bims-imseme Biomed News
on Immunosenescence and T cell metabolism
Issue of 2021‒01‒31
eight papers selected by
Pierpaolo Ginefra
Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research

  1. Aging Cell. 2021 Jan 26. e13299
      Age impacts alloimmunity. Effects of aging on T-cell metabolism and the potential to interfere with immunosuppressants have not been explored yet. Here, we dissected metabolic pathways of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in aging and offer novel immunosuppressive targets. Upon activation, CD4+ T cells from old mice failed to exhibit adequate metabolic reprogramming resulting into compromised metabolic pathways, including oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis. Comparable results were also observed in elderly human patients. Although glutaminolysis remained the dominant and age-independent source of mitochondria for activated CD4+ T cells, old but not young CD4+ T cells relied heavily on glutaminolysis. Treating young and old murine and human CD4+ T cells with 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON), a glutaminolysis inhibitor resulted in significantly reduced IFN-γ production and compromised proliferative capacities specifically of old CD4+ T cells. Of translational relevance, old and young mice that had been transplanted with fully mismatched skin grafts and treated with DON demonstrated dampened Th1- and Th17-driven alloimmune responses. Moreover, DON diminished cytokine production and proliferation of old CD4+ T cells in vivo leading to a significantly prolonged allograft survival specifically in old recipients. Graft prolongation in young animals, in contrast, was only achieved when DON was applied in combination with an inhibition of glycolysis (2-deoxy-d-glucose, 2-DG) and OXPHOS (metformin), two alternative metabolic pathways. Notably, metabolic treatment had not been linked to toxicities. Remarkably, immunosuppressive capacities of DON were specific to CD4+ T cells as adoptively transferred young CD4+ T cells prevented immunosuppressive capacities of DON on allograft survival in old recipients. Depletion of CD8+ T cells did not alter transplant outcomes in either young or old recipients. Taken together, our data introduce an age-specific metabolic reprogramming of CD4+ T cells. Targeting those pathways offers novel and age-specific approaches for immunosuppression.
    Keywords:  T cell; aging; cellular immunology; cellular senescence; interleukin 2; metabolic rate; mitochondria; respiratory chains
  2. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2021 Jan 29.
      Ageing is a multifactorial process associated with reduced function and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Recently, nine cellular and molecular hallmarks of ageing have been identified, which characterise the ageing process, and collectively, may be key determinants of the ageing trajectory. These include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intercellular communication. Healthier dietary patterns reduce the risk of age-related diseases and increase longevity and may influence positively one or more of these hallmarks. The Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) is a plant-based eating pattern that was typical of countries such as Greece, Spain, and Italy pre-globalisation of the food system and which is associated with better health during ageing. Here we review the potential effects of a MedDiet on each of the nine hallmarks of ageing, and provide evidence that the MedDiet as a whole, or individual elements of this dietary pattern, may influence each hallmark positively-effects which may contribute to the beneficial effects of this dietary pattern on age-related disease risk and longevity. We also highlight potential avenues for future research.
  3. Nat Immunol. 2021 Jan 28.
      Mitochondrial abnormalities have been noted in lupus, but the causes and consequences remain obscure. Autophagy-related genes ATG5, ATG7 and IRGM have been previously implicated in autoimmune disease. We reasoned that failure to clear defective mitochondria via mitophagy might be a foundational driver in autoimmunity by licensing mitochondrial DNA-dependent induction of type I interferon. Here, we show that mice lacking the GTPase IRGM1 (IRGM homolog) exhibited a type I interferonopathy with autoimmune features. Irgm1 deletion impaired the execution of mitophagy with cell-specific consequences. In fibroblasts, mitochondrial DNA soiling of the cytosol induced cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-dependent type I interferon, whereas in macrophages, lysosomal Toll-like receptor 7 was activated. In vivo, Irgm1-/- tissues exhibited mosaic dependency upon nucleic acid receptors. Whereas salivary and lacrimal gland autoimmune pathology was abolished and lung pathology was attenuated by cGAS and STING deletion, pancreatic pathology remained unchanged. These findings reveal fundamental connections between mitochondrial quality control and tissue-selective autoimmune disease.
  4. Mediators Inflamm. 2021 ;2021 6634532
      CD4+ T cells play a vital role in the adaptive immune system and are involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and chronic inflammation. As an important mechanism for energy storage, a lot of researches have clarified that metabolism imbalance interacts with immune disorder, and one leads to the other. Lipid metabolism has close relationship with CD4+ T cells. In this review, we discuss fatty acid, cholesterol, prostaglandin, and phospholipid metabolism in CD4+ T cell subsets. Fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) is activated in Th17 cell to support the proinflammatory function. Cholesterol promotes Th1, Th2, and Treg cell differentiation. In addition to glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism is also very important for immunity. Here, it is highlighted that lipid metabolism regulates CD4+ T cell differentiation and function and is related to diseases.
  5. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Jan 21. pii: S0891-5849(21)00051-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are responsible for life-long production of blood and immune cells. HSC transplantation (HSCT) is the original cell therapy which can cure hematological disorders but also has the potential to treat other diseases if technical and safety barriers are overcome. To maintain homeostatic hematopoiesis or to restore hematopoiesis during transplantation HSCs must perform both self-renewal, replication of themselves, and differentiation, generation of mature blood and immune cells. These are just two of the cell fate choices HSCs have; the transitional phases where HSCs undergo these cell fate decisions are regulated by reduction-oxidation (redox) signaling, mitochondrial activity, and cellular metabolism. Recent studies revealed that mitochondria, a key source of redox signaling components, are central to HSC cell fate decisions. Here we highlight how mitochondria serve as hubs in HSCs to manage redox signaling and metabolism and thus guide HSC fate choices. We focus on how mitochondrial activity is modulated by their clearance, biogenesis, dynamics, distribution, and quality control in HSCs. We also note how modulating mitochondria in HSCs can help overcome technical barriers limiting further use of HSCT.
    Keywords:  Aging; Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs); mitochondrial quality control; rejuvenation; transplantation
  6. JCI Insight. 2021 Jan 25. pii: 145207. [Epub ahead of print]6(2):
      Limited experimental evidence bridges nutrition and cancer immunosurveillance. Here, we show that ketogenic diet (KD) - or its principal ketone body, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), most specifically in intermittent scheduling - induced T cell-dependent tumor growth retardation of aggressive tumor models. In conditions in which anti-PD-1 alone or in combination with anti-CTLA-4 failed to reduce tumor growth in mice receiving a standard diet, KD, or oral supplementation of 3HB reestablished therapeutic responses. Supplementation of KD with sucrose (which breaks ketogenesis, abolishing 3HB production) or with a pharmacological antagonist of the 3HB receptor GPR109A abolished the antitumor effects. Mechanistically, 3HB prevented the immune checkpoint blockade-linked upregulation of PD-L1 on myeloid cells, while favoring the expansion of CXCR3+ T cells. KD induced compositional changes of the gut microbiota, with distinct species such as Eisenbergiella massiliensis commonly emerging in mice and humans subjected to carbohydrate-low diet interventions and highly correlating with serum concentrations of 3HB. Altogether, these results demonstrate that KD induces a 3HB-mediated antineoplastic effect that relies on T cell-mediated cancer immunosurveillance.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Immunotherapy; Metabolism; Mouse models; Oncology