bims-istrec Biomed News
on Integrated stress response in cancer
Issue of 2021‒11‒14
five papers selected by
Vincenzo Ciminale’s Lab
Istituto Oncologico Veneto

  1. Apoptosis. 2021 Nov 12.
      We have previously examined the in vitro and in vivo antitumor action of TAP7f, a synthetic triazolylpeptidyl penicillin, on murine melanoma cells. In this work, we explored the signal transduction pathways modulated by TAP7f in murine B16-F0 and human A375 melanoma cells, and the contribution of some intracellular signals to the apoptotic cell death. TAP7f decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased phospho-p38, phospho-JNK and phospho-Akt levels. ERK1/2 blockage suppressed cell growth, while inhibition of p38, JNK and PI3K-I pathways reduced the antitumor effect of TAP7f. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 and JNK, or blockage of PI3K-I/Akt cascade with a dominant negative PI3K-I mutant diminished Bax expression levels and PARP-1 cleavage, indicating the involvement of these pathways in apoptosis. PI3K-I/Akt inhibition also favored an autophagic response, as evidenced by the higher expression levels of Beclin-1 and LC3-II detected in transfected cells exposed to TAP7f. However, although PI3K-I/Akt blockage promoted an autophagic survival response, this mechanism appears not to be critical for TAP7f antitumor action. It was also shown that TAP7f induced ER stress by enhancing the expression of ER stress-related genes and proteins. Downregulation of CHOP protein with specific siRNA increased cell growth and decreased cleavage of PARP-1, supporting its role in apoptosis. Furthermore, it was found that activation of p38, JNK and Akt occurred downstream ER perturbation. In summary, our results showed that TAP7f triggers an apoptotic cell death in melanoma cells through induction of ER stress and activation of p38, JNK and PI3K-I/Akt pathways.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Cell signalling; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Melanoma cells; Triazolylpeptidyl penicillin
  2. Front Oncol. 2021 ;11 770843
      As a central cellular program to sense and transduce stress signals, the integrated stress response (ISR) pathway has been implicated in cancer initiation and progression. Depending on the genetic mutation landscape, cellular context, and differentiation states, there are emerging pieces of evidence showing that blockage of the ISR can selectively and effectively shift the balance of cancer cells toward apoptosis, rendering the ISR a promising target in cancer therapy. Going beyond its pro-survival functions, the ISR can also influence metastasis, especially via proteostasis-independent mechanisms. In particular, ISR can modulate metastasis via transcriptional reprogramming, in the help of essential transcription factors. In this review, we summarized the current understandings of ISR in cancer metastasis from the perspective of transcriptional regulation.
    Keywords:  EMT; cancer; integrated stress response (ISR); metastasis; transcription
  3. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Oct 26. pii: 11511. [Epub ahead of print]22(21):
      Deregulated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling commonly exists in glioblastoma, making this axis an attractive target for therapeutic manipulation. Given that activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR promotes tumour growth, metastasis, and resistance to anticancer therapies, mTOR inhibitors show promise in the treatment of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanism of novel dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, Apitolisib (GDC-0980), in A-172 and U-118-MG GBM tumour cell line suppression. It has been demonstrated that GDC-0980 induces time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity and apoptosis in investigated glioma cell lines. In our study, the strongest induction of apoptosis was exhibited in the A-172 line after 48 h of incubation with 20 µM GDC-0980, where we observed 46.47% of apoptotic cells. In conclusion, we first discovered that dual PI3K/mTOR blockade by GDC-0980 markedly suppressed survival of human GBM cells and induced apoptosis, independent of the ER stress-mediated DR5 activation. We suggest that GDC-0980, by exerting an inhibitory effect on PERK expression, may thus block its inhibitory effect on protein synthesis, leading to intensification of translation, and this may result in an increase in apoptosis. On the other hand, CHOP stimulates protein synthesis and increases apoptosis. These findings suggest that GDC-0980 may be a candidate for further evaluation as a chemotherapeutic agent for anti-GBM therapy.
    Keywords:  GDC-0980; apitolisib; apoptosis; dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor; glioblastoma
  4. Chem Sci. 2020 Apr 07. 11(13): 3405-3417
      Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered a pioneering and effective modality for cancer treatment, but it is still facing challenges of hypoxic tumors. Recently, Type I PDT, as an effective strategy to address this issue, has drawn considerable attention. Few reports are available on the capability for Type I reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of purely organic photosensitizers (PSs). Herein, we report two new Type I PSs, α-TPA-PIO and β-TPA-PIO, from phosphindole oxide-based isomers with efficient Type I ROS generation abilities. A detailed study on photophysical and photochemical mechanisms is conducted to shed light on the molecular design of PSs based on the Type I mechanism. The in vitro results demonstrate that these two PSs can selectively accumulate in a neutral lipid region, particularly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), of cells and efficiently induce ER-stress mediated apoptosis and autophagy in PDT. In vivo models indicate that β-TPA-PIO successfully achieves remarkable tumor ablation. The ROS-based ER stress triggered by β-TPA-PIO-mediated PDT has high potential as a precursor of the immunostimulatory effect for immunotherapy. This work presents a comprehensive protocol for Type I-based purely organic PSs and highlights the significance of considering the working mechanism in the design of PSs for the optimization of cancer treatment protocols.
  5. J Cell Mol Med. 2021 Nov 07.
      Reticulocalbin1 (RCN1) is implicated in tumorigenesis and tumour progression. However, whether RCN1-mediated bone metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells was elusive. Here, we assessed the effect of osteoblast-conditioned medium (CM) on proliferation and migration of NSCLC cell line, NCI-H1299 and NCI-H460 cells, and identified the soluble mediators in CMs from osteoblasts and NSCLC cells using MTT, Clonogenicity, Transwell, wound healing, RT-PCR, and Western blotting assays, and LC-MS/MS analysis, respectively. Furthermore, the role of RCN1 was investigated in NSCLC cells cultured with or without osteoblast-CM. Tumour growth and bone resorption were measured in a nude mouse model bearing NCI-H1299 cells transduced with shRNA/RCN1 vector using in vivo imaging technique and micro-CT. The results showed that RCN1 with a higher abundance in osteoblast-CM, which was present in extracellular vesicles (EVs), enhanced RCN1 expression in NSCLC cells. Osteoblast-CM partially offset the inhibitory effect of RCN1 depletion on proliferation and migration of NSCLC cells. RCN1 depletion-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by increasing GRP78, CHOP, IRE1α, p-IRE1α, p-PERK and p-JNK, which was positively regulated by self-induced autophagy, contributed to suppression of proliferation and migration in NCI-H1299 cells. Therefore, osteoblasts produced RCN1 to transfer into NSCLC cells partially through EVs, facilitating proliferation and migration of NSCLC cells via blocking ER stress. RCN1 could be required for proliferation and migration of NSCLC cells regulated by osteoblast-CM.
    Keywords:  ER stress; NSCLC cell; RCN1; migration; osteoblast-CM; proliferation