bims-librar Biomed News
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2019‒04‒28
twenty-six papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society


  1. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 129-136
    Harrow A, Marks LA, Schneider D, Lyubechansky A, Aaronson E, Kysh L, Harrington M.
      Background: Health sciences libraries are being closed or are under threat of closure, but little is published that looks at context and causes or alternative library service delivery models such as affiliations or consolidations. There is also very little research about the effect of these changes on health care provider satisfaction, patient care, or hospital quality indicators. Preventing library closures is not always possible, but understanding some of the circumstances leading to the decision and implementation of a closure or consolidation could inform best practice management.Case Presentations: At a recent Medical Library Association joint chapter meeting, a panel of six librarians presented their cases of navigating a library closure or reorganization. Background information was given to highlight reasons that the decisions to reorganize or close were made. Following the case presentations, participants took part in discussion with audience members. Cases and discussion points were recorded for further research, publication, and advocacy.
    Conclusions: Several points from the cases are highlighted in the discussion section of the paper. An accurate reporting of US health sciences libraries and librarian staffing is needed. More needs to be written about new library service models and best practices for centralizing and maintaining library services. After a consolidation, remaining librarians will be expected to manage the effects of staff loss and site closures and so should be involved in planning and implementing these decisions. It remains to be determined how hospitals with librarians compare in patient care and other quality indicators against hospitals without librarians.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.520
  2. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 210-221
    Salvador-Oliván JA, Marco-Cuenca G, Arquero-Avilés R.
      Objectives: Errors in search strategies negatively affect the quality and validity of systematic reviews. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate searches performed in MEDLINE/PubMed to identify errors and determine their effects on information retrieval.Methods: A PubMed search was conducted using the systematic review filter to identify articles that were published in January of 2018. Systematic reviews or meta-analyses were selected from a systematic search for literature containing reproducible and explicit search strategies in MEDLINE/PubMed. Data were extracted from these studies related to ten types of errors and to the terms and phrases search modes.
    Results: The study included 137 systematic reviews in which the number of search strategies containing some type of error was very high (92.7%). Errors that affected recall were the most frequent (78.1%), and the most common search errors involved missing terms in both natural language and controlled language and those related to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) search terms and the non-retrieval of their more specific terms.
    Conclusions: To improve the quality of searches and avoid errors, it is essential to plan the search strategy carefully, which includes consulting the MeSH database to identify the concepts and choose all appropriate terms, both descriptors and synonyms, and combining search techniques in the free-text and controlled-language fields, truncating the terms appropriately to retrieve all their variants.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.567
  3. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 238-243
    Kung JYC, Chambers T.
      Background: There is growing demand for specialized services in academic libraries, including supporting systematic reviews and measuring research impact.Study Purpose: The John W. Scott Health Sciences Library implemented a fee-based pilot project for the Faculty of Nursing for one year to test a fee-based model for specialized services, to evaluate its sustainability and scalability for the longer term, and to assess the feasibility of extending this service model to other health sciences faculties.
    Case Presentation: We describe the development and delivery of the fee-based service model. Through a team-based approach, we successfully provided specialized services including mediated literature searching, research support, and research impact analyses to the Faculty of Nursing.
    Discussion: Despite some challenges in developing and implementing the fee-based service model, our pilot project demonstrated demand for fee-based specialized services in the health sciences and suggests potential for this unique service model to continue and expand.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.497
  4. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 187-193
    Farrah K, Rabb D.
      Objective: The research sought to determine the prevalence of errata for drug trial publications that are included in systematic reviews, their potential value to reviews, and their accessibility via standard information retrieval methods.Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective review of included studies from forty systematic reviews of drugs evaluated by the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) Common Drug Review (CDR) in 2015. For each article that was included in the systematic reviews, we conducted searches for associated errata using the CDR review report, PubMed, and the journal publishers' websites. The severity of errors described in errata was evaluated using a three-category scale: trivial, minor, or major. The accessibility of errata was determined by examining inclusion in bibliographic databases, costs of obtaining errata, time lag between article and erratum publication, and correction of online articles.
    Results: The 40 systematic reviews included 127 articles in total, for which 26 errata were identified. These errata described 38 errors. When classified by severity, 6 errors were major; 20 errors were minor; and 12 errors were trivial. No one database contained all the errata. On average, errata were published 211 days after the original article (range: 15-1,036 days). All were freely available. Over one-third (9/24) of online articles were uncorrected after errata publication.
    Conclusion: Errata frequently described non-trivial errors that would either impact the interpretation of data in the article or, in fewer cases, impact the conclusions of the study. As such, it seems useful for reviewers to identify errata associated with included studies. However, publication time lag and inconsistent database indexing impair errata accessibility.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.629
  5. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 203-209
    Neilson C, Lê ML.
      Objectives: This paper describes the development, execution, and subsequent failure of an attempt to create an Ovid Embase search filter for locating systematic review methodology articles.Methods: The authors devised a work plan, based on best practices, for search filter development that has been outlined in the literature. Three reference samples were gathered by identifying the OVID Embase records for specific articles that were included in the PubMed Systematic Review Methods subset. The first sample was analyzed to develop a set of keywords and subject headings to include in the search filter. The second and third samples would have been used to calibrate the search filter and to calculate filter sensitivity and precision, respectively.
    Results: Technical shortcomings, database indexing practices, and the fuzzy nature of keyword terminology relevant to the topic prevented us from designing the search filter.
    Conclusion: Creating a search filter to identify systematic review methodology articles in Ovid Embase is not possible at this time.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.519
  6. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 137-150
    Akers KG.
      At the Medical Library Association's InSight Initiative Summit 2, held September 27-28, 2018, academic and hospital librarians joined with publishing industry partners to develop a deeper shared understanding of technology- and social interaction-driven changes in how health sciences researchers and clinicians discover and consume information in their fields. Through a mixture of keynote talks, a panel discussion with health care professionals, and small-group problem-solving exercises, the summit program invited participants to collaboratively develop strategies for helping users recognize the value of curated or peer-reviewed content obtained through institutional access channels. Themes of the summit included the existence of different user modes of information discovery and access, user reliance on professional societies and Twitter as information sources, the extent to which smartphones are used to find medical information, the importance of inducing disorienting dilemmas in library users that cause them to recognize librarians as true partners in information seeking and research, the dangers of depending on non-curated information, and the need for publishers and librarians to work together to ease barriers to access and enrich the user experience.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.669
  7. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 232-237
    Koos JA, Saragossi J, Stevens GA, Filosa S.
      Background: Public librarians are in a unique position to assist the general public with health information inquiries. However, public librarians might not have the training, detailed knowledge, and confidence to provide high-quality health information.Case Presentation: The authors created and delivered three workshops to public librarians in Suffolk County, New York, highlighting several National Library of Medicine resources. Each workshop focused on a different topic: general consumer health resources, genetics health resources, and environmental/toxicology resources. At the end of each workshop, participants were asked to complete the Training Session Evaluation form provided by the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM). All participants reported that they learned a new skill or about a new tool, that their ability to locate online health information improved, and that they planned to use the knowledge they gained in the future. Online tutorials covering the major resources from each workshop were created and made accessible to the public on several organizations' websites. Virtual reference services were initiated for public librarians who need further assistance with these resources and will continue to be provided on an ongoing basis. Financial support for the equipment and software utilized in each of these tasks was awarded by NNLM.
    Conclusions: Based on attendance and participant feedback, this model of health information outreach appears to have been successful in furthering the educational needs of public librarians and may be useful to others in creating a similar program in their communities.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.564
  8. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 251-257
    O'Hanlon R, Laynor G.
      Traditionally, health sciences libraries have supported patrons who are preparing for medical licensure examinations by collecting and making accessible board exam preparation resources, such as question banks and study guides. However, when online board exam preparation resources are not available for licensing, providing equitable access to all library users can be a challenge. In recent years, a new generation of online study resources has emerged. Sites such as SketchyMedical and Picmonic use visual learning mnemonics, while resources such as Quizlet leverage crowd-sourcing to generate study content. While some of the content from these resources is made freely available, these resources are often limited to paid individual subscribers. This new generation of study resources, thus, presents a conundrum for health sciences librarians. On the one hand, these innovative resources offer new insights into how students learn and study, reflecting pedagogical trends in self-directed learning. On the other hand, the proprietary individual subscription-based model of these resources can widen the achievement gap between students who can afford to pay subscription costs and those who cannot. This commentary provides an overview of some of the most popular medical board examination preparation resources that have emerged in recent years. The authors suggest that health sciences librarians collaborate with medical students and educators to better understand and evaluate these resources.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.619
  9. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 172-178
    Powell K.
      Objective: Several publication databases now index the associated funding agency and grant number metadata with their publication records. Librarians who are familiar with the particulars of these databases can assist investigators and administrators with data gathering for publication summaries and metrics required for renewals of and progress reports for National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants.Methods: Publication lists were pulled from three main indexers of publication-associated funding information (NIH RePORTER, PubMed, and Web of Science), using iterative search strategies. All discovered variations for the cited grant number of interest were recorded and tested. Publication lists were compared for overall coverage.
    Results: A total of 986 publications citing the single grant number of interest were returned from the given time frame: 920 were found in PubMed, 860 in NIH RePORTER, and 787 in Web of Science. Web of Science offered the highest percentage of publications that were not found in the other 2 sources (n=63). Analysis of publication funding acknowledgments uncovered 21 variations of the specific NIH award of interest that were used to report funding support.
    Conclusions: This study shows that while PubMed returns the most robust list of publications, variations in the format of reported funding support and indexing practices meant no one resource was sufficient to capture all publications that cited a given NIH project grant number. Librarians looking to help build grant-specific publication lists will need to use multiple resources and be aware of the most frequently reported grant variations to identify a comprehensive list of supported publications.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.554
  10. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 258-264
    Barr-Walker J, Sharifi C.
      The Medical Library Association recently announced its commitment to diversity and inclusion. While this is a positive start, critical librarianship takes the crucial concepts of diversity and inclusion one step further by advocating for social justice action and the dismantling of oppressive institutional structures, including white supremacy, patriarchy, and capitalism. Critical librarianship takes many forms, but, at its root, is focused on interrogating and disrupting inequitable systems, including changing racist cataloging rules, creating student-driven information literacy instruction, supporting inclusive and ethical publishing models, and rejecting the notion of libraries as neutral spaces. This article presents examples of the application of critical practice in libraries as well as ideas for applying critical librarianship to the health sciences.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.620
  11. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 222-231
    Norton HF, Ansell ME, Pomputius A, Edwards ME, Daley M, Harnett S.
      Background: While rates of new HIV diagnoses have gone down nationally, Florida's HIV-positive population is growing and remains one of the largest in the country. Given this landscape, it is clear that diverse, creative, and collaborative efforts are needed to better inform the public about HIV risks, prevention, and treatment and to encourage healthy behaviors.Case Presentation: Building on previous work, librarians at the University of Florida engaged in a yearlong project to raise awareness about HIV/AIDS risks, prevention, and treatment among university students and to improve their information-seeking behaviors related to this disease. The "Creative Campaigns" project included 3 distinct elements of activity and engagement, designed to complement one another: a graphic novel contest, a social media campaign, and training for campus health care providers. The contest yielded 4 high-quality submissions, and the month long social media campaign garnered over 50,000 views and utilized Facebook ads to extend beyond the library's typical audience. The instruction proved useful to campus counseling and wellness staff.
    Conclusions: Overall, the team considered the project a success in terms of reaching new audiences in new ways, and several of its components have been integrated into subsequent projects and regular operations. Exploring new methods of outreach through social media and creative formats required careful planning and the development of new skill sets amongst project team members but proved to be a rewarding way to generate engagement in the local community.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.588
  12. J Med Internet Res. 2019 Apr 23. 21(4): e11584
    Reen GK, Muirhead L, Langdon DW.
      BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a unique developmental period characterized by biological, social, and cognitive changes, as well as an interest in managing one's own health care. Many adolescents use the internet to seek health care information. However, young people face barriers before they can understand and apply the health information that they access on the web. It is essential that usability of adolescent health websites on the internet is improved to help adolescents overcome these barriers and allow them to engage successfully with web-based health care content.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to synthesize the usability of specific health information websites. These findings were mapped onto the adolescent neurodevelopmental profile, and a design brief based on the findings was developed to tailor future websites for specific adolescent requirements.
    METHODS: A systematic search conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) identified 25 studies that assessed the usability of health information websites. Adolescent feedback was collected by a mixture of surveys, focus groups, interviews, and think-aloud procedures.
    RESULTS: A majority of the information websites were developed for specific health issues that may be relevant to adolescents. The most preferred website features were interactive content such as games and quizzes, as well as videos, images, audio clips, and animations. Participants also preferred communicating with other adolescents with similar conditions or learning about their experience through real stories and testimonials. Adolescents found it difficult to use health information websites if they contained too much text, were too cluttered, or had features that made it difficult to access. The findings are considered in the context of adolescent social processes, low tolerance of delayed gratification, and attraction to novelty and mapped onto a neurodevelopmental model of adolescence.
    CONCLUSIONS: Young people's feedback can determine usability and content that make a health information website easy or informative to use. Neurodevelopmental profiles and the users' specific preferences and skills should be addressed in future development of health information websites for adolescents.
    Keywords:  adolescents; health communication; information seeking behavior; internet; systematic review; usability
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2196/11584
  13. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 244-250
    Vela K, Bardyn T.
      Background: HEALWA is an online library of evidence-based health information resources that are available to Washington state health practitioners. To increase awareness and use of HEALWA among health practitioners in rural areas, the National Network of Libraries of Medicine Pacific Northwest Region and Washington State University Spokane co-funded an outreach librarian position to provide instruction on using HEALWA.Case Presentation: After attempts at frequent in-person workshops failed due to lack of attendance, a one-hour-long webinar targeted at rural nurses was developed to be delivered once a month. These webinars introduced participating health professionals to HEALWA, including how to set up their access and how to navigate the resource. To accommodate the busy schedules and different learning styles of the target audience, the workshops occurred both as monthly webinars and in-person, when available, in addition to an online self-guided tutorial. Continuing education credit was obtained through the Washington State Nurses Association, and a partnership with the Washington State Nursing Commission improved promotion of the webinars. Evaluations for both the webinars and workshops have been largely positive.
    Conclusions: The webinar series, coupled with in-person workshops and an online tutorial, reached nurses in rural areas of Washington state to increase awareness of HEALWA. To further facilitate access to HEALWA instruction, a recorded version of the live webinar is in development.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.542
  14. BMC Public Health. 2019 Apr 25. 19(1): 438
    Liang H, Fung IC, Tse ZTH, Yin J, Chan CH, Pechta LE, Smith BJ, Marquez-Lameda RD, Meltzer MI, Lubell KM, Fu KW.
      BACKGROUND: Information and emotions towards public health issues could spread widely through online social networks. Although aggregate metrics on the volume of information diffusion are available, we know little about how information spreads on online social networks. Health information could be transmitted from one to many (i.e. broadcasting) or from a chain of individual to individual (i.e. viral spreading). The aim of this study is to examine the spreading pattern of Ebola information on Twitter and identify influential users regarding Ebola messages.METHODS: Our data was purchased from GNIP. We obtained all Ebola-related tweets posted globally from March 23, 2014 to May 31, 2015. We reconstructed Ebola-related retweeting paths based on Twitter content and the follower-followee relationships. Social network analysis was performed to investigate retweeting patterns. In addition to describing the diffusion structures, we classify users in the network into four categories (i.e., influential user, hidden influential user, disseminator, common user) based on following and retweeting patterns.
    RESULTS: On average, 91% of the retweets were directly retweeted from the initial message. Moreover, 47.5% of the retweeting paths of the original tweets had a depth of 1 (i.e., from the seed user to its immediate followers). These observations suggested that the broadcasting was more pervasive than viral spreading. We found that influential users and hidden influential users triggered more retweets than disseminators and common users. Disseminators and common users relied more on the viral model for spreading information beyond their immediate followers via influential and hidden influential users.
    CONCLUSIONS: Broadcasting was the dominant mechanism of information diffusion of a major health event on Twitter. It suggests that public health communicators can work beneficially with influential and hidden influential users to get the message across, because influential and hidden influential users can reach more people that are not following the public health Twitter accounts. Although both influential users and hidden influential users can trigger many retweets, recognizing and using the hidden influential users as the source of information could potentially be a cost-effective communication strategy for public health promotion. However, challenges remain due to uncertain credibility of these hidden influential users.
    Keywords:  Broadcast model; Ebola; Network analysis; Social media; Viral diffusion model
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6747-8
  15. Nucleic Acids Res. 2019 Apr 25. pii: gkz289. [Epub ahead of print]
    Allot A, Chen Q, Kim S, Vera Alvarez R, Comeau DC, Wilbur WJ, Lu Z.
      Literature search is a routine practice for scientific studies as new discoveries build on knowledge from the past. Current tools (e.g. PubMed, PubMed Central), however, generally require significant effort in query formulation and optimization (especially in searching the full-length articles) and do not allow direct retrieval of specific statements, which is key for tasks such as comparing/validating new findings with previous knowledge and performing evidence attribution in biocuration. Thus, we introduce LitSense, which is the first web-based system that specializes in sentence retrieval for biomedical literature. LitSense provides unified access to PubMed and PMC content with over a half-billion sentences in total. Given a query, LitSense returns best-matching sentences using both a traditional term-weighting approach that up-weights sentences that contain more of the rare terms in the user query as well as a novel neural embedding approach that enables the retrieval of semantically relevant results without explicit keyword match. LitSense provides a user-friendly interface that assists its users to quickly browse the returned sentences in context and/or further filter search results by section or publication date. LitSense also employs PubTator to highlight biomedical entities (e.g. gene/proteins) in the sentences for better result visualization. LitSense is freely available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/research/litsense.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkz289
  16. Cancer Control. 2019 Jan-Dec;26(1):26(1): 1073274819841609
    Gage-Bouchard EA, LaValley S, Devonish JA.
      With the rise in the use of the Internet for health-related purposes, social networking sites (SNSs) have become a prominent platform for cancer communication and information exchange. Studies of cancer communication on SNS have mostly focused on understanding the quantity, content, quality, and user engagement (eg, likes and comments) with cancer-related information on SNS. There is less of an understanding of when and why people coping with cancer turn to SNS for cancer-related information, and how users appraise the credibility of cancer-related information obtained on SNS. In this study, we use data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 40 primary caregivers of pediatric patients with cancer to examine how cancer caregivers engage in information appraisal and credibility assessment of cancer-related information obtained on SNS. Findings show that cancer caregivers turned to SNS for cancer-related information because information on SNS was immediate, targeted in response to specific caregiver questions and concerns, and tailored to the specific information needs of cancer caregivers. Cancer caregivers evaluated the credibility of cancer-related information obtained on SNS through assessment of the SNS user who posted the information, frequency the same information was shared, and external corroboration. Findings have important implications for cancer communication and information interventions and point to elements of SNS cancer communication that can be integrated into health professional-facilitated communication and cancer information strategies.
    Keywords:  Facebook; caregiving; health literacy; information appraisal; information seeking; social media
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1177/1073274819841609
  17. Yearb Med Inform. 2019 Apr 25.
    Kulikowski CA.
      BACKGROUND: The rise of biomedical expert heuristic knowledge-based approaches for computational modeling and problem solving, for scientific inquiry and medical decision-making, and for consultation in the 1970's led to a major change in the paradigm that affected all of artificial intelligence (AI) research. Since then, AI has evolved, surviving several "winters", as it has oscillated between relying on expensive and hard-to-validate knowledge-based approaches, and the alternative of using machine learning methods for inferring classification rules from labelled datasets. In the past couple of decades, we are seeing a gradual but progressive intertwining of the two.OBJECTIVES: To give an overview of early directions in AI in medicine and threads of some subsequent developments motivated by the very different goals of scientific inquiry for biomedical research, and for computational modeling of clinical reasoning and more general healthcare problem solving from the perspective of today's "AI-Deep Learning Boom". To show how, from the beginning, AI was central to Biomedical and Health Informatics (BMHI), as a field investigating how to understand intelligent thinking in dealing professionally with the practice for healthcare, developing mathematical models, technology, and software tools to aid human experts in biomedicine, despite many previous bouts of "exuberant optimism" about the methodologies deployed.
    METHODS: An overview and commentary on some of the early research and publications in AI in biomedicine, emphasizing the different approaches to the modeling of problems involved in clinical practice in contrast to those of biomedical science. A concluding reflection of a few current challenges and pitfalls of AI in some biomedical applications.
    CONCLUSION: While biomedical knowledge-based systems played a critical role in influencing AI in its early days, 50 years later they have taken a back seat behind "Deep Learning" which promises to discover knowledge structures for inference and prediction, both in science and for clinical decision-support. Early work on AI for medical consultation turned out to be more useful for explanation and teaching than for clinical practice, as had been originally intended. Today, despite the many reported successes of deep learning, fundamental scientific challenges arise in drawing on models of brain science, cognition, and language, if AI is to augment and complement rather than replace human judgment and expertise in biomedicine while also incorporating these advances for translational medicine. Understanding clinical phenotypes and how they relate to precision and personalization of care requires not only scientific inquiry, but also humanistic models of treatment that respond to patient and practitioner narrative exchanges, since it is the stories and insights of human experts which encourage what Norbert Weiner termed the ethical "human use of human beings", so central to adherence to the Hippocratic Oath.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1677895
  18. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 179-186
    Mendez IM, Pories ML, Cordova L, Malki A, Wiggins MF, Lee JGL.
      Objective: There are substantial health inequalities for seasonal agricultural workers and their families in the United States. One identified inequality is in health literacy. The authors explored the implementation and impact of connecting youth from seasonal farmworker families who participated in a leadership and college pipeline program with Internet access by providing a tablet with a paid cellular data plan and university library-based health literacy training.Methods: With the support of a National Network of Libraries of Medicine Health Information Outreach Award, we conducted a qualitative, utilization-focused evaluation by conducting semi-structured interviews from December 2017 through February 2018 with middle and high school age participants in the program (n=10). After parental consent and youth assent, we recorded interviews with participants at program activity locations or in their homes. We then utilized inductive thematic analysis with 2 primary coders.
    Results: We identified four themes: (1) having access to the Internet can be transformative, (2) access resulted in increased knowledge of and interest in one's own and others' health, (3) "Google" is the norm, and (4) participant training increased self-efficacy to determine credible sources and resources.
    Conclusion: Providing Internet access and iPads was possible to implement and resulted in increased utilization of health information. The combination of Internet access with training on information literacy was a key factor in achieving these positive outcomes. The findings suggest the importance of ensuring equitable access to the Internet in efforts to improve educational and health outcomes for seasonal farmworkers and their families.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.560
  19. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 265-269
    Novak Gustainis ER.
      The Medical Heritage Library, Inc. (MHL), is a collaborative digitization and discovery organization committed to providing open access to history of medicine and health resources. Since its founding in 2010, it has aspired to be a visible, research-driven history of medicine and health community that serves a broad, interdisciplinary constituency. The MHL's goal is to make important historical medical content, derived from leading medical libraries, available online free of charge and to simplify and centralize the discovery of these resources. To do so, it has evolved from a digitization collaborative of like-minded history of medicine libraries, special collections, and archives to an incorporated entity seeking not just to provide online access to digital surrogates, but also to embrace the challenges of open access, the retention and use of records containing health information about individuals, and service to the digital humanities. This organizational expansion was further spurred by the MHL's recently completed National Endowment for the Humanities grant, "Medicine at Ground Level: State Medical Societies, State Medical Journals, and the Development of American Medicine" (PW-228226-15), which received additional financial support from Harvard Medical School and the Arcadia Fund through the Harvard University Library.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.651
  20. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 194-202
    Ajuwon GA, Ajuwon AJ.
      Objective: This project evaluated the outcomes of training high school students to deliver consumer health information to their peers.Methods: A total of 120 students selected from 7 high schools in Oyo state, Nigeria, received 8 hours of training on consumer health literacy and peer education, which is a process of training volunteers to deliver health information to their peers. The training included hands-on activities using the students' own mobile phones. After the training, peer educators distributed leaflets, showed consumer health information (CHI) websites to others, counseled and referred fellow students, and submitted forms describing these activities. All peer educators completed pre- and post-tests, and 10 were interviewed 4 months after training.
    Results: After the training, the authors found improvement in the trainees' knowledge of CHI resources and understanding of their roles as peer educators. Most peer educators (72.5%) delivered CHI to their peers after the training, primarily through sharing websites on teen health and other CHI resources. In the interviews, all peer educators reported direct benefits from participating in the project, and many stated that they knew where to find reliable health information.
    Conclusion: Volunteer high school students can be trained to deliver CHI to their peers using mobile phones.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.536
  21. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 163-171
    Carroll AJ, Hallman SJ, Umstead KA, McCall J, DiMeo AJ.
      Objective: Entrepreneurship and innovative product design in health care requires expertise in finding and evaluating diverse types of information from a multitude of sources to accomplish a number of tasks, such as securing regulatory approval, developing a reimbursement strategy, and navigating intellectual property. The authors sought to determine whether an intensive, specialized information literacy training program that introduced undergraduate biomedical engineering students to these concepts would improve the quality of the students' design projects. We also sought to test whether information literacy training that included active learning exercises would offer increased benefits over training delivered via lectures and if this specialized information literacy training would increase the extent of students' information use.Methods: A three-arm cohort study was conducted with a control group and two experimental groups. Mixed methods assessment, including a rubric and citation analysis, was used to evaluate program outcomes by examining authentic artifacts of student learning.
    Results: Student design teams that received information literacy training on topics related to medical entrepreneurship and health care economics showed significantly improved performance on aspects of project performance relevant to health care economics over student design teams that did not receive this training. There were no significant differences between teams that engaged in active learning exercises and those that only received training via lectures. Also, there were no significant differences in citation patterns between student teams that did or did not receive specialized information literacy training.
    Conclusions: Information literacy training can be used as a method for introducing undergraduate health sciences students to the health care economics aspects of the medical entrepreneurship life cycle, including the US Food and Drug Administration regulatory environment, intellectual property, and medical billing and reimbursement structures.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.577
  22. Arch Dermatol Res. 2019 Apr 25.
    Kardeş S.
      Some researches with different designs investigated the seasonal pattern of psoriasis; however, the seasonal variation in public interest in psoriasis has not yet been examined. The monitoring of internet search activity has increasingly been used to gain insights into public interest in health-related topics. The aim of the investigation is to employ the Google Trends datasets to evaluate whether a seasonal trend exists in the internet searches of psoriasis by the general public. In the observational investigation, the Google Trends was queried for the [psoriasis] in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand between January 2004 and December 2018. The cosinor analysis demonstrated a statistically significant seasonal pattern of searches for [psoriasis] in the United Kingdom (p < 0.001), Canada (p = 0.002), Ireland (p < 0.001), Australia (p < 0.001), and New Zealand (p < 0.001), and a trend towards a seasonal variation in searches in the United States (p = 0.079), with the zenith in late winter/early spring and through in late summer/early fall. A zenith in late winter/early spring and valley in late summer/early fall presented an approximately 6-month difference between hemispheres. Public interest in seeking psoriasis information through internet searches displayed a seasonal pattern, with the highest interest in the late winter/early spring. If a more comprehensive study validated the association of psoriasis flares with patterns in online searches, beyond investigating only seasonality in public interest, the internet data could be used to guide public health interventions and to manage the care of patients with psoriasis.
    Keywords:  Environmental factors; Google Trends; Psoriasis; Season; Seasonality; Skin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00403-019-01921-0
  23. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 289-290
      [This corrects the article on p. 49 in vol. 104.].
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.664
  24. J Med Libr Assoc. 2019 Apr;107(2): 125-128
    Akers KG.
      The Journal of the Medical Library Association (JMLA) sincerely thanks the 210 peer reviewers in 2018.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.658