bims-istrec Biomed News
on Integrated stress response in cancer
Issue of 2021‒09‒05
eight papers selected by
Vincenzo Ciminale’s Lab
Istituto Oncologico Veneto

  1. Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA. 2021 Aug 31. e1689
      The integrated stress response (ISR) is a conserved mechanism by which eukaryotic cells remodel gene expression to adapt to intrinsic and extrinsic stressors rapidly and reversibly. The ISR is initiated when stress-activated protein kinases phosphorylate the major translation initiation factor eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2ɑ (eIF2ɑ), which globally suppresses translation initiation activity and permits the selective translation of stress-induced genes including important transcription factors such as activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Translationally repressed messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and noncoding RNAs assemble into cytoplasmic RNA-protein granules and polyadenylated RNAs are concomitantly stabilized. Thus, regulated changes in mRNA translation, stability, and localization to RNA-protein granules contribute to the reprogramming of gene expression that defines the ISR. We discuss fundamental mechanisms of RNA regulation during the ISR and provide an overview of a growing class of genetic disorders associated with mutant alleles of key translation factors in the ISR pathway. This article is categorized under: RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > Protein-RNA Interactions: Functional Implications RNA in Disease and Development > RNA in Disease Translation > Translation Regulation RNA in Disease and Development > RNA in Development.
    Keywords:  RNA-protein granules; eIF2α; genetic diseases; integrated stress response; translation
  2. Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer. 2021 Aug 26. pii: S0304-419X(21)00118-9. [Epub ahead of print]1876(2): 188620
      Cancer cells require high levels of transcription to survive and maintain their cancerous phenotype. For several years, global transcription inhibitors have been used in the treatment of cancer. However, recent advances in understanding the functioning of the basal transcription machinery and the discovery of new drugs that affect the components of this machinery have generated a new boom in the use of this type of drugs to treat cancer. Inhibiting transcription at the global level in the cell generates a stress situation in which the cancer cell responds by overexpressing hundreds of genes in response to this transcriptional stress. Many of these over-transcribed genes encode factors that may be involved in the selection of cells resistant to the treatment and with a greater degree of malignancy. In this study, we reviewed various examples of substances that inhibit global transcription, as well as their targets, that have a high potential to be used against cancer. We also analysed what kinds of genes are overexpressed in the response to transcriptional stress by different substances and finally we discuss what types of studies are necessary to understand this type of stress response to have more tools to fight cancer.
    Keywords:  Cancer therapy; Chemotherapy resistance; Pre-initiation complex; RNA polymerase II; Stress response; Transcription addiction; Transcription inhibitors
  3. Front Pharmacol. 2021 ;12 691998
      Adrenergic nerve fibers in the tumor microenvironment promote tumor growth and represent a potential target for cancer therapy. However, the effectiveness of targeting adrenergic nerve fibers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) therapy needs to be evaluated by preclinical data. Herein, the 4NQO-induced and orthotopic xenograft OSCC mice models were established. We demonstrated that using 6OHDA chemical denervation as well as using nebivolol adrenergic blockade could halt the oral mucosa carcinogenesis. Our preclinical studies suggested that nebivolol, which is widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases, can be repositioned as a potential candidate to treat OSCC. Remarkably, we revealed the precise effect and mechanism of nebivolol on OSCC cells proliferation, cell cycle, and cell death. Administration of nebivolol could activate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathway through increasing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, which subsequently triggers the integrated stress response and cell growth arrest. Simultaneously, ER stress also induced mitochondrial dysfunction in OSCC cells. We found that the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria with the impaired electron transport chain caused increasing reactive oxygen species production, which ultimately resulted in OSCC cell death. Altogether, our finding suggested a novel therapeutic opportunity for OSCC by targeting adrenergic nerve fibers, and repurposing nebivolol to treat OSCC can be represented as an effective strategy.
    Keywords:  autonomic nerve; endoplasmic reticulum stress; mitochondria; nebivolol; oral squamous cell carcinoma cells
  4. Front Pharmacol. 2021 ;12 625946
      The present study shows the putative antiproliferative mechanism of action of the previously analytically characterized nudibranch extract (Dolabella auricularia, NB) and its different effects in colon cancer cells vs. nontumor colon cells. NB extract increased the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress via stimulation of the unfolded protein response. Stress scavengers, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), decreased the stress induced by NB. The results showed that NB extract increased ER stress through overproduction of ROS in superinvasive colon cancer cells, decreased their resistance threshold, and produced a nonreturn level of ER stress, causing DNA damage and cell cycle arrest, which prevented them from achieving hyperproliferative capacity and migrating to and invading other tissues. On the contrary, NB extract had a considerably lower effect on nontumor human colon cells, suggesting a selective effect related to stress balance homeostasis. In conclusion, our results confirm that the growth and malignancy of colon cancer cells can be decreased by marine compounds through the modification of one of the most potent resistance mechanisms present in tumor cells; this characteristic differentiates cancer cells from nontumor cells in terms of stress balance.
    Keywords:  antiproliferative activity; colon cancer; marine biotechnology and natural products; marine compounds; stress balance
  5. Int J Cancer. 2021 Aug 30.
      Stress granules (SGs) containing mRNAs and proteins stalled in translation during stress, are increasingly being implicated in disease and cancer including neurological disorders. The dysregulated assembly, persistence, disassembly and clearance of stress granules contribute to the process of senescence. Senescence has long been a mysterious player in cellular physiology and associated diseases. The systemic process of aging has been pivotal in the development of various neurological disorders like age-related neuropathy, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Glioma is a cancer of neurological origin with a very poor prognosis and high rate of recurrence, stress granules have only recently been implicated in its pathogenesis. Senescence has long been established to play an anti-tumorigenic role, however, relatively less studied is its pro-tumorigenic importance. Here, we have evaluated the existing literature to assess the crosstalk of the two biological phenomena of senescence and SG formation in the context of tumorigenesis. In this review we have attempted to analyze the contribution of senescence in regulating diverse cellular processes, like, senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP), microtubular reorganization, telomeric alteration, autophagic clearance and how intricately these phenomena are tied with the formation of SGs. Finally, we propose that interplay between senescence, its contributing factors and the genesis of SGs can drive tumorigenicity of gliomas, which can potentially be utilised for therapeutic intervention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  6. Chin J Physiol. 2021 Jul-Aug;64(4):64(4): 202-209
      Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), a natural fatty acid obtained from oils of various vegetables and seeds, has been demonstrated as an anticancer agent. In this work, we investigated the anticancer effects of GLA on breast cancer BT-474 cells. GLA at 30 μM, a concentration reportedly within the range of circulating concentrations in clinical studies, caused apoptotic cell death. GLA caused an elevation in mitochondrial Ca2+ level and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. GLA treatment depleted cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-sensitive Ca2+ store and triggered substantial Ca2+ influx. Intracellular Ca2+ release triggered by GLA was suppressed by 3 μM xestospongin C (XeC, IP3 receptor-channel blocker) and 100 μM ryanodine (ryanodine receptor-channel blocker), suggesting that the Ca2+ release was via IP3 receptor-channel and ryanodine receptor-channel. Increased expressions of p-eIF2α and CHOP were observed in GLA-treated cells, suggesting GLA-treated cells had increased expressions of p-eIF2α and CHOP, which suggest endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In addition, GLA elicited increased production of reactive oxygen species. Taken together, our results suggest a basal level of GLA induced apoptotic cell death by causing Ca2+ overload, mitochondrial dysfunction, Ca2+ store depletion, ER stress, and oxidative stress. This is the first report to show that GLA caused Ca2+ store depletion and ER stress. GLA-induced Ca2+ store depletion resulted from opening of IP3 receptor-channel and ryanodine receptor-channel.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; BT-474 cells; Ca2+overload; breast cancer; endoplasmic reticulum stress; gamma-linolenic acid; oxidative stress
  7. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2021 ;69(9): 832-839
      Thiamine (vitamin B1), which is synthesized only in bacteria, fungi and plants and which humans should take with diet, participates in basic biochemical and physiological processes in a versatile way and its deficiency is associated with neurological problems accompanied by cognitive dysfunctions. The rat glioblastoma (C6) model was used, which was exposed to a limited environment and toxicity with glutamate. The cells were stressed by exposure to glutamate in the presence and absence of thiamine. The difference in cell proliferation was evaluated in the XTT assay. Oxidative stress (OS) markers malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) levels, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), activating transcription factor-4 (ATF-4), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) levels, were measured with commercial kits. Apoptosis determined by flow cytometry was confirmed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. At all concentrations, thiamine protects the cells and increased the viability against glutamate-induced toxicity. Thiamine also significantly decreased the levels of MDA, while increasing SOD and CAT levels. Moreover, thiamine reduced ER stress proteins' levels. Moreover, it lessened the apoptotic cell amount and enhanced the live-cell percentage in the flow cytometry and DAPI staining. As a result, thiamine may be beneficial nutritional support for individuals with a predisposition to neurodegenerative disorders due to its protective effect on glutamate cytotoxicity in glioblastoma cells by suppressing OS and ER stress.
    Keywords:  C6 rat glioma; endoplasmic reticulum stress; glutamate; oxidative stress; thiamine
  8. Exp Ther Med. 2021 Oct;22(4): 1189
      The endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) response serves an important role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI). However, to the best of the our knowledge, the effect of rosuvastatin on the ERS response in CIRI has not yet been studied. In the present study, the effect of rosuvastatin on cell damage in CIRI was investigated; furthermore, the effect of rosuvastatin on the ERS response was explored. Firstly, a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cell damage model was established in PC12 cells. Cell viability was subsequently detected by a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. A lactate dehydrogenase kit was used to detect cytotoxicity. TUNEL assay was then used to measure the extent of cell apoptosis, and western blotting was used to analyze the expression levels of the apoptosis-associated proteins Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. In addition, western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of ERS-associated proteins, including phosphorylated (p)-protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), p-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and other proteins. Treatment with rosuvastatin led to an increased activity of H/R-induced PC12 cells and a decrease in their cytotoxicity. Rosuvastatin also led to an inhibition in apoptosis and ERS in H/R-induced PC12 cells. After administration of the ERS response activator thapsigargin (TG), TG was found to reverse the protective effect of rosuvastatin on injury of H/R-induced PC12 cells. Taken together, these findings have shown that rosuvastatin is able to protect PC12 cells from H/R-induced injury via inhibiting ERS-induced apoptosis, providing a strong theoretical basis for the use of rosuvastatin in the clinical treatment of CIRI.
    Keywords:  PC12 cells; apoptosis; cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury; endoplasmic reticulum stress; rosuvastatin