bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2020‒03‒08
fifteen papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society


  1. Health Info Libr J. 2020 Mar;37(1): 1-4
    Urquhart C.
      This study considers the status of trends in value and impact research in health libraries and discusses how return on investment approaches such as social value analysis could be used. It uses an example, based on the Health Education England evaluation framework for health library and knowledge services, to outline how a theory of change can be developed. Health libraries now work more closely with health care staff and researchers in co-creating value and impact for improving patient care. Therefore, collection of data to assess social value should be drawn not only from performance data already collected by libraries, but also data collection by and for the health care organisation on evaluation of care quality and professional competence.
    Keywords:  health care; libraries; organisational objectives; stakeholders
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/hir.12298
  2. Environ Pollut. 2020 Feb 13. pii: S0269-7491(19)36690-4. [Epub ahead of print]261 114138
    Wu D, Zhang Y, Tian Y, Li A, Li Y, Xiong J, Gao R.
      It is important to investigate fungal air quality in libraries because they represent a complex indoor environment. The aim of the study was to quantitatively investigate airborne fungal contamination levels based on field measurements in autumn and winter in four selected library rooms (compact stack, lending room, reading room, study room) in a university library building, as well as the effects of several factors on the culturability of airborne fungi. Airborne fungal levels varied by room, with the highest fungal levels in the reading room (634 ± 275 CFU/m3) and the lowest in the lending room (486 ± 177 CFU/m3). Airborne fungal concentrations were significantly different with seasonal variation (p < 0.05) for all rooms except for the reading room. The size distribution analysis showed that the most airborne fungi were 1.1-3.2 μm in size; based on the schematic diagram of the human respiratory system, more than 80% of airborne fungi could be deposited in the lower respiratory tract (0.65-4.7 μm). Indoor/outdoor airborne fungal concentration ratios were below 1.0 for all four rooms during autumn and winter, showing that outdoor fungi are the main source of indoor fungi. Pearson correlations showed that the fungal concentration was significantly positively correlated with both temperature (r = 0.531, p < 0.05) and relative humidity (r = 0.555, p < 0.05). Indoor temperature, indoor relative humidity and number of open windows significantly positively affected airborne fungal concentration in a multiple linear regression model (p < 0.05). This paper provides fundamental data on fungal contamination that can help experts in indoor air quality to develop guidelines for airborne fungi in libraries and create a safe environment for library patrons and staff.
    Keywords:  Airborne fungal contamination; Indoor air quality; Indoor/outdoor fungal concentration ratios; Library building; Seasonal variation; Size distribution
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114138
  3. Health Info Libr J. 2020 Mar 03.
    Aylward K, Sbaffi L, Weist A.
      BACKGROUND: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Evidence search Student Champion Scheme aims to enable undergraduate health and social care students to teach their peers skills for information literacy (IL), thereby encouraging future evidence-based practice.OBJECTIVES: To analyse the Student Champions' teaching methods; discover what effects the Scheme had on their IL; and uncover any differences between disciplines.
    METHODS: Fifty-one reflective reports, written by Student Champions and submitted to NICE, were thematically analysed using a non-linear six-stage model. Four health disciplines from academic year 2017/2018 were featured.
    RESULTS: (a) Students preferred active teaching methods; (b) reported benefits of participation included gaining/developing new skills and increased confidence; (c) students believed that participating improved their skills for IL; (d) multiple recommendations for improving the Scheme were given; and (e) students wanted the Scheme to be offered earlier in their degrees.
    DISCUSSION: Champions from all disciplines positively benefit from participating in the Scheme. However, they also have concerns which are not well-documented in the literature.
    CONCLUSION: Student Champions have overall positive experiences. There is demonstrated improvement in their IL, and they become familiar with a useful evidence-based practice resource. They also offer recommendations for future improvements to the Scheme.
    Keywords:  digital information resources; evidence-based practice (EBP); information literacy; research, qualitative; students, health; teaching
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/hir.12301
  4. Sci Eng Ethics. 2020 Mar 02.
    Gorman DM.
      Although data sharing is one of the primary measures proposed to improve the integrity and quality of published research, studies show it remains the exception not the rule. The current study examines the availability of data in papers reporting the results of analyses of empirical data from original research in high-impact addiction journals. Thirteen high-impact journals with data sharing policies were selected from those included in the substance abuse category of the 2018 Clarivate Analytics' Journal Citation Report. The first 10 full or short original research reports that included empirical data in the most recent complete issue of each journal were electronically searched and reviewed for reference to where their data can be obtained and for a formal data sharing statement. Only eight of the 130 papers contained a data sharing statement in their text or supplementary online materials, and just one contained a direct link to the data analyzed. Data sharing was rare in the 13 high-impact addiction journals reviewed. The nature of the data reported in addiction journals might partly explain this. Currently, data sharing is not a procedure likely to improve the quality and integrity of published addiction research.
    Keywords:  Data sharing; High-impact addiction journals; Research integrity; Research transparency
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-020-00203-7
  5. Health Info Libr J. 2020 Mar;37(1): 78-82
    Ruiz López G.
      This study is based on Gerardo Ruiz's doctoral thesis on the information seeking patterns of psychiatrists in Mexico City, which he completed in January 2018 from the Autonomous National University of Mexico. The paper presents the key findings from a survey and interview involving 92 psychiatrists to identify the differing roles and information behaviours of three types of mental health practitioners. Similarities and divergences were found in their behavioural patterns in obtaining information to make clinical decisions, depending on purpose for the sought information which aligned to the role of the psychiatrist and on the information contexts of institutions in which they work. The implications for practice highlighted in this study focus on the influencing factors of time and availability of sources in enabling the mental health specialist to search, disseminate and evaluate information to be used in clinical practice, as well as to have in place broader communication with colleagues in order to enrich clinical care for better diagnosis and treatment.F.J.
    Keywords:  information seeking behaviour; libraries, medical; mental health; social care
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/hir.12293
  6. J Med Internet Res. 2020 Mar 05. 22(3): e13120
    Yigzaw KY, Wynn R, Marco-Ruiz L, Budrionis A, Oyeyemi SO, Fagerlund AJ, Bellika JG.
      BACKGROUND: The internet is being widely used for seeking health information. However, there is no consensus on the association between health information seeking on the internet and the use of health care services.OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between health information seeking via the internet and physician visits. In addition, we investigated the association between online health information seeking and the decisions to visit and not to visit a physician.
    METHODS: We used the cross-sectional electronic health (eHealth) data of 18,197 participants from the seventh survey of the Tromsø Study (Tromsø 7). The participants were aged ≥40 years and living in Tromsø, Norway. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between online health information seeking and physician visits, the decision to visit a physician, and the decision not to visit a physician, with adjustment for the demographic status, socioeconomic status, and health status of the participants.
    RESULTS: The use of Web search engines was associated with a physician visit. However, the association was moderated by age, and the OR decreased as age increased. The ORs for the use of Web search engines were 1.99 (95% CI 1.94-2.02) and 1.07 (95% CI 1.03-1.12) at ages 40 and 80 years, respectively. The decision to visit a physician was associated with the use of Web search engines (OR 2.95, 95% CI 2.03-4.46), video search engines (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.21-1.70), and health apps (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.13-1.42). The association between social media use and the decision to visit a physician was moderated by gender. Women who used social media had 1.42 (95% CI 1.31-1.55) times higher odds of deciding to visit a physician, whereas the decision to visit a physician was not different between men who used social media and those who did not use social media. Conversely, the decision not to visit a physician was associated with the use of Web search engines (OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.92-4.18), video search engines (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.07-1.51), social media (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.49), and health apps (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.35).
    CONCLUSIONS: Health information found on the internet was positively associated with both the decision to visit a physician and the decision not to visit a physician. However, the association of health information seeking with the decision to visit a physician was slightly stronger than the association with the decision not to visit a physician. This could imply that the use of eHealth services is associated with a resultant increase in physician visits. In summary, our findings suggest that the internet serves as a supplement to health care services rather than as a replacement.
    Keywords:  Tromsø study; Web search engine; eHealth; health app; health care service; health information seeking; internet; physician visit; social media; video search engine
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2196/13120
  7. Elife. 2020 Mar 06. pii: e52426. [Epub ahead of print]9
    Maggio LA, Steinberg RM, Piccardi T, Willinsky JM.
      Articles on Wikipedia about health and medicine are maintained by WikiProject Medicine (WPM), and are widely used by health professionals, students and others. We have compared these articles, and reader engagement with them, to other articles on Wikipedia. We found that WPM articles are longer, possess a greater density of external links, and are visited more often than other articles on Wikipedia. Readers of WPM articles are more likely to hover over and view footnotes than other readers, but are less likely to visit the hyperlinked sources in these footnotes. Our findings suggest that WPM readers appear to use links to external sources to verify and authorize Wikipedia content, rather than to examine the sources themselves.
    Keywords:  human biology; medicine; none
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.52426
  8. Patient Educ Couns. 2020 Feb 22. pii: S0738-3991(20)30101-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Millar RJ, Sahoo S, Yamashita T, Cummins PA.
      OBJECTIVE: Online health information is underutilized among Hispanics with low English proficiency in the U.S. This study examines the association between a unique measure of general English literacy, language use, and online health information seeking among Hispanic adults.METHODS: Data for Hispanics ages 25-65 (N = 700) come from the 2012/2014 Program for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). Binary logistic regression models were used to predict online health information seeking as a function of literacy skill scores (0-500 points) and primary language use (Spanish vs. other).
    RESULTS: Literacy (Odds-Ratio = 1.012, p <  0.001) was a positive predictor, while speaking Spanish at home (Odds-Ratio = 0.352, p <  0.01) was a negative predictor of online health information seeking.
    CONCLUSION: Literacy skills and language use appear to be separate contributors of online health information seeking among Hispanic adults.
    PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Online health information providers should be aware of literacy skills and Spanish language use as barriers to online health information seeking among Hispanics, particularly those who have both limited literacy skills and predominantly Spanish language use.
    Keywords:  Digital divide; Latinos; Social determinants of health; eHealth
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2020.02.030
  9. Invest Educ Enferm. 2020 Feb;38(1):
    KHademian F, Arshadi Montazer MR, Aslani A.
      OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess web-based health information seeking and eHealth literacy among Iranian college students.METHODS: The study was conducted in five colleges of the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran during 2018. The data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire consisting of seven questions on a 4-point Likert-type scale, with scores ranging from 7 to 28. These questions were: 'I know how to use the Internet to answer my questions about health', 'I think there is enough information about health-related issues on the Internet', 'I know the vocabulary used in health issues on the Internet', 'I can tell high-quality health resources from low-quality health resources on the Internet', 'I know how to use the health information I find on the Internet to help me', 'I feel confident in using information from the Internet to make health decisions', and 'Searching for health-related information on the Internet will increase my knowledge in this field'. High eHealth literacy level is defined as above the total mean score and low eHealth literacy level is defined as lower than the total mean score.
    RESULTS: In all, 386 college students participated in the study. The results showed that the mean score of eHealth literacy was 19.11 out of 28; 205 participants (54.4%) had low eHealth literacy. In addition, the students used the Internet to search for information regarding diseases symptoms (70%), physical illnesses (67.1%), existing treatments (65%), and diagnosis (63.1%).
    CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that participants in this study usually searched for illnesses, symptoms, and treatments after they got sick and paid little attention to other aspects related to integral health.
    Keywords:  Internet; consumer health information; health literacy; students, health occupation; telemedicine
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.iee.v38n1e08
  10. J Med Internet Res. 2020 Mar 06. 22(3): e15065
    Hochberg I, Allon R, Yom-Tov E.
      BACKGROUND: Surveys suggest that a large proportion of people use the internet to search for information on medical symptoms they experience and that around one-third of the people in the United States self-diagnose using online information. However, surveys are known to be biased, and the true rates at which people search for information on their medical symptoms before receiving a formal medical diagnosis are unknown.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the rate at which people search for information on their medical symptoms before receiving a formal medical diagnosis by a health professional.
    METHODS: We collected queries made on a general-purpose internet search engine by people in the United States who self-identified their diagnosis from 1 of 20 medical conditions. We focused on conditions that have evident symptoms and are neither screened systematically nor a part of usual medical care. Thus, they are generally diagnosed after the investigation of specific symptoms. We evaluated how many of these people queried for symptoms associated with their medical condition before their formal diagnosis. In addition, we used a survey questionnaire to assess the familiarity of laypeople with the symptoms associated with these conditions.
    RESULTS: On average, 15.49% (1792/12,367, SD 8.4%) of people queried about symptoms associated with their medical condition before receiving a medical diagnosis. A longer duration between the first query for a symptom and the corresponding diagnosis was correlated with an increased likelihood of people querying about those symptoms (rho=0.6; P=.005); similarly, unfamiliarity with the association between a condition and its symptom was correlated with an increased likelihood of people querying about those symptoms (rho=-0.47; P=.08). In addition, worrying symptoms were 14% more likely to be queried about.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that there is large variability in the percentage of people who query the internet for their symptoms before a formal medical diagnosis is made. This finding has important implications for systems that attempt to screen for medical conditions.
    Keywords:  diagnosis; screening; search engines
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2196/15065
  11. JMIR Med Inform. 2020 Mar 02. 8(3): e16279
    Loda T, Erschens R, Junne F, Stengel A, Zipfel S, Herrmann-Werner A.
      BACKGROUND: Previous research shows that being a "digital native" or growing up in a digital environment does not necessarily lead to increased digital competencies, such as digital health literacy or evaluation of webpage quality.OBJECTIVE: This study showed how medical students searched for health information online, specifically the recommended testing for histamine intolerance, by comparing the use of various search engines (Google, Medisuch, and a website of the student's choice) to find out more about search strategies in future health professionals. As Medisuch presents a qualitatively better search engine, we assumed that medical students using this search engine might find valid information faster on more reliable webpages, and might recommend the correct diagnostic steps for histamine intolerance to their patients more often than students using a generic search engine like Google.
    METHODS: Medical students in their third year of study were asked to find the relevant diagnostic steps of histamine intolerance online. They were randomly assigned to use one search engine: Google, their personal choice, or Medisuch. Their process of seeking information online was video recorded.
    RESULTS: In total, 140 medical students participated in this study. The total number of webpages found did not differ among the groups (P=.52). Students using Medisuch (P=.02) correctly identified the elimination diet as a relevant diagnostic step more frequently. The provocation test was reported by almost half of the students independent of the search engine used. In general, medical students commonly identified trustworthy webpages in all three groups (Google: 36/44, 82%; free choice: 31/36; 86%; and Medisuch: 35/45, 78%).
    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that medical students were able to find trustworthy health-related information online independent of the search engine used. Medical students that are digital natives seem to have proper internet skills and a knowledge of how to use them. They entered specific medical terms (evidence-based diagnostic steps) or names of reliable webpages (DocCheck) in the search engines to gain correct information. However, it remains to be seen if this behavior can be called true "digital literacy".
    Keywords:  digital health literacy; digital native; evidence-based online information; medical education; trustworthy webpages
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2196/16279
  12. Health Educ Res. 2020 Mar 07. pii: cyaa004. [Epub ahead of print]
    Alkazemi MF, Van Stee SK.
      Considering the important role of the Internet in health information seeking by consumers, it is critical to examine the health information that is available to them through the Internet. This study contributes to existing knowledge by employing a content analysis to examine visual and textual information on prescription medication websites. A stratified random sample was selected from a list of the 100 most-prescribed medications in the United States. Findings point to under-utilization of audiovisual components on the homepage of prescription medication websites as well as a lack of racial diversity in people pictured. Medications for chronic conditions were more likely to have homepages with a positive emotional tone than those for acute conditions. Further, more depictions of women on homepages predicted a greater number of prescriptions filled. This study includes implications for health education and healthcare professionals, patients and the Food and Drug Administration.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyaa004
  13. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2020 Mar 06. pii: 2019.12.PEDS19523. [Epub ahead of print] 1-8
    Sader N, Kulkarni AV, Eagles ME, Ahmed S, Koschnitzky JE, Riva-Cambrin J.
      OBJECTIVE: YouTube has become an important information source for pediatric neurosurgical patients and their families. The goal of this study was to determine whether the informative quality of videos of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization (ETV + CPC) is associated with metrics of popularity.METHODS: This cross-sectional study used comprehensive search terms to identify videos pertaining to ETV and ETV + CPC presented on the first 3 pages of search results on YouTube. Two pediatric neurosurgeons, 1 neurosurgery resident, and 2 patient families independently reviewed the selected videos. Videos were assessed for overall informational quality by using a validated 5-point Global Quality Score (GQS) and compared to online metrics of popularity and engagement such as views, likes, likes/views ratio, comments/views ratio, and likes/dislikes ratio. Weighted kappa scores were used to measure agreement between video reviewers.
    RESULTS: A total of 58 videos (47 on ETV, 7 on ETV + CPC, 4 on both) of 120 videos assessed met the inclusion criteria. Video styles included "technical" (62%), "lecture" (24%), "patient testimonial" (4%), and "other" (10%). In terms of GQS, substantial agreement was seen between surgeons (kappa 0.67 [95% CI 0.55, 0.80]) and excellent agreement was found between each surgeon and the neurosurgical resident (0.77 [95% CI 0.66, 0.88] and 0.89 [95% CI 0.82, 0.97]). Only fair to moderate agreement was seen between professionals and patient families, with weighted kappa scores ranging from 0.07 to 0.56. Academic lectures were more likely to be rated good or excellent (64% vs 0%, p < 0.001) versus surgical procedure and testimonial video types. There were significant associations between a better GQS and more likes (p = 0.01), views (p = 0.02), and the likes/dislikes ratio (p = 0.016). The likes/views ratio (p = 0.31) and comments/views ratio (p = 0.35) were not associated with GQS. The number of likes (p = 0.02), views (p = 0.03), and the likes/dislikes ratio (p = 0.015) were significantly associated with video style (highest for lecture-style videos).
    CONCLUSIONS: Medical professionals tended to agree when assessing the overall quality of YouTube videos, but this agreement was not as strongly seen when compared to parental ratings. The online metrics of likes, views, and likes/dislikes ratio appear to predict quality. Neurosurgeons seeking to increase their online footprint via YouTube would be well advised to focus more on the academic lecture style because these were universally better rated.
    Keywords:  CPC = choroid plexus cauterization; ETV + CPC; ETV = endoscopic third ventriculostomy; GQS = Global Quality Score; IQR = interquartile range; YouTube; endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization; hydrocephalus; pediatric; social media
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3171/2019.12.PEDS19523
  14. J Med Internet Res. 2020 Mar 04. 22(3): e14095
    Chung K, Cho HY, Kim YR, Jhung K, Koo HS, Park JY.
      BACKGROUND: Previous studies have revealed that most pregnant women rarely discuss informal information found on the internet with health professionals and have frequently expressed concerns for medical experts' reactions to the online information they shared, as well as the lack of time to consult the medical experts in general. To date, little information is available on the effect of individual differences in utilizing medical help-seeking strategies on their medical decisions during the perinatal period.OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were (1) to determine associations among perinatal women's medical help-seeking strategies, changes in medical decision making, and online health information utilization with a focus on the mediating effect of self-efficacy in perinatal health literacy on the intent to consult health professionals, and (2) to clarify these associations in perinatal women with two different medical problems: obstetric and mental health.
    METHODS: A total of 164 perinatal women aged 24 to 47 years (mean 34.64, SD 3.80) repeatedly completed the Problem Solving in Medicine and Online Health Information Utilization questionnaires to examine the moderating effect of two types of medical problems on their decision-making processes. To validate the hypothesized relationships in the proposed conceptual model encompassing obstetric and mental health problem-solving models, path analyses were performed.
    RESULTS: This study found that some perinatal women, who use an online informal medical help-seeking (OIMH) strategy, would be more likely to change their medical decisions based only on internet-based information without consulting health professionals (P<.001), compared to other women using different medical help-seeking strategies. Particularly, this concern is significantly prevalent when encountering obstetric problems during the perinatal period (obstetric problem-solving: P<.001; mental health problem-solving: P=.02). Furthermore, perinatal women with mental health issues using the OIMH strategy showed a significant difference in intent to consult health professionals based on online health information when the medical problem they had to solve was different (obstetric problem-solving: P=.94; mental health problem-solving: P=.003).
    CONCLUSIONS: Despite the positive mediating effects of perinatal women's enhanced health literacy on the intent to discuss personal medical issues with health professionals based on online health information, the strategy used is of fundamental importance for understanding their help-seeking and decision-making processes during the perinatal period. Beyond a short consultation to steer patients quickly and authoritatively towards an obstetric doctor's choice of action, it is recommended in this study that obstetricians attempt to provide their patients with needed context for the information found online. To fully explain this information with an open mind, they should actively develop or support information and communications technology (ICT)-based health information services.
    Keywords:  consultation; decision making; health literacy; help-seeking behavior; information seeking behavior; internet; mental health; obstetrics; perinatal care; self efficacy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2196/14095
  15. J Med Internet Res. 2020 Mar 05. 22(3): e13116
    Marco-Ruiz L, Wynn R, Oyeyemi SO, Budrionis A, Yigzaw KY, Bellika JG.
      BACKGROUND: Patients who suffer from different diseases may use different electronic health (eHealth) resources. Thus, those who plan eHealth interventions should take into account which eHealth resources are used most frequently by patients that suffer from different diseases.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand the associations between different groups of chronic diseases and the use of different eHealth resources.
    METHODS: Data from the seventh survey of the Tromsø Study (Tromsø 7) were analyzed to determine how different diseases influence the use of different eHealth resources. Specifically, the eHealth resources considered were use of apps, search engines, video services, and social media. The analysis contained data from 21,083 participants in the age group older than 40 years. A total of 15,585 (15,585/21,083; 73.92%) participants reported to have suffered some disease, 10,604 (10,604/21,083; 50.29%) participants reported to have used some kind of eHealth resource in the last year, and 7854 (7854/21,083; 37.25%) participants reported to have used some kind of eHealth resource in the last year and suffered (or had suffered) from some kind of specified disease. Logistic regression was used to determine which diseases significantly predicted the use of each eHealth resource.
    RESULTS: The use of apps was increased among those individuals that (had) suffered from psychological problems (odds ratio [OR] 1.39, 95% CI 1.23-1.56) and cardiovascular diseases (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24) and those part-time workers that (had) suffered from any of the diseases classified as others (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.35-3.32). The use of search engines for accessing health information increased among individuals who suffered from psychological problems (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.25-1.55), cancer (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.11-1.44), or any of the diseases classified as other diseases (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.13-1.42). Regarding video services, their use for accessing health information was more likely when the participant was a man (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.13-1.53), (had) suffered from psychological problems (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.43-2.01), or (had) suffered from other diseases (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.20-1.71). The factors associated with an increase in the use of social media for accessing health information were as follows: (had) suffered from psychological problems (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.42-1.91), working part time (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.62-2.63), receiving disability benefits (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.14-1.76), having received an upper secondary school education (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.03-1.38), being a man with a high household income (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.07-2.60), suffering from cardiovascular diseases and having a high household income (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.62-8.16), and suffering from respiratory diseases while being retired (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.28-2.97).
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that different diseases are currently associated with the use of different eHealth resources. This knowledge is useful for those who plan eHealth interventions as they can take into account which type of eHealth resource may be used for gaining the attention of the different user groups.
    Keywords:  eHealth; internet; mobile apps; search engines; social media
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2196/13116