bims-instec Biomed News
on Intestinal stem cells and chemoresistance in colon cancer and intestinal regeneration
Issue of 2022‒07‒24
three papers selected by
Maria-Virginia Giolito

  1. Front Oncol. 2022 ;12 918763
      Colorectal cancer (CRC) is characterized by early metastasis, resistance to anti-cancer therapy, and high mortality rate. Despite considerable progress in the development of new treatment options that improved survival benefits in patients with early-stage or advanced CRC, many patients relapse due to the activation of intrinsic or acquired chemoresistance mechanisms. Recently, we reported novel findings about the role of Jagged1 in CRC tumors with Kras signatures. We showed that Jagged1 is a novel proteolytic target of Kras signaling, which induces Jagged1 processing/activation resulting in Jag1-ICD release, which favors tumor development in vivo, through a non-canonical mechanism. Herein, we demonstrate that OXP and 5FU cause a strong accumulation of Jag1-ICD oncogene, through ERK1/2 activation, unveiling a surviving subpopulation with an enforced Jag1-ICD expression, presenting the ability to counteract OXP/5FU-induced apoptosis. Remarkably, we also clarify the clinical ineffectiveness of γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) in metastatic CRC (mCRC) patients. Indeed, we show that GSI compounds trigger Jag1-ICD release, which promotes cellular growth and EMT processes, functioning as tumor-promoting agents in CRC cells overexpressing Jagged1. We finally demonstrate that Jagged1 silencing in OXP- or 5FU-resistant subpopulations is enough to restore the sensitivity to chemotherapy, confirming that drug sensitivity/resistance is Jag1-ICD-dependent, suggesting Jagged1 as a molecular predictive marker for the outcome of chemotherapy.
    Keywords:  5FU; CRC; GSIs; Jagged1; drug resistance; oxaliplatin
  2. Science. 2022 07 15. 377(6603): 276-284
      γδ T cells represent a substantial fraction of intestinal lymphocytes at homeostasis, but they also constitute a major lymphocyte population infiltrating colorectal cancers (CRCs); however, their temporal contribution to CRC development or progression remains unclear. Using human CRC samples and murine CRC models, we found that most γδ T cells in premalignant or nontumor colons exhibit cytotoxic markers, whereas tumor-infiltrating γδ T cells express a protumorigenic profile. These contrasting T cell profiles were associated with distinct T cell receptor (TCR)-Vγδ gene usage in both humans and mice. Longitudinal intersectional genetics and antibody-dependent strategies targeting murine γδ T cells enriched in the epithelium at steady state led to heightened tumor development, whereas targeting γδ subsets that accumulate during CRC resulted in reduced tumor growth. Our results uncover temporal pro- and antitumor roles for γδ T cell subsets.
  3. Cancer Discov. 2022 Jul 22. OF1
      A 4D live imaging system identified LGR5+ p27+ cancer stem cells that persist after chemotherapy and contribute to disease relapse.