bims-librar Biomed news
on Biomedical librarianship
Issue of 2019‒02‒10
twenty-two papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. J Med Internet Res. 2019 Feb 08. 21(2): e11129
    Keselman A, Arnott Smith C, Murcko AC, Kaufman DR.
      BACKGROUND: Critical evaluation of online health information has always been central to consumer health informatics. However, with the emergence of new Web media platforms and the ubiquity of social media, the issue has taken on a new dimension and urgency. At the same time, many established existing information quality evaluation guidelines address information characteristics other than the content (eg, authority and currency), target information creators rather than users as their main audience, or do not address information presented via novel Web technologies.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this formative study was to (1) develop a methodological approach for analyzing health-related Web pages and (2) apply it to a set of relevant Web pages.
    METHODS: This qualitative study analyzed 25 type 2 diabetes pages, which were derived from the results of a Google search with the keywords "diabetes," "reversal," and "natural." The coding scheme, developed via a combination of theory- and data-driven approaches, includes 5 categories from existing guidelines (resource type, information authority, validity of background information sources, objectivity, and currency) and 7 novel categories (treatment or reversal method, promises and certainty, criticisms of establishment, emotional appeal, vocabulary, rhetoric and presentation, and use of science in argumentation). The coding involves both categorical judgment and in-depth narrative characterization. On establishing satisfactory level of agreement on the narrative coding, the team coded the complete dataset of 25 pages.
    RESULTS: The results set included "traditional" static pages, videos, and digitized versions of printed newspapers or magazine articles. Treatments proposed by the pages included a mixture of conventional evidence-based treatments (eg, healthy balanced diet exercise) and unconventional treatments (eg, dietary supplements, optimizing gut flora). Most pages either promised or strongly implied high likelihood of complete recovery. Pages varied greatly with respect to the authors' stated background and credentials as well as the information sources they referenced or mentioned. The majority included criticisms of the traditional health care establishment. Many sold commercial products ranging from dietary supplements to books. The pages frequently used colloquial language. A significant number included emotional personal anecdotes, made positive mentions of the word cure, and included references to nature as a positive healing force. Most pages presented some biological explanations of their proposed treatments. Some of the explanations involved the level of complexity well beyond the level of an educated layperson.
    CONCLUSIONS: Both traditional and data-driven categories of codes used in this work yielded insights about the resources and highlighted challenges faced by their users. This exploratory study underscores the challenges of consumer health information seeking and the importance of developing support tools that would help users seek, evaluate, and analyze information in the changing digital ecosystem.
    Keywords:  consumer health information; eHealth; eHealth literacy; health literacy; information evaluation; information literacy; information quality; type 2 diabetes mellitus
  2. Med Ref Serv Q. 2018 Oct-Dec;37(4):37(4): 331-340
    Fitterling L, Garber D, Palazzolo E.
      With the inclusion of medical informatics and information literacy skills in required core competencies, medical librarians are teaching courses in medical informatics and information literacy that require formal assessment. Librarians from three osteopathic universities surveyed osteopathic medical libraries to find out how many librarians are teaching formalized courses in the curriculum, how many librarians are writing formal medical test questions on medical informatics and/or information literacy topics, and whether there is any interest in creating a shared question bank of medical library test questions.
    Keywords:  Collaboration; curriculum; information literacy; librarians; medical informatics; test question bank
  3. J Med Internet Res. 2019 Feb 06. 21(2): e12400
    Marcu A, Muller C, Ream E, Whitaker KL.
      BACKGROUND: People engage in health information-seeking online when experiencing unusual or unfamiliar bodily changes. It is not well understood how people consult the internet for health information after the onset of unfamiliar symptoms and before receiving a potential diagnosis and how online information-seeking can help people appraise their symptoms. This lack of evidence may be partly due to methodological limitations in capturing in real time the online information-seeking process.OBJECTIVE: We explored women's symptom attribution and online health information-seeking in response to a hypothetical and unfamiliar breast change suggestive of cancer (nipple rash). We also aimed to establish the feasibility of capturing in real time the online information-seeking process with a tool designed to track participant online searches and visited websites, the Vizzata browser tracker.
    METHODS: An online survey was completed by 56 cancer-free women (mean age 60.34 [SD 7.73] years) responding to a scenario asking them to imagine noticing a red scaly rash on the nipple. Participants were asked to make symptom attributions when presented with the scenario (T1) and again after seeking information online (T2). The online tracking tool, embedded in the survey, was used to capture in real time participant search terms and accessed websites.
    RESULTS: The tracking tool captured the search terms and accessed websites of most of the participants (46/56, 82%). For the rest (10/56, 18%), there was evidence of engagement in online information-seeking (eg, medical terminology and cancer attribution at T2) despite their searching activity not being recorded. A total of 25 participants considered cancer as a potential cause for the nipple rash at T1, yet only one of these used cancer as a search term. Most participants (40/46, 87%) used rash-related search terms, particularly nipple rash and rash on nipple. The majority (41/46, 89%) accessed websites containing breast cancer information, with the National Health Service webpage "Paget disease of the nipple" being the most visited one. At T2, after engaging in the internet search task, more participants attributed the nipple rash to breast cancer than at T1 (37/46, 66% vs 25/46, 45%), although a small number of participants (6/46) changed from making a cancer attribution at T1 to a noncancer one at T2.
    CONCLUSIONS: Making a cancer attribution for an unfamiliar breast change did not necessarily translate into cancer-termed searches. Equally, not all internet searches led to a cancer attribution. The findings suggest that online information-seeking may not necessarily help women who experience unfamiliar breast cancer symptoms understand their condition. Despite some technical issues, this study showed that it is feasible to use an online browser tracking tool to capture in real time information-seeking about unfamiliar symptoms.
    Keywords:  breast cancer; health information; internet search; online information seeking
  4. J Clin Epidemiol. 2019 Feb 04. pii: S0895-4356(18)30641-3. [Epub ahead of print]
    Haynes RB, Budhram D, Cherian J, Iserman E, Iorio A, Lokker C.
      OBJECTIVES: To determine reliability and validity of McMaster PLUS measures of scientific merit and clinical importance of articles in medical journals.STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytic survey of peer-reviewed medical journals. Articles qualified for inclusion by meeting: 1) scientific criteria and 2) a clinical importance rating threshold. Included articles were sent as e-mail alerts to physicians according to their clinical interests. Internal measures included the number of high-quality, clinically important studies published in source journals and response to alerts. For external validation, we correlated internal measures with the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) and citation in DynaMed Plus (DMPC).
    RESULTS: We evaluated 34,232 articles from 57 journals. Inclusion criteria were met by 2638 articles (7.71%). The number of qualifying articles per journal was correlated with the number of articles with high clinical importance ratings (r 0.96, p<0.001), article alert clicks (r 0.86, p<0.001), and DMPC (r 0.99, p< 0.001). Correlation was lower with the JIF (r 0.68, p<0.01).
    CONCLUSIONS: Measures of scientific merit and clinical importance of medical journal articles were strongly correlated with each other, less so with journal impact factors. Journals varied widely by these measures but, generally, few articles were both scientifically sound and clinically important.
    Keywords:  DynaMed plus; Information retrieval; Journal Impact Factor; McMaster PLUS Database; journalology; knowledge translation
  5. Med Ref Serv Q. 2018 Oct-Dec;37(4):37(4): 403-412
    Taylor MV, Stephenson PL.
      Librarians in the federal sector, like librarians in other medical center libraries, increasingly find it necessary to prove their worth to administrators of their facilities in order to keep their libraries open. The Federal Libraries Section of the Medical Library Association developed a survey for use by federal librarians to help them quantify the value of library reference services provided. Using this survey, these librarians gathered statistics to show the library's effect on patient care, education, and administrative questions.
    Keywords:  Federal libraries; hospital libraries; information services; outcome assessment; value
  6. BMC Bioinformatics. 2019 Feb 04. 19(Suppl 13): 57
    Simon C, Davidsen K, Hansen C, Seymour E, Barnkob MB, Olsen LR.
      BACKGROUND: Scientific data and research results are being published at an unprecedented rate. Many database curators and researchers utilize data and information from the primary literature to populate databases, form hypotheses, or as the basis for analyses or validation of results. These efforts largely rely on manual literature surveys for collection of these data, and while querying the vast amounts of literature using keywords is enabled by repositories such as PubMed, filtering relevant articles from such query results can be a non-trivial and highly time consuming task.RESULTS: We here present a tool that enables users to perform classification of scientific literature by text mining-based classification of article abstracts. BioReader (Biomedical Research Article Distiller) is trained by uploading article corpora for two training categories - e.g. one positive and one negative for content of interest - as well as one corpus of abstracts to be classified and/or a search string to query PubMed for articles. The corpora are submitted as lists of PubMed IDs and the abstracts are automatically downloaded from PubMed, preprocessed, and the unclassified corpus is classified using the best performing classification algorithm out of ten implemented algorithms.
    CONCLUSION: BioReader supports data and information collection by implementing text mining-based classification of primary biomedical literature in a web interface, thus enabling curators and researchers to take advantage of the vast amounts of data and information in the published literature. BioReader outperforms existing tools with similar functionalities and expands the features used for mining literature in database curation efforts. The tool is freely available as a web service at
    Keywords:  Biological databases; Database curation; Document classification; Literature survey; Machine learning; PubMed; Text mining
  7. Med Ref Serv Q. 2018 Oct-Dec;37(4):37(4): 375-385
    Rand D, Stager L.
      Library staff at the Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell implemented a digital repository to collect and showcase the scholarly output of the medical school and the Northwell Health system. This repository, entitled Zucker School of Medicine Academic Works, promotes scholarship by faculty, trainees, and staff via a centralized public website. With links to the full text and faculty profiles, the repository facilitates access and discoverability in alignment with the value of scholarship at the institution. Subsequent implementation of a research information management system to harvest publications further enhances the goals of tracking, promoting, and reporting impact of the scholarly activities. This article reviews successes and challenges, and collaboration with other stakeholder departments.
    Keywords:  RIMS; Symplectic Elements; bepress Digital Commons; digital repositories; faculty publications; health sciences librarians; institutional repositories; research information management system; role of librarians
  8. Med Ref Serv Q. 2018 Oct-Dec;37(4):37(4): 386-396
    Freundlich S, Hupe M.
      This column discusses the point-of-care tool Clinical Pharmacology. This review is primarily intended for newer health sciences librarians who are learning about drug references and clinical decision-making support systems or health sciences librarians making collection development decisions, although any librarian will find this review useful. A sample search will be provided to highlight the database's unique features as well as a comparison to other resources.
    Keywords:  Clinical Pharmacology; online databases; pharmaceutical drugs; point-of-care systems; predictive auto-suggest; product evaluation
  9. Health Info Libr J. 2019 Feb 08.
    Ren C, Deng Z, Hong Z, Zhang W.
      OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to explore the determinants of the online health information seeking (OHIS) and usage (OHIU) behaviours of consumers based on the perceived benefits and costs of such activities.METHODS: This study applies questionnaires and empirical research methods. A questionnaire is designed according to the hypothesis model. A total of 282 questionnaires are obtained from patients and their accompanying families in two large hospitals, and the SPSS 17.0 and AMOS 17.0 (IBM, Almond, NY, USA) software are used to analyse the sample data and to test the research models.
    RESULTS: Three key findings are obtained from the analysis. Firstly, functional, learning, social and personal integrative benefits positively affect the OHIS intent of consumers. Secondly, cognitive costs negatively influence the OHIU behaviour of consumers. Thirdly, personal integrative benefits and OHIS behaviour significantly influence the OHIU behaviour of consumers.
    CONCLUSION: This paper highlights the differences between OHIS and OHIU based on their impact factors and applies social exchange theory to understand such factors. Online health information providers must improve the ease of use of their websites or applications, enhance the quality of their health information and focus on their functionality.
    Keywords:  China; computer literacy; health literacy; information seeking behaviour
  10. Med Ref Serv Q. 2018 Oct-Dec;37(4):37(4): 341-356
    Patterson B, Casucci T, Hull BE, Lombardo NT.
      Academic health sciences libraries have an important role in facilitating the use of technology in health sciences curricula. Serving as a technology hub, the library supports, advocates, and provides access to new technologies. The library introduces many faculty and students to new technology tools, techniques, and equipment for new multimedia creation. As the technology hub grows and expands, library personnel can provide expertise, which demonstrates the library's value in leading the exploration of new technology, including Do-It-Yourself multimedia tools, virtual reality, virtual anatomy, and 3D printing.
    Keywords:  Academic health sciences libraries; anatomy; curriculum support; makerspace; multimedia; technology expertise; virtual reality
  11. Psychiatry Res. 2019 Jan 29. pii: S0165-1781(19)30209-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    DeLisi LE.
      Authors often are frustrated by responses they receive from editors when their manuscripts are rejected and do not understand from an editor's view what is needed to successfully publish their work. Editors receive sometimes several manuscripts a day and have to develop methods to screen out the ones that are likely not to pass the review process. They also want papers to be able to be written in such a way that it is clear why the studies of which they report are important and novel and worth publishing. Thus, advice is given in the following article that begins with how to choose an appropriate journal, to the surprising importance of a title and ends with how one should conclude the manuscript.
    Keywords:  Editing; Manuscript; Publishing
  12. Ann Plast Surg. 2019 Feb 05.
    Johnson AR, Bravo MG, Granoff MD, Lee BT.
      BACKGROUND: Hispanics are the second largest demographic that underwent cosmetic surgery in 2017. The popularity of cosmetic surgeries among this group has increased significantly within the past decade and is projected to continue rising. Patient-directed websites that provide educational materials addressing these procedures should include information that is accurate, comprehensible, and sensitive to the demographic's diverse cultural and ethnic needs. Online health resources have been shown to vary significantly in their quality and reliability. This can be inimical for patients, as misinformation has been associated with poor health outcomes. The aim of this study is to evaluate online Spanish patient-directed materials for the top 5 cosmetic surgeries performed in 2017 using validated metrics.METHODS: The top 5 cosmetic surgeries performed in 2017 according to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons were identified, and a Google search was performed using the following terms: "breast augmentation," "liposuction," "rhinoplasty," "blepharoplasty," and "abdominoplasty." The top 10 websites providing relevant information in Spanish were identified for each procedure. Fifty unique web links were analyzed by 2 independent bilingual raters using the Cultural Sensitivity Assessment Tool, and mean reading grade level was determined. Interrater reliability was computed using a Cohen κ.
    RESULTS: Online information in Spanish was difficult to encounter, with an average of 130 websites evaluated to identify 10 websites for each surgery. The mean reading grade level of all evaluated pages was 10.19, appropriate for a high school sophomore. There were no statistically significant differences between cosmetic surgery procedures (P = 0.69). The mean cultural sensitivity score was 2.20 (2.08-2.38). No subgroup met the threshold score for acceptable cultural sensitivity of >2.5.
    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that US websites do not offer appropriate-level Spanish materials for patients seeking information on cosmetic surgeries. Websites providing information in Spanish were often inaccurate automatic translations and further compromised reader understanding. In our search, we frequently encountered organizational statements expressing a commitment to diversity. Increased awareness and development of more culturally appropriate materials is paramount to effectively communicate with patients and begin to close the gap in cultural disparities in health literacy.
  13. Cancers (Basel). 2019 Feb 03. pii: E178. [Epub ahead of print]11(2):
    Hana T, Tanaka S, Nejo T, Takahashi S, Kitagawa Y, Koike T, Nomura M, Takayanagi S, Saito N.
      In conducting medical research, a system which can objectively predict the future trends of the given research field is awaited. This study aims to establish a novel and versatile algorithm that predicts the latest trends in neuro-oncology. Seventy-nine neuro-oncological research fields were selected with computational sorting methods such as text-mining analyses. Thirty journals that represent the recent trends in neuro-oncology were also selected. As a novel concept, the annual impact (AI) of each year was calculated for each journal and field (number of articles published in the journal × impact factor of the journal). The AI index (AII) for the year was defined as the sum of the AIs of the 30 journals. The AII trends of the 79 fields from 2008 to 2017 were subjected to machine learning predicting analyses. The accuracy of the predictions was validated using actual past data. With this algorithm, the latest trends in neuro-oncology were predicted. As a result, the linear prediction model achieved relatively good accuracy. The predicted hottest fields in recent neuro-oncology included some interesting emerging fields such as microenvironment and anti-mitosis. This algorithm may be an effective and versatile tool for prediction of future trends in a particular medical field.
    Keywords:  impact factor; machine learning; neuro-oncology; regression analysis; text-mining; trend prediction
  14. Recenti Prog Med. 2019 Jan;110(1): 11-17
    Milano G.
      The New York Times recently celebrated the 40th anniversary of its historic "Science section" with a special issue. An opportunity to reflect on the state of the art of scientific journalism. After having seen the inserts dedicated to science flourish in the '70s and '80s, in recent times the major Italian weekly and several newspapers have decided - with rare exceptions - to eliminate them. Most health inserts remain. How can we explain the reason for this trend? Science continues to permeate our culture, from cinema, to books, to advertising, to television. And there are numerous masters and university courses in Italy that prepare young graduates for science communication. Yet, paradoxically, in the newsrooms the presence of scientific journalists has been gradually reduced to nothing, and quite often those who write about science are "generalist" journalists. Fault of the crisis that publishers live and of the entry into the mass information circuit of internet? Certainly the interaction between the protagonists of scientific information (public, journalists, researchers) has become more and more complex and problematic. Since the '80s the boundary between academic institutions and business has gradually faded, coinciding with the birth of the so-called entrepreneurial science. Scientific research becomes instrumental to the pursuit of personal and commercial goals, and the conflict of interests more pervasive: because the dividing line between science and business is increasingly blurred. The anxiety to communicate on the part of scientists, to make public what research is discovering, is pressing and an integral part of their "work". There are scientists whose career is integrated with the media system. Stories of unbridled competition (just think of the war between France/USA to grab the royalties of the blood test for AIDS) and stories of fraud (in the last ten years the number of articles retracted by scientific journals has increased tenfold compared to the previous ten years and fraud covers 60 percent of these retractions) have come to have a corrosive effect on the untouchable image of science. Making good scientific journalism, which takes into account the context in which research is moving today, requires awareness (going deep into the issues to be addressed) and ethical rigor. This applies to all modes of expression, from print media to online communication. And should be a must not only for "science writers", but for all those who produce information.
  15. Bioinformatics. 2019 Jan 31.
    Comeau DC, Wei CH, Islamaj Dogan R, Lu Z.
      Summary: Interest in text mining full text biomedical research articles is growing. To facilitate automated processing of nearly 3 million full-text articles (in PMC Open Access and Author Manuscript subsets) and to improve interoperability, we convert these articles to BioC, a community-driven simple data structure in either XML or JSON format for conveniently sharing text and annotations.Results: The resultant articles can be downloaded via both ftp for bulk access and a Web API for updates or a more focused collection. Since the availability of the Web API in 2017, our BioC collection has been widely used by the research community.
  16. Health Info Libr J. 2019 Feb 08.
    Glanville J, Dooley G, Wisniewski S, Foxlee R, Noel-Storr A.
      BACKGROUND: Evidence synthesis reviews in health care rely on the efficient identification of research evidence, particularly evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). There are no recently validated filters to identify RCTs in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL Plus).OBJECTIVES: To develop, test and validate a search filter to identify reports of RCTs from CINAHL Plus.
    METHODS: Nine sets of relevant and irrelevant records were identified to develop and test search filters iteratively. Two sets were used to validate the sensitivity and precision of the filters. The performance of two previously published filters and the filter built into EBSCOhost was evaluated.
    RESULTS: We present a validated filter which offers sensitivity of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.77-0.95) and precision of 0.36 (95% CI: 0.31-0.41). This is comparable to the sensitivity of published filters, but has much better precision.
    CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive and precise filter, developed using records selected based on title and abstract information, is available for identifying reports of RCTs in the CINAHL Plus database via EBSCOhost. Using this filter is likely to reduce the number of results needing to be screened to a quarter of those retrieved by other published filters.
    Keywords:   CINAHL ; database searching; precision; randomised controlled trials (RCT); recall; search strategies
  17. Med Ref Serv Q. 2018 Oct-Dec;37(4):37(4): 357-366
    Abromitis RA.
      Predoctoral students enter dental school with varying skill levels for searching biomedical databases and a tendency to overestimate their abilities. Accordingly, PubMed instruction is embedded within a required dental course and includes a graded component. This article describes a pretest/intervention/posttest developed for the PubMed session. The expectation for this new assessment was that motivation to learn PubMed would increase during the intervention if pretesting objectively showed students the difference between their self-perceived versus actual PubMed abilities. The goals were to help students better self-assess their genuine searching abilities, spark learning during the instruction session, and elicit measurable improvement in skills.
    Keywords:  Dental education; PubMed; dental students; liaison librarians; library instruction; posttesting; pretesting
  18. J Arthroplasty. 2019 Jan 14. pii: S0883-5403(19)30043-9. [Epub ahead of print]
    Checketts JX, Riddle J, Zaaza Z, Boose MA, Whitener JH, Vassar MB.
      BACKGROUND: Spin is a specific type of reporting bias that misrepresents data and results within randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Because spin may provide a surgeon with an inaccurate representation of trial results, thus misconstruing the surgeons' interpretation thereof and possibly negatively affecting patient care, it is important that spin is identified within publications. The primary goal of our study was to determine the prevalence of spin found within the abstracts of lower extremity joint trials.METHODS: Using Google Scholar's H-5 index, we selected the top 20 journals in the orthopedic surgery category. We then conducted a PubMed search on July 2nd, 2018 using the advanced search feature, encompassing all RCTs published in these journals from January 1, 2016 to January 1, 2017. Spin was evaluated using a standardized protocol, using a previously published protocol on the Open Science Network.
    RESULTS: Our final sample consisted of 46 trials published in 9 of the top 20 orthopedic surgery journals. Spin was found in 27 (58.7%) of the 46 abstracts. Evidence of spin in the abstract results was found in 19 (41.3%) of the 46 articles, and spin in abstract conclusions was found in 15 (32.6%) of the 46 articles.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that a significant number of lower extremity joint RCTs contain one or more form of spin in either their abstract results, conclusions, or both. In addition, our investigation revealed that a sizable portion of these lower extremity orthopedic joint RCTs are not registered or do not report their registration, and funding sources are also underreported.
    Keywords:  arthroplasty; joint trials; publication bias; reporting bias; spin
  19. Nicotine Tob Res. 2019 Jan 26.
    Alcalá HE, Shimoga SV.
      Introduction: Recent research has highlighted disparities in people who perceive as trustworthy sources of e-cigarette health information. Research has yet to examine if trusting a particular source of information is associated with use of e-cigarettes or perceptions of e-cigarette harm. We use a nationally representative survey of American adults to address these gaps in knowledge.Methods: This study used data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (N = 3738). Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds of ever using e-cigarettes and perceived health harm of e-cigarettes. Trust in seven different sources of e-cigarette health information served as the independent variables. Models accounted for confounders.
    Results: Trusting religious organizations "a lot" as sources of e-cigarette health information was associated with lower odds of ever using e-cigarettes and with lower odds of perceiving e-cigarettes as less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Trusting e-cigarette companies "a lot" as sources of e-cigarette health information was associated with lower odds of viewing e-cigarettes as harmful to health.
    Conclusion: Trusting health information about e-cigarettes from sources in the medical or public health field was not associated with lower use of e-cigarettes or viewing e-cigarettes as more harmful. Trusting health information from e-cigarette companies yielded perceptions of e-cigarette harm that are consistent with messaging provided by these companies.
    Implications: As use of e-cigarettes continues to climb, leveraging different modes of health communication will be critical to both discourage e-cigarette use among never-smokers and, potentially, to encourage use of e-cigarettes as an option to achieve smoking cessation or reduce the harm of tobacco products. Our findings suggest that religious organizations may be helpful in communicating anti-e-cigarette messages.
  20. Spinal Cord. 2019 Feb 05.
    Dijkers MP.
      STUDY DESIGN: A narrative review of principles, benefits and disadvantages, as well as methods of research data sharing.OBJECTIVES: To assist prospective Spinal Cord authors and others with understanding and implementing data sharing, so that various benefits of such sharing can accrue to all spinal cord injury research stakeholders.
    SETTING: International.
    METHODS: The medical research and health care services literature was reviewed nonsystematically for relevant articles, and web sites were explored for information and services offered by various pertinent organizations.
    RESULTS: Grant makers, professional organizations, research journals, publishers, and other entities in the research field increasingly stress the ethics as well as societal and practical benefits of data sharing, and require researchers to do so within a reasonable time after data collection ends. Sharing data, retrospectively, generally requires much time and resources, but when a data management plan is part of a research proposal from the start, costs are limited, and grant makers allow these costs to be part of a budget. There are many organizations that offer information on or even assist with preparing data for sharing and actual deposit in a data repository.
    CONCLUSIONS: The requirement of data sharing is not likely to go away, and researchers interested in submitting their reports to Spinal Cord would do well to familiarize themselves with the myriad practical issues involved in preparing data for sharing.
  21. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2019 Feb;pii: S0889-5406(18)31005-9. [Epub ahead of print]155(2): 299-301
    Littlewood A, Kloukos D.
  22. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Feb 05. 116(6): 1857-1864
    Börner K, Bueckle A, Ginda M.
      In the information age, the ability to read and construct data visualizations becomes as important as the ability to read and write text. However, while standard definitions and theoretical frameworks to teach and assess textual, mathematical, and visual literacy exist, current data visualization literacy (DVL) definitions and frameworks are not comprehensive enough to guide the design of DVL teaching and assessment. This paper introduces a data visualization literacy framework (DVL-FW) that was specifically developed to define, teach, and assess DVL. The holistic DVL-FW promotes both the reading and construction of data visualizations, a pairing analogous to that of both reading and writing in textual literacy and understanding and applying in mathematical literacy. Specifically, the DVL-FW defines a hierarchical typology of core concepts and details the process steps that are required to extract insights from data. Advancing the state of the art, the DVL-FW interlinks theoretical and procedural knowledge and showcases how both can be combined to design curricula and assessment measures for DVL. Earlier versions of the DVL-FW have been used to teach DVL to more than 8,500 residential and online students, and results from this effort have helped revise and validate the DVL-FW presented here.
    Keywords:  assessment; data visualization; information visualization; learning sciences; literacy