bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2020‒07‒12
seventeen papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. Health Info Libr J. 2020 Jul 09. e12321
    Yuvaraj M.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has posed significant challenges for health science librarians. During this pandemic, librarians are playing an active role by increasing the public's awareness of the virus, maintaining document delivery services and providing research support. This paper uses the method of desktop analysis of the websites of selected library associations to identify the responses of health science librarians to the COVID-19 pandemic. The study highlights significant initiatives taken by some health science librarians which can be replicated by others to meet the needs of library users in the COVID-19 health crisis. JM.
    Keywords:  Librarianship; Library and information professionals; global health; health sciences
  2. Mem Cognit. 2020 Jul 10.
    Wertgen AG, Richter T.
      Validation of text information as a general mechanism for detecting inconsistent or false information is an integral part of text comprehension. This study examined how the credibility of the information source affects validation processes. Two experiments investigated combined effects of source credibility and plausibility of information during validation with explicit (ratings) and implicit (reading times) measurements. Participants read short stories with a high-credible versus low-credible person that stated a consistent or inconsistent assertion with general world knowledge. Ratings of plausibility and ratings of source credibility were lower when a credible source stated a world-knowledge inconsistent assertion compared with a low-credible source. Reading times on target sentences and on spillover sentences were slower when a credible source stated an assertion inconsistent with world knowledge compared with a low-credible source, suggesting that source information modulated the validation of implausible information. These results show that source credibility modulates validation and suggest a bidirectional relationship of perceived plausibility and source credibility in the reading process.
    Keywords:  Credibility; Plausibility; Sourcing; Text comprehension; Validation
  3. Genomics Inform. 2020 Jun;18(2): e22
    Yamada R, Tatieisi Y.
      The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) system is a controlled vocabulary for indexing biomedical documents that is used for document retrieval and other natural language processing purposes. However, although the original English MeSH is freely available, its Japanese translation has a restricted license. We attempted to create an open alternative, and for this purpose we made a script for assigning MeSH UIDs to Japanese medical terms using Japanese-English glossaries. From the MeSpEn glossary and MEDUTX dictionary, we generated a 12,457-word Japanese-MeSH dictionary.
    Keywords:  Medical Subject Headings; dictionaries; natural language processing
  4. Genomics Inform. 2020 Jun;18(2): e18
    Neves M.
      Finding publications that propose alternative methods to animal experiments is an important but time-consuming task since researchers need to perform various queries to literature databases and screen many articles to assess two important aspects: the relevance of the article to the research question, and whether the article's proposed approach qualifies to being an alternative method. We are currently developing a Web application to support finding alternative methods to animal experiments. The current (under development) version of the application utilizes external tools and resources for document processing, and relies on the PubAnnotation ecosystem for annotation querying, annotation storage, dictionary-based tagging of cell lines, and annotation visualization. Currently, our two PubAnnotation repositories for discourse elements contain annotations for more than 110k PubMed documents. Further, we created an annotator for cell lines that contain more than 196k terms from Cellosaurus. Finally, we are experimenting with TextAE for annotation visualization and for user feedback.
    Keywords:  animal testing alternatives; information storage and retrieval; text mining
  5. Genomics Inform. 2020 Jun;18(2): e13
    Nam HJ, Yamada R, Park HS.
      The prototype version of the full-text corpus of Genomics & Informatics has recently been archived in a GitHub repository. The full-text publications of volumes 10 through 17 are also directly downloadable from PubMed Central (PMC) as XML files. During the Biomedical Linked Annotation Hackathon 6 (BLAH6), we experimented with converting, annotating, and updating 301 PMC full-text articles of Genomics & Informatics using PubAnnotation, a system that provides a convenient way to add PMC publications based on PMCID. Thus, this review aims to provide a tutorial overview of practicing the iterative task of named entity recognition with the PubAnnotation/PubDictionaries/TextAE ecosystem. We also describe developing a conversion tool between the Genia tagger output and the JSON format of PubAnnotation during the hackathon.
    Keywords:  named entity recognition; natural language processing; text mining
  6. Comput Struct Biotechnol J. 2020 ;18 1414-1428
    Nicholson DN, Greene CS.
      Knowledge graphs can support many biomedical applications. These graphs represent biomedical concepts and relationships in the form of nodes and edges. In this review, we discuss how these graphs are constructed and applied with a particular focus on how machine learning approaches are changing these processes. Biomedical knowledge graphs have often been constructed by integrating databases that were populated by experts via manual curation, but we are now seeing a more robust use of automated systems. A number of techniques are used to represent knowledge graphs, but often machine learning methods are used to construct a low-dimensional representation that can support many different applications. This representation is designed to preserve a knowledge graph's local and/or global structure. Additional machine learning methods can be applied to this representation to make predictions within genomic, pharmaceutical, and clinical domains. We frame our discussion first around knowledge graph construction and then around unifying representational learning techniques and unifying applications. Advances in machine learning for biomedicine are creating new opportunities across many domains, and we note potential avenues for future work with knowledge graphs that appear particularly promising.
    Keywords:  Lterature review; Machine learning; Natural language processing; Network embeddings; Text mining; knowledge graphs
  7. EFSA J. 2019 Jul;17(Suppl 1): e170720
    Zollo F.
      The advent of the internet and social networks has revolutionised the information space and changed the way in which we communicate and get informed. On the internet, a huge amount of information competes for our (limited) attention. Moreover, despite the increasing quantity of contents, quality may be poor, making the environment particularly florid for misinformation spreading. In such a context, our cognitive biases emerge, first and foremost, confirmation bias, i.e. the human tendency to look for information that is already in agreement with one's system of beliefs. To shade light on the phenomenon, we present a collection of works investigating how information gets consumed and shapes communities on Facebook. We find that confirmation bias plays a crucial role in content selection and diffusion, and we provide empirical evidence of the existence of echo chambers, i.e. well separated and polarised groups of like-minded users sharing a same narrative. Immersed in these bubbles, users keep framing and reinforcing their world view, ignoring information dissenting from their preferred narrative. In this scenario, corrections in the form of fact-checking or debunking attempts seem to fail and have instead a backfire effect. To contrast misinformation, smoothing polarisation is so essential, and may require the design of tailored counter-narratives and appropriate communication strategies, particularly for sensitive topics.
    Keywords:  confirmation bias; echo chambers; fake news; misinformation; narratives; polarisation
  8. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020 Jul 07.
    Pawar AS, Nagpal S, Pawar N, Lerman LO, Eirin A.
      BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major public health challenge and recent literature sheds light on the concept of "normalization" of obesity.OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the worldwide pattern of web based information seeking by public on obesity and related terms and topics using Google Trends.
    METHODS: We compared the relative frequency of search terms and topics related to Obesity between 2004 and 2019 on Google Trends. The mean relative interest score (RIS) was compared between a 4-year period quartiles.
    RESULTS: The mean RIS of the search term "Obesity" consistently decreased with time in all four quartiles (2004-2019), whereas the RIS of the search topics "Weight loss" and "Abdominal Obesity" increased. The topic "Weight loss" was popular during the month of January and its median RIS for January as compared to other months was higher for the entire study period (p<0.001). The RIS for the search term "Obese" decreased over time, whereas "Body positivity" and "Self-Love" increased after 2013.
    CONCLUSIONS: Despite increase in prevalence of obesity worldwide, its popularity on internet diminishes. The reason for peaks in months should be explored and may be applied to awareness campaigns for better effectiveness. These patterns suggest normalization of obesity in the society with rise of public curiosity towards image-related obesity rather than its medical implications and harm.
  9. Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 09. 10(1): 11353
    Ganasegeran K, Ch'ng ASH, Aziz ZA, Looi I.
      Stroke has emerged as a major public health concern in Malaysia. We aimed to determine the trends and temporal associations of real-time health information-seeking behaviors (HISB) and stroke incidences in Malaysia. We conducted a countrywide ecological correlation and time series study using novel internet multi-timeline data stream of 6,282 hit searches and conventional surveillance data of 14,396 stroke cases. We searched popular search terms related to stroke in Google Trends between January 2004 and March 2019. We explored trends by comparing average relative search volumes (RSVs) by month and weather through linear regression bootstrapping methods. Geographical variations between regions and states were determined through spatial analytics. Ecological correlation analysis between RSVs and stroke incidences was determined via Pearson's correlations. Forecasted model was yielded through exponential smoothing. HISB showed both cyclical and seasonal patterns. Average RSV was significantly higher during Northeast Monsoon when compared to Southwest Monsoon (P < 0.001). "Red alerts" were found in specific regions and states. Significant correlations existed within stroke related queries and actual stroke cases. Forecasted model showed that as HISB continue to rise, stroke incidence may decrease or reach a plateau. The results have provided valuable insights for immediate public health policy interventions.
  10. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2020 Jul 06. 1-6
    Mason NF, Francis DB.
      OBJECTIVES: This study sought to understand factors related to weather-related disaster survivors' health information and mental health-care-seeking behaviors.METHODS: In November 2017, we conducted a quantitative survey of 170 Gulf Coast residents who experienced weather-related disasters. The survey assessed how individual and psychosocial factors affect health-care-seeking behavior.
    RESULTS: Nearly 66% of participants reported a high frequency of depression and/or anxiety symptoms, yet only 39% saw a medical professional. Of participants who visited a medical professional, 76% sought information from nonmedical sources. Seeking medical care was strongly correlated with seeking information from nonmedical sources and previous healthcare experiences, but not with fear and stigma.
    CONCLUSIONS: Positive communication and strong support systems have the potential to mitigate the reluctance people have in seeking help for mental health problems. Although it is discouraging that few people seek professional care, it is promising that participants were not avoiding care due to fear of being stigmatized. Less opposition to mental health care by survivors offers opportunity for mental health professionals to treat the psychological problems survivors experience. Providing necessary information may make headway to mental health care where it is greatly needed.
    Keywords:  communication; community mental health services; natural disasters
  11. J Cancer Educ. 2020 Jul 09.
    Paige SR, Alpert JM, Bylund CL.
      Information seeking is an active health behavior that influences cancer fatalism; however, people commonly experience challenges in accessing high-quality and actionable health information that is personally relevant. This is especially common among older and rural adults who have a high cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the theoretical assumption that enhancing perceived confidence to overcome health information seeking challenges will alleviate cancer fatalism. In 2017, 895 adults from a large southeastern medical university's cancer catchment area participated in a random digit dial survey. Participants were Millennials (18-35; 19%), Generation X (36-51; 23%), Baby Boomers (52-70; 40%), and Silent Generation (71-95; 16.9%) who had equal representation across metro (78.9%) and nonmetro (21.1%) counties. Younger generations (Millennials and Generation X) held stronger fatalistic cancer beliefs ("It seems like everything causes cancer," "When I think about cancer, I automatically think about death") than older generations. Most participants believed that precautionary efforts exist to reduce their chances of getting cancer, which was strongest among individuals residing in metro counties. In controlling for generation and geographic residence, individuals who experienced challenges in the process of accessing health information had stronger fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention; however, this relationship was most pronounced among individuals with confidence to ultimately obtain information that they needed. This study contributes to evidence for health information equity in combatting fatalistic cancer beliefs. Findings have important implications for the optimized dissemination of culturally adapted cancer education and skill-based training to efficiently access and evaluate relevant cancer education.
    Keywords:  Cancer fatalism; Health information equity; Health literacy; Rural health
  12. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jul 03. pii: E4783. [Epub ahead of print]17(13):
    Chen W, Zheng Q, Liang C, Xie Y, Gu D.
      For college students, mental health is an important factor in ensuring their ability to study and have a normal life. This research focuses on factors affecting the mental health of college students in the information network society. We constructed a theoretical model that influences their online mental health information seeking behavior from internal and external perspectives, and by extension, affects their mental health. Through the data obtained by field research and questionnaire survey on the online mental health information seeking behavior of some college students in Internet health information platforms, a structural equation model is used to test the hypotheses. Results show that the quality of external Internet platforms and the quality of internal electronic health literacy have a significantly positive impact on the online health information searching behavior of college students; electronic health literacy and online mental health information seeking behavior have significantly direct positive effects on college students' mental health. Further, online health information searching behavior has a significant mediating effect between Internet platform quality, electronic health literacy, and college students' mental health. The research conclusions have theoretical value and practical significance to study the factors influencing college students' mental health in the context of information network society.
    Keywords:  college students’ mental health; electronic health literacy; information network society; online health information searching; the external quality of Internet platforms
  13. Arch Esp Urol. 2020 Jul;73(6): 541-545
    Mazuecos Quirós J, Pedraza Sánchez JP, Lozano Blasco JM, Baena Villamarín C, Lendínez Cano G, Medina López RA.
      OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study is to stablish the scientific quality of the available information in YouTube about erectile dysfunction (ED).MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched on YouTube thrree terms ("Problemas de Erección" (PE), "Impotencia"(I) y "Disfunción Eréctil" (DE)). The sixteen first videos from each term were selected for the analysis. Two independent urologists reviewed all videos and classified all of them in scientific evidence-based (SEB) or not scientific evidence-based (NSEB) according to the current literature. In the subgroup analysis we compare: number of visits, duration, time of publication, source and type of information.
    RESULTS: After excluding the repeated links and non-concordant videos between both urologists, we analysed 147 videos. The Kappa statistic was 0.89 (95% CI0.85-0.96). 37% were considered SEB and 63% were considered NSEB. The median of reproductions in the SEB group was 24.356 (96-126.410) and 44.416 for NSEB (190-10.318.642); this difference was statistically significant. The median duration was 254 seconds(46-984) for the SEB group and 228 seconds for the NSEB (23-2.880); the median time of publication was 42 (16-103) months for the SEB group and 29 (11-134) months for the other one. 83% of SEB videos were published in health networks and television programs,while 58% of NSEB were published in user blogs. The SEB videos show more information about pathophysiology,aetiology, endothelial dysfunction, diagnosis and treatment than NSEB (p<0.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: 37% of the videos were consideredSEB. The NSEB videos were significantly more playedthan SEB group.
    Keywords:  Disfunción eréctil; Erectile problems; Erectile dysfunction; Problemas erección; YouTube
  14. BMJ Open. 2020 Jul 05. 10(7): e037065
    Alioshkin Cheneguin A, Salvat Salvat I, Romay Barrero H, Torres Lacomba M.
      OBJECTIVE: To assess the content, quality and readability of websites with information on fibromyalgia in Spanish.METHODS: Websites were retrieved entering the keyword 'fibromyalgia' in Google, Yahoo! and Bing, and by searching records of patients associations in Spain and Latin America. The Bermúdez-Tamayo and DISCERN questionnaires were employed for evaluating quality and content, and INFLESZ for readability. Statistical analysis was conducted using IBM SPSSV.24 (Chicago, USA).
    RESULTS: Three hundred and five websites were found. After applying the exclusion criteria, 73 websites were analysed. Websites retrieved by search engines obtained median scores of 27.0 (interquartile interval (IQI): 24.5-32.0) with DISCERN, 35.0 (IQI: 31.0-40.5) with Bermúdez-Tamayo and 53.7 (IQI: 47.4-56.2) with INFLESZ, whereas those from patients associations scored 21.0 (IQI: 19.2-23.8), 26.0 (IQI: 25.0-31.0) and 51.7 (IQI: 47.9-55.1), respectively. In general, content was not up-to-date.
    CONCLUSIONS: Overall quality was medium-low, content quality was very low and readability was poor. Further effort is needed to guarantee meeting quality criteria and accessing updated, relevant, and legible information.This study exposes the quality and readability of websites on fibromyalgia in Spanish, which can help healthcare workers to better appraise this resource and its potential influence on the development of the pathology.
    Keywords:  health informatics; medical education & training; rehabilitation medicine; rheumatology
  15. J Arthroplasty. 2020 Jun 10. pii: S0883-5403(20)30617-3. [Epub ahead of print]
    Doinn TÓ, Broderick JM, Abdelhalim MM, Quinlan JF.
      BACKGROUND: The Internet has become an increasingly popular resource among orthopedic patients for health education. Numerous organisations recommend that patient educational materials (PEMs) should not exceed the 6th grade reading level. Despite this, studies have repeatedly shown the reading grade level (RGL) of PEMs to be too advanced across a range of surgical specialties. We aimed to determine the readability of online hip and knee arthroplasty PEMs.METHODS: The readability of 134 articles pertaining to hip and knee arthroplasty from 5leading worldwide healthcare websites were assessed, using 8 readability formulae; the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level, the Flesch Reading Ease Score, Raygor Estimate, SMOG, Coleman-Liau, Fry, FORCAST and Gunning Fog. The mean RGL was compared to the 6th and 8thgrade reading level. The mean RGL of each website was also compared.
    RESULTS: The mean cumulative RGL was 12 (range = 7-16.1). No articles (0%) were written at a 6th grade reading level and only 4 articles (3%) were written at or below the 8th grade reading level. The mean RGL was significantly higher than the 6th (95% CI, 5.62-6.30; P < .0001) and 8th grade reading level (95% CI, 3.63-4.30; P < .0001). There was a significant difference between the RGLs of the 5websites (P = .001).
    CONCLUSION: Arthroplasty PEMs produced by leading worldwide healthcare organisations have readability scores that are above the recommended levels. Given the imperative role of health literacy in patient outcomes and satisfaction, and the increasing prevalence of Internet use among orthopedic patients, a substantial amount of work needs to be done to improve the readability of these materials.
    Keywords:  arthroplasty; health literacy; patient education; readability; reading grade level