bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2020‒01‒26
twelve papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2020 Jan 21. 20(1): 12
    Damarell RA, Lewis S, Trenerry C, Tieman JJ.
      BACKGROUND: Integrated care is an increasingly important principle for organising healthcare. Integrated care models show promise in reducing resource wastage and service fragmentation whilst improving the accessibility, patient-centredness and quality of care for patients. Those needing reliable access to the growing research evidence base for integrated care can be frustrated by search challenges reflective of the topic's complexity. The aim of this study is to report the empirical development and validation of two search filters for rapid and effective retrieval of integrated care evidence in PubMed. One filter is optimised for recall and the other for precision.METHODS: An Expert Advisory Group comprising international integrated care experts guided the study. A gold standard test set of citations was formed from screening Handbook Integrated Care chapter references for relevance. This set was divided into a Term Identification Set (20%) for determining candidate terms using frequency analysis; a Filter Development Set (40%) for testing performance of term combinations; and a Filter Validation Set (40%) reserved for confirming final filter performance. In developing the high recall filter, recall was steadily increased while maintaining precision at ≥50%. Similarly, the high precision filter sought to maximise precision while keeping recall ≥50%. For each term combination tested, an approximation of precision was obtained by reviewing the first 100 citations retrieved in Medline for relevance.
    RESULTS: The gold standard set comprised 534 citations. The search filter optimised for recall ('Broad Integrated Care Search') achieved 86.0-88.3% recall with corresponding low precision (47-53%). The search filter optimised for precise searching ('Narrow Integrated Care Search') demonstrated precision of 73-95% with recall reduced to between 55.9 and 59.8%. These filters are now available as one-click URL hyperlinks in the website of International Foundation for Integrated Care.
    CONCLUSIONS: The Broad and Narrow Integrated Care Search filters provide potential users, such as policy makers and researchers, seamless, reliable and ongoing access to integrated care evidence for decision making. These filters were developed according to a rigorous and transparent methodology designed to circumvent the challenges of information retrieval posed by this complex, multifaceted topic.
    Keywords:  Information retrieval; Integrated care; Literature searching; Precision; PubMed; Recall; Search filters
  2. Res Synth Methods. 2020 Jan 25.
    Korevaar DA, Salameh JP, Vali Y, Cohen JF, McInnes MDF, Spijker R, Bossuyt PM.
      INTRODUCTION: Many diagnostic accuracy studies are never reported in full in a peer-reviewed journal. Searching for unpublished studies may avoid bias due to selective publication, enrich the power of systematic reviews, and thereby help to reduce research waste. We assessed searching practices among recent systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy.METHODS: We extracted data from 100 non-Cochrane systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy indexed in MEDLINE and published between 10-2017 and 01-2018, and from all 100 Cochrane systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy published by 12-2018, irrespective of whether meta-analysis had been performed.
    RESULTS: Non-Cochrane and Cochrane reviews searched a median of 4 (IQR 3-5) and 6 (IQR 5-9) databases, respectively; most often MEDLINE/PubMed (n=100 and n=100) and EMBASE (n=81 and n=100). Additional efforts to identify studies beyond searching bibliographic databases were performed in 76 and 98 reviews, most often through screening reference lists (n=71 and n=96), review/guideline articles (n=18 and n=52), or citing articles (n=3 and n=42). Specific sources of unpublished studies were searched in 22 and 68 reviews, for example conference proceedings (n=4 and n=18), databases only containing conference abstracts (n=2 and n=33), or trial registries (n=12 and n=39). At least one unpublished study was included in 17 and 23 reviews. Overall, 39 of 2,082 studies (1.9%) included in non-Cochrane reviews were unpublished, and 64 of 2,780 studies (2.3%) in Cochrane reviews, most often conference abstracts (97/103).
    CONCLUSION: Searching practices vary considerably across systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy. Unpublished studies are a minimal fraction of the evidence included in recent reviews. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  3. Vertex. 2019 Jan-Feb;XXX(143):XXX(143): 25-35
    Wikinski S.
      In clinical practice it is increasingly imperative to obtain updated information for decision making. For health professionals, it is of great value to collect the experience that other workers in the disciplinary field have synthesized in the form of articles, reviews or different types of reports. Moreover, having tools that allow weighing the internal and external validity of the publications found, provides skills that today are essential for a clinical practice that guarantees patients the best standards of care. These notes are intended to guide readers in obtaining and assessing the information available for reasoned decision making.
  4. Health Info Libr J. 2020 Jan 21.
    Froste D.
      This feature describes the tailored information skills programme which was delivered for the second cohort of Trainee Nursing Associates (TNAs) at Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and presents the results of the evaluation which was undertaken. Literature searching and critical appraisal were offered to the first cohort. Feedback was collated, and sessions were refined and tailored to better meet the information needs of the second cohort of TNAs. A comparison of confidence ratings before and after the programme ascertained whether the information skills programme had a positive benefit in confidence levels of attendees. D.I.
    Keywords:  critical appraisal; education; hospital; information skills; learning; libraries; nursing; referencing; search strategies; students; teaching
  5. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2020 Jan 16.
    Heinrich S.
      PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Science and its public perception are compromised by scientific fraud and predatory journals, and also by the general erosion of the meaning of truth in the so-called post-truth era. These developments have significant influence on scientific medicine and their impact on the public discourse. The purpose of this article is to show how fake science, and also the uncritical dissemination of compromised results in public and social media, threatens scientific medicine.RECENT FINDINGS: As social media rises to the preferred source of information of ever larger parts of the modern societies, the dissemination of falsified scientific results within the communities is almost unstoppable. With growing numbers of predatory journals and repetitive cases of fake science, the risk of publication of false results increases. Due to the underlying mechanisms of the post-truth era and social media, these compromised results find their way to the public discourse and continue to be disseminated even when they were, beyond all doubt, proven to be a lie. In medical sciences, dissemination of falsified results directly threats health and life of patients.
    SUMMARY: In the post-truth era, publication of false results in predatory journals and by fraudulent authors become even more dangerous for the health and life of patients, as their dissemination via new social media is nearly unstoppable and in the public perception truth is losing its meaning. The scientific community has implemented specific counter-measures to minimize the chances of false results being published. However, it is even more important that every participant in the scientific process assumes the responsibility according to his or her role. An orientation towards the values that have constituted and formed science is helpful in fulfilling this responsibility.
  6. Health Commun. 2020 Jan 22. 1-10
    Ruan S, Raeside R, Singleton A, Redfern J, Partridge SR.
      Adolescents need access to interactive and high-quality online health information about strategies to reduce their risk for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study aimed to evaluate the quality, readability and interactivity of webpages with adolescent-specific information on NCD risk factors. Included web pages were: (i) Australian-based; (ii) authored by government bodies or public health organizations; (iii) contained information relevant to NCD risk factors; and (iv) contained adolescent-specific information. In total, 69 web pages were included for evaluation (smoking, n = 6; nutrition, n = 22; alcohol, n = 15; physical activity n = 11; mental health, n = 6; health and obesity, n = 9). Content quality score (modified DISCERN tool) ±standard deviation ranged from fair (49.6 ± 13.6 for nutrition) to good quality (58.4 ± 11.0 for alcohol). Mean readability score (Flesch-Kincaid tool) found most webpages were difficult to read (49.6 ± 14.9, University student level). Adolescent-directed websites were written in plain English (62 ± 7.5, understood by 13-15-year-olds). Mean interactivity score indicated web pages were fairly interactive (13 ± 2.0). The study found very few webpages were written specifically for adolescents and no webpages were of excellent quality, highly interactive and written in plain English. Given the plethora of online health information from non-credible sources, we recommend public health organizations invest in co-designing excellent-quality and interactive online health information with adolescents.
  7. Hand (N Y). 2020 Jan 22. 1558944719895780
    Ji TA, Wells N, Ingledew PA.
      Background: The internet is becoming a common source of health information for hand surgery patients. This study evaluates the quality of web-based resources on ganglion cysts of the hand. Methods: We completed a search for "ganglion cyst" on 3 search engines (Google, Dogpile, and Yippy). The quality of the top-100 patient education websites was assessed using a validated internet rating tool. Websites were evaluated based on affiliation, accountability, currency, interactivity, website organization, readability, coverage, and accuracy. Results: Of the 100 websites, the majority (74%) had commercial affiliations. Only 34% of websites identified an author, and even fewer identified the authors' credentials (27%) or affiliations (26%). A third of the websites cited references, and less than half provided an update date. The average readability based on Flesch-Kincaid grade level was 9.2, and only 3% could be read at or below 6th grade reading level. Prevention was the most poorly covered topic at 13% due to omission. In all, 66% of the websites were completely accurate in terms of global accuracy. Websites were most likely to present inaccurate information on treatment, often failing to mention conservative treatment (watch-and-wait approach) or promoting the use of natural health products. We also found 5% of websites presented closed rupture of the ganglion cyst as a legitimate home remedy. Conclusions: The overall quality of online information on ganglion cysts is highly variable and may occasionally be harmful for patients. It is increasingly important for physicians to prompt patients about their internet use.
    Keywords:  accuracy; ganglion cyst; hand surgery; internet; patient education; quality
  8. Am J Mens Health. 2020 Jan-Feb;14(1):14(1): 1557988320901377
    Sherman LD, Patterson MS, Tomar A, Wigfall LT.
      Although diabetes education plays an important role in self-management for people living with diabetes, male health "help-seeking" lags far behind women. These gender-related "help-seeking" disparities often result in males being less engaged in their health care, which subsequently leads to poorer health outcomes among males. In this cross-sectional study, we used data from the 2017 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to identify factors that may contribute to communication inequalities between males and females. A hierarchical {linear/logistic} regression model was used to examine factors associated with online health information seeking among males living with diabetes. The results suggest that education, income, age, identifying as Hispanic, being a smoker, using a device to track progress toward a health-related goal, and using device to seek health information were all related to eHealth sum scores. Future research should consider testing applications among various at-risk groups to determine if the technology itself is becoming a barrier to eHealth.
    Keywords:  diabetes; digital technology; help-seeking; internet; men’s health
  9. Cancer Control. 2020 Jan-Dec;27(1):27(1): 1073274819901125
    Hillyer GC, Beauchemin M, Garcia P, Kelsen M, Brogan FL, Schwartz GK, Basch CH.
      Clinical trials are critically important for the development of new cancer treatments. According to recent estimates, however, clinical trial enrollment is only about 8%. Lack of patient understanding or awareness of clinical trials is one reason for the low rate of participation. The purpose of this observational study was to evaluate the readability of cancer clinical trial websites designed to educate the general public and patients about clinical trials. Nearly 90% of Americans use Google to search for health-related information. We conducted a Google Chrome Incognito search in 2018 using the keywords "cancer clinical trial" and "cancer clinical trials." Content of the 100 cancer clinical trial websites was analyzed using an online readability panel consisting of Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning-Fog Index, Coleman-Liau Index, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook scales. Reading level difficulty was assessed and compared between commercial versus non-commercial URL extensions. Content readability was found to be "difficult" (10.7 grade level). No significant difference in readability, overall, and between commercial and non-commercial URL extensions was found using 4/5 measures of readability; 90.9% of commercial versus 49.4% of non-commercial websites were written at a >10th grade (P = .013) using Gunning-Fog Index. Written cancer clinical trials content on the Internet is written at a reading level beyond the literacy capabilities of the average American reader. Improving readability to accommodate readers with basic literacy skills will provide an opportunity for greater comprehension that could potentially result in higher rates of clinical trial enrollment.
    Keywords:  Internet; cancer; clinical trials; information seeking; readability
  10. J Foot Ankle Res. 2020 ;13 2
    Price C, Haley M, Williams A, Nester C, Morrison SC.
      Background: Parents increasingly use the internet to seek health information, share information and for purchasing textiles and footwear. This shift in footwear purchasing habits raises concern about how (and if) parents are getting their children's feet measured, and what support strategies are in place to support the fit of footwear. In response to this, some companies and healthcare organisations have developed resources to support home measurement of foot size, and link these measures to footwear selection, measurement and fitting. The aim of this research was to undertake an appraisal of web-based resources about measurement and fit of children's footwear, focussing specifically on readability, usability and quality.Methods: Search terms relating to children's foot measurement were compiled and online searching was undertaken. Search results were saved and screened for relevance. Existing resources were categorised based on their source e.g. a footwear company or a health website. The 15 most commonly identified resources were reviewed by a professional panel for readability, content, usability and validity. One researcher also assessed the accessibility and reading ease of the resources.
    Results: Online resources were predominantly from commercial footwear companies (54%). Health information sources from professional bodies made up 4.2% of the resources identified. The top 15 resources had appropriate reading ease scores for parents (SMOG Index 4.3-8.2). Accessibility scores (the product of the number of times it appeared in search results and its ranking in the results) were highest for commercial footwear companies. The panel scores for readability ranged from 2.7 to 9 out of 10, with a similar range for content, usability and validity.
    Conclusions: Information for parents seeking to purchase footwear for their children is readily available online but this was largely dominated by commercial footwear companies. The quality and usability of this information is of a moderate standard; notable improvements could be made to the validity of the task the child is asked to undertake and the measures being taken. Improvements in these resources would improve the data input to the selection of footwear and therefore have a beneficial impact on footwear fit in children.
    Keywords:  Advice; Internet; Measurement; Paediatric; Shoes
  11. Health Info Libr J. 2020 Jan 20.
    Pylarinou S, Kapidakis S.
      In this paper, Stamatoula Pylarinou with her supervisor Prof. Sarantos Kapidakis reports on an analysis of bibliographic data of the publications of Greek hospital personnel, conducted as part of Stamatoula's doctoral research in the Department of Archive, Library and Museum Sciences at the Ionian University in Corfu, Greece. Using freely available data, they demonstrate the questions posed and the insights gained from the analysis of the scientific publications of personnel of public hospitals in Greece, in particular amid the years of austerity in Greece. With regard to impact on practice, they suggest that these procedures for the processing of medline/PubMed bibliographic data can improve communication among hospital librarians and administration or patients, adding value to their duties and enhancing the information and services they can provide. F.J.
    Keywords:  bibliometrics; database searching; hospital; libraries; publication output
  12. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2020 Jan 24. 3489420902183
    Shetty KR, Wang RY, Shetty A, Levi J, Aaronson NL.
      OBJECTIVE: To determine the quality, content, and readability of patient education materials pertaining to otitis media across several popular online platforms focused on otolaryngology and pediatric primary care education.METHODS: Online patient materials related to otitis media and directed toward parents were collected from the American Association for Family Practice (AAFP), ENT-Health section of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, from the American Academy of Pediatrics, KidsHealth from Nemours, WebMD, and Wikipedia. Materials were analyzed for quality, content, and readability. The DISCERN instrument was used to score quality. A unique content score was generated based on the information provided on each website and on the medical and surgical management of otitis media. Readability scores were calculated using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease Score, Gunning-Fog Index, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, Coleman-Liau Index, and Automated Readability Index.
    RESULTS: Overall, content was well-balanced. Information from AAFP and was focused more on medical management than other sources. The average DISCERN scores showed all sources to be of good quality with minimal shortcomings. The AAFP and KidsHealth websites had some readability scores around the 8th-grade reading level, the National Institute of Health's upper limit recommended for public health information; however, most websites were above this recommended reading level.
    CONCLUSION: Patient education materials related to otitis media on academic and certain popular internet sites are good sources to obtain high-quality information on the topic. Patient educational background, prior knowledge and understanding of otitis media, and physician-patient partnership goals should be taken into account when referring patients to online materials.
    Keywords:  health literacy; online websites; otitis media; patient education; pediatric otolaryngology; quality; readability