small number of health systems to track and promote their research and scholarly activity. This article describes how Providence System Library Services leveraged their existing institutional repository platform to substitute a virtual showcase for an annual in-person event.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.1052
  18. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 618-624
    Bourgeois J.
      Objective: This longitudinal observational study explored relationships between actual and expected usage of library resources as well as anticipated and encountered barriers to that usage among public health affiliates over the course of a semester.Methods: School of Public Health master's degree students were sent questionnaires monthly throughout a semester that asked about usage of and barriers to library resources to examine changes over time.
    Results: Most students utilized library resources less often than they predicted at the beginning of the semester and did not have accurate expectations about which library resources they would use. Although most students encountered no difficulties using library resources, those who did often had multiple problems and seldom sought library assistance.
    Conclusion: As School of Public Health master's students had unrealistically high expectations of library resource usage, librarians may need to manage students' expectations and assist in overcoming difficulties. Further studies across health sciences disciplines are needed to determine differences between different populations of users.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.691
  19. J Med Syst. 2020 Oct 06. 44(11): 196
    Mielke C, Kuballa S, Schulze M, Haux R.
      Open Access is an upcoming paradigm to communicate scientific knowledge. The Trans-O-MIM Project works on strategies, models, and evaluation metrics for the goal-oriented, stepwise, sustainable, and fair transformation of established subscription-based scientific journals into open-access-based journals. This research intends to present an evaluation metric and the associated identified appropriate parameters for such transformations. To develop the evaluation metric, it has been implemented in the context of a business management method for planning, steering and controlling action and corporate strategies. The central element was a 3-step procedure for developing the metric. In stage 1 necessary preconditions for a transformation were considered. Stage 2 is the actual elaboration of the evaluation metric by means of a scenario analysis and stage 3 comprises the exemplary testing at the journal Methods of Information in Medicine. The three methodological steps have primarily resulted in 5 scenarios with 9 different final states from the scenario analysis. Thus, the metric is now composed of these 5 scenarios, which can be used to evaluate the success or failure of a transformation. A list of 65 suitable parameters to measure changes in scenario were compiled. So, it is possible to evaluate the transformation and to find the current final state. Parameters like submissions, publications, and time as well as the scenario states could be applied to the transformation process of the Methods of Information in Medicine journal. The proposed evaluation metric can be used to evaluate the transformation processes of subscription-based journals into open-access-based journals.
    Keywords:  Evaluation metric; Medical informatics; Open access; Transformation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10916-020-01651-1
  20. Front Psychol. 2020 ;11 2192
    Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia O, Beck K, Fischer J, Braunheim D, Schmidt S, Shavelson RJ.
      Critical reasoning (CR) when confronted with contradictory information from multiple sources is a crucial ability in a knowledge-based society and digital world. Using information without critically reflecting on the content and its quality may lead to the acceptance of information based on unwarranted claims. Previous personal beliefs are assumed to play a decisive role when it comes to critically differentiating between assertions and claims and warranted knowledge and facts. The role of generic epistemic beliefs on critical stance and attitude in reflectively dealing with information is well researched. Relatively few studies however, have been conducted on the influence of domain-specific beliefs, i.e., beliefs in relation to specific content encountered in a piece of information or task, on the reasoning process, and on how these beliefs may affect decision-making processes. This study focuses on students' task- and topic-related beliefs that may influence their reasoning when dealing with multiple and partly contradictory sources of information. To validly assess CR among university students, we used a newly developed computer-based performance assessment in which the students were confronted with an authentic task which contains theoretically defined psychological stimuli for measuring CR. To investigate the particular role of task- and topic-related beliefs on CR, a purposeful sample of 30 university students took part in a performance assessment and then were interviewed immediately afterward. In the semi-structured cognitive interviews, the participants' task-related beliefs were assessed. Based on qualitative analyses of the interview transcripts, three distinct profiles of decision-making among students have been identified. More specifically, the different types of students' beliefs and attitudes derived from the cognitive interview data suggest their influence on information processing, reasoning approaches and decision-making. The results indicated that the students' beliefs had an influence on their selection, critical evaluation and use of information as well as on their reasoning processes and final decisions.
    Keywords:  cognitive interview protocols; criteria-driven online search; critical reasoning; decision-making; domain-specific beliefs; multiple source use; performance assessment; reasoning profiles
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02192
  21. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(10): e0240288
    Heßler N, Rottmann M, Ziegler A.
      Successful publishing of an article depends on several factors, including the structure of the main text, the so-called introduction, methods, results and discussion structure (IMRAD). The first objective of our work is to provide recent results on the number of paragraphs (pars.) per section used in articles published in major medical journals. Our second objective is the investigation of other structural elements, i.e., number of tables, figures and references and the availability of supplementary material. We analyzed data from randomly selected original articles published in years 2005, 2010 and 2015 from the journals The BMJ, The Journal of the American Medical Association, The Lancet, The New England Journal of Medicine and PLOS Medicine. Per journal and year 30 articles were investigated. Random effect meta-analyses were performed to provide pooled estimates. The effect of time was analyzed by linear mixed models. All articles followed the IMRAD structure. The number of pars. per section increased for all journals over time with 1.08 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-1.46) pars. per every two years. The largest increase was observed for the methods section (0.29 pars. per year; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.19-0.39). PLOS Medicine had the highest number of pars. The number of tables did not change, but number of figures and references increased slightly. Not only the standard IMRAD structure should be used to increase the likelihood for publication of an article but also the general layout of the target journal. Supplementary material has become standard. If no journal-specific information is available, authors should use 3/10/9/8 pars. for the introduction/methods/results/discussion sections.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240288
  22. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 651-655
    Lee JGL, LePrevost CE, Harwell EL, Bloss JE, Cofie LE, Wiggins MF, Firnhaber GC.
      Migrant and seasonal farmworkers, who are essential workers in the coronavirus global public health emergency, face unique risks to their health as well as longstanding health inequities. This commentary highlights these risks and argues that Internet access represents an underappreciated but critical part of the public health response. The authors first discuss the unique risks farmworkers face. We note the importance of Internet access in the time of physical distancing, the fact that many health outreach workers are no longer visiting camps, the need for telemedicine infrastructure, and the role of Internet access in providing connections to families in communities of origin. We describe existing efforts that have been implemented in North Carolina to raise awareness among public health and health promotion practitioners and researchers. The current coronavirus pandemic demands the attention of medical libraries, public health practitioners, and policy makers to address the digital divide for farmworkers and their families.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.1045
  23. J Indian Inst Sci. 2020 Sep 29. 1-7
    Collard J, Bhat T, Subrahmanian E, Monarch I, Tash J, Sriram R, Elliot J.
      This short paper describes a web resource-the NIST CORD-19 Web Resource-for community explorations of the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19). The tools for exploration in the web resource make use of the NIST-developed Root- and Rule-based method, which exploits underlying linguistic structures to create terms that represent phrases in a corpus. The method allows for auto-suggesting-related terms to discover terms to refine the search of a COVID-19 heterogenous document base. The method also produces taxonomic structures in the target domain as well as providing semantic information about the relationships between terms. This term structure can serve as a basis for creating topic modeling and trend analysis tools. In this paper, we describe use of a novel search engine to demonstrate some of the capabilities above.
    Keywords:  Auto-suggest search; CORD-19 dataset; Root- and rule-based method
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s41745-020-00193-2
  24. J Biomed Inform. 2020 Sep 30. pii: S1532-0464(20)30211-2. [Epub ahead of print] 103583
    Wang C, Wang H, Zhuang H, Li W, Han S, Zhang H, Zhuang L.
      In recent years, named entity recognition (NER) has attracted significant attention in various fields, especially in the clinical medical field, because NER is essential for useful mining knowledge in the clinical medical area. However, there are still some problems in Chinese named entity recognition, such as the complexity of medical texts, word segmentation errors, and incomplete extraction of semantic information. In this paper, we propose a Chinese NER method based on the multi-granularity semantic dictionary and multimodal tree method, which involves the following steps. First, we extract different semantic words using multimodal trees. Next, we extract the boundary information, and finally, perform the multi-granularity feature fusion. Furthermore, we combine the above methods to complete the entity recognition task. From the results of our experimental verification, our proposed model outperforms the current state-of-the-art results.
    Keywords:  Boundary information; CRF; Chinese EHR; Medical named entity recognition; Multi-granularity semantic dictionary; Multimodal tree
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2020.103583
  25. Int Neurourol J. 2020 Sep;24(3): 286-292
    Culha Y, Culha MG, Acaroglu R.
      PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) training and education videos on YouTube.METHODS: This study was conducted in English language in descriptive type to evaluate the content, reliability, and quality of Internet videos related to CIC training. The search was performed by using term "clean intermittent catheterization" and "intermittent self catheterization" on YouTube in August 2019. The content of the selected videos was analyzed by 2 independent experts in the field. The DISCERN questionnaire was used to analyze the reliability of the video and the global quality score (GQS) was used for the quality of the video.
    RESULTS: When the contents of the 64 videos included in the study were examined, it was found that 41 of them contained useful information and 23 of them contained misleading information. DISCERN scores, video coverage scores, and GQS of videos with useful information were found to be statistically higher than those with misleading information (P<0.001). When the sources of the videos were examined, it was seen that 78.05% of the videos containing useful information were published by medical advertisement/for-profit companies (P<0.001). The reliability scores, coverage scores, and GQS of the videos from medical advertisement/for-profit companies were significantly higher than the other sources (P<0.001).
    CONCLUSION: In this study, it was seen that the majority of YouTube CIC training videos examined within the scope of the research were published by medical advertisement/for-profit companies and most of these videos contain useful information.
    Keywords:  Clean intermittent catheterization; Reliability; Training; Usefulness; YouTube
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5213/inj.2040098.049
  26. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2020 Oct 06. 1078155220960823
    van Ballegooie C.
      INTRODUCTION: Health literacy is an individual's ability to access, understand, and utilize information in order to create an informed decision regarding their health. Readability plays an integral role in health literacy as complex health information may be inaccessible to those with low health literacy. The aim of this study is to determine the readability of Canadian patient education material (PEM) for oncology related pharmaceutics.METHODS: Eighty PEMs from Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) and BC Cancer (BCC) were evaluated for their reading level using a Ford, Caylor, Sticht (FORCAST) analysis. Twenty therapies were then randomly selected and converted to plain text to be analyzed further using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) Index, the Coleman-Liau Index (CLI), and the Gunning Fog Index (GFI).
    RESULTS: Both PEMs from CCO and BCC were above the recommended reading level with PEMs from CCO, on average, requiring a higher reading level. Within the text, the section which describes side effects was found to be the most complex section of the representative PEMs from BCC. PEMs from BCC which described antibody-based therapies were, on average, more difficult to read than small molecule-based therapies regardless from which section the PEM was being analyzed. These observations were not seen in CCO PEMs.
    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, online PEMs from major Canadian cancers associations were written above the recommended reading level. Consideration should be given to revision of these materials, with emphasis on the therapies' side effects, to allow for greater comprehension amongst a wider target audience.
    Keywords:  Health literacy; accessibility; patient education material; readability
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1177/1078155220960823
  27. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 598-604
    McConachie SM, Volgyi D, Moore H, Giuliano CA.
      Objective: The research evaluated the differences in formatting of adverse drug reaction (ADR) information in drug monographs in commonly used drug information (DI) databases.Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of formatting of ADR information for twenty commonly prescribed oral medications in seven commonly used DI databases was performed. Databases were assessed for presentation of ADR information, including presence of placebo comparisons, severity of ADR, onset of ADR, formatting of ADRs in percentile (quantitative) format or qualitative format, whether references were used to cite information, whether ADRs are grouped by organ system, and word count of the ADR section. Data were collected by two study investigators and discrepancies were resolved via consensus. Chi-square analyses and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to evaluate for mean group differences in categorical and continuous data, respectively.
    Results: The seven DI databases varied significantly on each analyzed ADR variable, including variables known to impact interpretation such as placebo comparisons and qualitative versus quantitative formatting. Placebo comparisons were most common among monographs in Micromedex In-Depth Answers (70%) but were absent among monographs in Epocrates, Lexicomp, and Micromedex. Quantitative information was commonly used in most databases but was absent in Epocrates. Average word counts were higher in Clinical Pharmacology and Micromedex In-Depth answers compared to other databases.
    Conclusion: Substantial variation in ADR formatting exists between the most common DI databases. These differences may translate into alternative interpretations of medical information and, thus, impact clinical judgment. Further studies are needed to assess whether these differences impact clinical practice.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.983
  28. J Med Imaging Radiat Sci. 2020 Oct 05. pii: S1939-8654(20)30303-9. [Epub ahead of print]
    Al Balushi M, Ghosh S, Debenham B.
      INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: It is not clear if online radiotherapy patient educational materials that are published by the Canadian Cancer Society (CCS) and the various provincial health authorities meet the appropriate readability levels. The aim of this study is to determine the readability of online Canadian radiotherapy patient educational materials.METHODS: The publicly available educational materials were acquired from the provincial health authorities' and the CCS's websites. Only English language materials were included. Documents which mainly contained instructions or were part of interactive modules were excluded. The materials were transferred to Microsoft Word documents and labelled by source and category. Editing was then performed and the readability scores were acquired for each document.
    RESULTS: A total of 67 documents were included and 4 were excluded. The overall mean Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level from all sources was 7.5 (range, 3.6-13.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.1-7.9), while the overall mean Flesch Reading Ease from all sources was 64.0 (range, 44.2-78.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 62.0-66.1). The mean Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level scores from all sources were higher than the grade 6 recommended reading level for patient educational materials. This difference was found to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for Alberta, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Nova Scotia.
    DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the readability levels of online Canadian radiotherapy patient educational materials exceed the recommended grade 6 readability for patient educational resources. It is hoped that the findings of this study would inform and guide the future development and distribution of materials that meet the appropriate readability standards.
    Keywords:  Canada; Health literacy; Patient education; Radiotherapy; Readability
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmir.2020.09.007
  29. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 584-590
    Beckett RD, Martin JR, Stump CD, Dyer MA.
      Objective: The study evaluated point-of-care resources for scope, completeness, and consistency of information describing interactions between therapeutic drugs and drugs of abuse (DoA).Methods: A cross-sectional evaluation study was conducted focusing on seven resources: Clinical Pharmacology, Facts & Comparisons eAnswers, Lexicomp Online, Micromedex, Drug Interactions Analysis and Management, Drug Interaction Facts, and Stockley's Drug Interactions. A sample of clinically relevant interactions was developed through review of tertiary literature and resources, and input was solicited from subject matter experts. Entries from each resource for each interaction were evaluated for scope (i.e., whether there was an entry for the interaction); completeness (i.e., whether there was information addressing mechanism; clinical effects, severity, course of action, and level of certainty, described as a median rating on a 5-point scale); and consistency (i.e., whether the information in the resource was similar to the majority) among resources with an entry.
    Results: Following review by subject matter experts, the final sample contained 159 interactions. Scope scores ranged from 0.6% (Drug Interactions Analysis and Management) to 43.4% (Lexicomp Online). Completeness scores ranged from 2 (interquartile range [IQR] 0 to 3, Stockley's Drug Interactions) to 5 (IQR 5 to 5, Drug Interaction Facts, Micromedex, Facts & Comparisons eAnswers). Consistency scores ranged from 30.8% (Stockley's Drug Interactions) to 87.1% (Clinical Pharmacology) for severity and from 15.4% (Facts & Comparisons eAnswers) to 71.4% (Drug Interaction Facts) for course of action.
    Conclusions: Although coverage of drug-DoA interactions was low and content was often inconsistent among resources, the provided information was generally complete.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.969
  30. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2020 Oct 08.
    Khan S, Asif A, Jaffery AE.
      OBJECTIVES: To investigate the readability and presence of translated online information readily available to the British public during COVID-19.DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed. The terms "Coronavirus", "COVID-19", "Lockdown", "Social Distancing", "Handwashing", "Furlough Scheme" and "Sick pay" were inputted into the popular search engine, Google. Websites were categorised by their source (i.e. Government, Non-Governmental Organisation, NHS and Commercial) and theme (i.e. general COVID-19 information, population practise and employment rulings). Reliable calculators for assessing readability (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, Gunning Fog Index, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Coleman-Liau Index and Automated Readability Index) were used.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The median scores with the interquartile range from each calculator of the pooled data were observed. The presence of accompanying translated material and graphic information was also counted and presented as counts and percentages. The number of readable websites (i.e. a score ≤ 8) for each source and theme category were also recorded.
    SETTING: UK Internet servers.
    RESULTS: The median scores of the pooled data (n = 148) had shown that the majority of websites were unreadable to the average British reader according to each calculator used (SMOG 1.3%; GF 6.8%; FK 35.8%; CL 2.6%; ARI 40%). Only 3.4% and 6.8% of the pooled websites had readily available translated material and accompanying graphic material, respectively.
    CONCLUSION: Readability of COVID-19 information is below national standards and that there is a lack of accompanying translated and graphics-based material online. This may lead to an amplified level of misunderstanding in BAME populations about the COVID-19 pandemic and the rulings put in place.
    Keywords:  BAME; COVID-19; Coronavirus; Pandemic; SARS-CoV2
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-020-00883-8
  31. Eur Urol. 2020 Sep 30. pii: S0302-2838(20)30706-5. [Epub ahead of print]
    Loeb S, Reines K, Abu-Salha Y, French W, Butaney M, Macaluso JN, Steinberg GD, Walter D, Byrne N, la Garza D, Smith AB.
      Dissemination of misinformation through social media is a major societal issue. Bladder cancer is the second most common urological cancer in the world, but there are limited data on the quality of bladder cancer information on social networks. Our objective was to characterize the quality of information and presence of misinformation about bladder cancer on YouTube, the most commonly used social media platform. We reviewed the first 150 YouTube videos about "bladder cancer" using two validated instruments for consumer health information and assessed the videos for the presence of misinformation. The videos had a median of 2288 views (range, 14-511 342), but the overall quality of information was moderate to poor in 67%, based on scores of 1-3 out of 5 on the validated DISCERN instrument. A moderate to high amount of misinformation was present in 21% of videos and reached 1 289 314 viewers. Commercial bias was apparent in 17% of videos, which reached 324 287 viewers. From a networking perspective, comments sections in the videos were sometimes used to request medical advice (20%), provide medical advice to others (9%), or give support (19%). In conclusion, YouTube is a widely used source of information and advice about bladder cancer, but much of the content is of poor quality. PATIENT SUMMARY: A large quantity of content about bladder cancer is available on YouTube. Unfortunately, much of the content is of moderate to poor quality and presents a risk of exposure to misinformation.
    Keywords:  Bladder; Bladder cancer; Misinformation; Social media; YouTube
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2020.09.014
  32. Bioinformatics. 2020 Oct 08. pii: btaa864. [Epub ahead of print]
    Llinares MB, Gomez JF, Juty N, Goble C, Wimalaratne SM, Hermjakob H.
      MOTIVATION: Since its launch in 2010, Identifiers.org has become an important tool for the annotation and cross-referencing of Life Science data. In 2016, we established the Compact Identifier (CID) scheme (prefix: accession) to generate globally unique identifiers for data resources using their locally assigned accession identifiers. Since then, we have developed and improved services to support the growing need to create, reference and resolve CIDs, in systems ranging from human readable text to cloud based e-infrastructures, by providing high availability and low latency cloud-based services, backed by a high quality, manually curated resource.RESULTS: We describe a set of services that can be used to construct and resolve CIDs in Life Sciences and beyond. We have developed a new front end for accessing the Identifiers.org registry data and APIs to simplify integration of Identifiers.org CID services with third party applications. We have also deployed the new Identifiers.org infrastructure in a commercial cloud environment, bringing our services closer to the data.
    AVAILABILITY: https://identifiers.org.
    SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btaa864
  33. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 591-597
    Stark RK, McElfresh J.
      Objective: This research explored health sciences librarians' perceptions of intergenerational communication in the workplace.Methods: The authors developed and sent a survey to health sciences librarians through email discussion lists from August 2018 to September 2018. A chi-square test was performed to determine whether one's length of employment as a librarian was associated with belief that age and/or generation impacts communication in the workplace.
    Results: A total of 150 respondents from 5 countries completed the survey. There was no significant association between length of employment as a librarian and respondents' belief that age and/or generation impacts communication in the workplace. However, regardless of length of employment, most respondents indicated that generational differences do have an impact on communication in the workplace. Also, most respondents expressed interest in institutional initiatives to foster intergenerational communication.
    Conclusion: The authors found that health sciences librarians believe that differences among generations impact communication in the workplace. Librarians, managers, and library organizations should consider providing training and other opportunities for health sciences librarians to improve their intergenerational communication skills.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.851
  34. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 523-526
    Akers KG, Barr-Walker J, Amos K.
      As the premier journal in health sciences librarianship, the Journal of the Medical Library Association (JMLA) continuously strives to publish high-quality work that advances research and practice and to provide irreplaceable value for readers, authors, and reviewers. This editorial reflects on the state of JMLA in 2020 by describing our editorial team and volume of submissions, highlighting recent initiatives that strengthen the journal's position in the profession, and sharing future plans to enrich JMLA's content and promote open science. Committed to ending structural racism and other inequities in the field, we also issue an ongoing call for submissions pertaining to social justice and critical perspectives on health sciences librarianship.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.1075
  35. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 656-662
    Speaker SL, Moffatt C.
      Since January 30, 2020, when the World Health Organization declared the SARS CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) to be a public health emergency of international concern, the National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) Web Collecting and Archiving Working Group has been collecting a broad range of web-based content about the emerging pandemic for preservation in an Internet archive. Like NLM's other Global Health Events web collections, this content will have enduring value as a multifaceted historical record for future study and understanding of this event. This article describes the scope of the COVID-19 project; some of the content captured from websites, blogs, and social media; collecting criteria and methods; and related COVID-19 collecting efforts by other groups. The growing collection-2,500 items as of June 30, 2020-chronicles the many facets of the pandemic: epidemiology; vaccine and drug research; disease control measures and resistance to them; effects of the pandemic on health care institutions and workers, education, commerce, and many aspects of social life; effects for especially vulnerable groups; role of health disparities in infection and mortality; and recognition of racism as a public health emergency.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.1090
  36. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 605-617
    Casucci T, Locke AB, Henson A, Qeadan F.
      Objective: The authors measured burnout among health sciences librarians at their institution and determined whether a serious game intervention could improve personal and workplace well-being.Methods: A modified American Medical Association Mini-Z burnout survey was administered to library faculty in 2016 and both library faculty and staff in 2017. A three-month team-based game was implemented and assessed as an intervention to improve well-being among library employees. After the game, the burnout survey was re-administered to employees in 2018.
    Results: Library faculty scored poorly on burnout indicators, with 38%-73% of faculty reporting emotional exhaustion and 54%-91% reporting job-related stress over the years. In 2017, 62% of library staff members reported experiencing burnout and 38% indicated they felt a great deal of stress because of their jobs. Regarding the game intervention, 70% of post-game survey respondents reported that the game encouraged them to socialize with colleagues. Qualitative coding of survey responses resulted in 4 themes describing the most enjoyable aspects of the game: sociability, motivation, game play, and fun. Employees found that the game was a useful strategy for encouraging a more social culture with fun activities.
    Conclusions: Similar to previous studies of librarians and health professionals, health sciences librarians at our institution experienced burnout. Although the game intervention did not significantly reduce burnout or increase job satisfaction, it improved collegiality and recognition. Therefore, a workplace well-being game can encourage team building but may not sufficiently address the root causes of health sciences librarian burnout.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.742
  37. J Med Libr Assoc. 2020 Oct 01. 108(4): 527-533
    Heer BR, Nugent RL.
      In this profile, Lisa K. Traditi, MLS, AHIP, Medical Library Association president, 2020-2021, is described as an individual with a bright personality, rich professional experiences, and a natural ability to lead. She is a respected mentor in the medical librarianship field, especially in the realm of evidence-based medicine instruction and education. Traditi has spent the past twenty-six years at the Strauss Health Sciences Library at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.1100