bims-hypoxi Biomed News
on Hypoxia and HIF1-alpha
Issue of 2021‒07‒25
thirty papers selected by
Ashish Kaul
University of Tsukuba

  1. Bioengineered. 2021 Dec;12(1): 3737-3752
      Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is an inevitable complication associated with liver surgical procedures, and its pathological process remains elusive. Therefore, the present study investigated the role and mechanism of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) in hepatic IRI. Here, we constructed rat models with hepatic IRI and BRL-3A cell models with hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) insult. The extent of liver injury was assayed by measuring serum ALT/AST levels and performing H&E staining; the levels of SOD, MDA, MPO, IL-6 and TNF-α were determined using commercial kits; apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL assay and flow cytometry; and the expression of HIF-1α/A2BAR signaling-related molecules and apoptosis-associated indicators was detected using Western blotting or qRT-PCR. The expression level of HIF-1α was significantly upregulated in the liver of rats subjected to IRI, as well as in BRL-3A cells treated with H/R. HIF-1α overexpression exerted a protective effect on hepatic IRI or H/R insult by reducing serum aminotransferase levels and hepatic necrosis, inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis of hepatocytes, and alleviating oxidative stress. In contrast, inhibition of HIF-1α expression exacerbated hepatic injury induced by IR or H/R. Mechanistically, the expression level of A2BAR was markedly increased during hepatic IRI or H/R insult. Moreover, A2BAR expression increased with HIF-1α upregulation and decreased with HIF-1α downregulation. Importantly, inhibition of A2BAR signaling abolished HIF-1α overexpression-mediated hepatoprotection. Taken together, HIF-1α exerts protective effects on hepatic IRI by attenuating liver necrosis, the inflammatory response, oxidative stress and apoptosis, and its mechanism may be related to the upregulation of A2BAR signaling.
    Keywords:  A2B adenosine receptor; Ischemia-reperfusion injury; hypoxia inducible factor-1α; liver
  2. Physiol Genomics. 2021 Jul 23.
      Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is a hallmark manifestation of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Rodents treated with IH exhibit hypertension. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1-dependent transcriptional activation of NADPH oxidases (Nox) and the resulting increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels is a major molecular mechanism underlying IH/OSA-induced hypertension. Jumanji C (JmjC)-containing histone lysine demethylases (JmjC-KDMs) are coactivators of HIF-1-dependent transcriptional activation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that JmjC-KDMs are required for IH-evoked HIF-1 transcriptional activation of Nox4 and the ensuing hypertension. Studies were performed on pheochromocytoma (PC)12 cells and rats. IH increased KDM6B protein and enzyme activity in PC12 cells in a HIF-1-independent manner as evidenced by unaltered KDM6B activation by IH in HIF-1α shRNA treated cells. Cells treated with IH showed increased HIF-1-dependent Nox4 transcription as indicated by increased HIF-1α binding to hypoxia responsive element (HRE) sequence of the Nox4 gene promoter demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChiP) assay. Pharmacological blockade of KDM6B with GSKJ4, a specific KDM6 inhibitor, or genetic silencing of KDM6B with shRNA abolished IH-induced Nox4 transcriptional activation by blocking HIF-1α binding to the promoter of the NOX4 gene. Treating IH exposed rats with GSKJ4 showed: a) absence of KDM6B activation and HIF-1-dependent Nox4 transcription in the adrenal medullae, as well as b) absence of elevated plasma catecholamines and hypertension. Collectively, these findings indicate that KDM6B functions as a coactivator of HIF-1-mediated Nox4 transactivation and demonstrate a hitherto uncharacterized role for KDM's in IH-induced hypertension by HIF-1.
    Keywords:  Hypoxia inducible factor; NADPH oxidase; intermittent hypoxia; lyisne demethylases; sleep apnea
  3. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jul 05. pii: 7220. [Epub ahead of print]22(13):
      Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a group of inherited degenerative muscle disorders characterized by a progressive skeletal muscle wasting. Respiratory impairments and subsequent hypoxemia are encountered in a significant subgroup of patients in almost all MD forms. In response to hypoxic stress, compensatory mechanisms are activated especially through Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 α (HIF-1α). In healthy muscle, hypoxia and HIF-1α activation are known to affect oxidative stress balance and metabolism. Recent evidence has also highlighted HIF-1α as a regulator of myogenesis and satellite cell function. However, the impact of HIF-1α pathway modifications in MDs remains to be investigated. Multifactorial pathological mechanisms could lead to HIF-1α activation in patient skeletal muscles. In addition to the genetic defect per se, respiratory failure or blood vessel alterations could modify hypoxia response pathways. Here, we will discuss the current knowledge about the hypoxia response pathway alterations in MDs and address whether such changes could influence MD pathophysiology.
    Keywords:  HIF-1α; hypoxia; myopathies
  4. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2021 ;17 717-726
      Background: Serum hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1α) is a key regulator in hypoxic and ischemic brain injury. We determined the relationship between serum HIF-1α levels and long-term prognosis plus severity of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).Methods: A total of 97 ICH cases and 97 healthy controls were enrolled. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and hematoma volume were used to assess hemorrhagic severity. Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 1-3 at post-stroke 90 days was defined as a poor outcome.
    Results: Serum HIF-1α levels of ICH patients were significantly higher than those of healthy controls (median, 218.8 vs 105.4 pg/mL; P<0.001) and were substantially correlated with GCS score (r=-0.485, P<0.001), hematoma volume (r=0.357, P<0.001) and GOS score (r=-0.436, P<0.001). Serum HIF-1α levels >239.4 pg/mL discriminated patients at risk of 90-day poor outcome with sensitivity of 65.9% and specificity of 79.3% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.725; 95% confidence interval, 0.625-0.811; P<0.001). Moreover, serum HIF-1α levels >239.4 pg/mL were independently associated with a poor 90-day outcome (odds ratio, 5.133; 95% confidence interval, 1.117-23.593; P=0.036).
    Conclusion: Serum HIF-1α, in close correlation with hemorrhagic severity and poor 90-day outcome, may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker for ICH.
    Keywords:  hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha; intracerebral hemorrhage; prognosis; severity
  5. Cancer Gene Ther. 2021 Jul 19.
      Immunohistochemical microarray comprising 80 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and discovered that the expression of CLDN1 and CLDN4 were significantly higher in cancer tissues compared to para-cancerous tissues. Furthermore, CLDN4 significantly affected the overall survival of cancer patients. When two ESCC cell lines (TE1, KYSE410) were exposed to hypoxia (0.1% O2), CLDN1/4 was shown to influence the occurrence and development of esophageal cancer. Compared with the control culture group, the cancer cells cultured under hypoxic conditions exhibited obvious changes in CLDN1 and CLDN4 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Through genetic intervention and Chip, we found that HIF-1α could directly regulate the expression of CLDN1 and CLDN4 in cancer cells. Hypoxia can affect the proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells by regulating the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway. Molecular analysis further revealed that CLDN1 and CLDN4 can participate in the regulation process and had a feedback regulatory effect on HIF-1α expression in cancer cells. In vitro cellular experiments and vivo experiments in nude mice further revealed that changes in CLDN4 expression in cancer cells could affect the proliferation of cancer cells via regulation of Rho GTP and p-JNK pathway. Whether CLDN4 can be target for the treatment of ESCC needs further research.
  6. Sci Signal. 2021 Jul 20. pii: eabf6685. [Epub ahead of print]14(692):
      Cellular adaptation to low-oxygen environments is mediated in part by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Like other transcription factors, the stability and transcriptional activity of HIFs-and consequently, the hypoxic response-are regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs) and changes in protein-protein interactions. Our current understanding of PTM-mediated regulation of HIFs is primarily based on in vitro protein fragment-based studies typically validated in fragment-expressing cells treated with hypoxia-mimicking compounds. Here, we used immunoprecipitation-based mass spectrometry to characterize the PTMs and binding partners for full-length HIF-1α and HIF-2α under normoxic (21% oxygen) and hypoxic (1% oxygen) conditions. Hypoxia substantially altered the complexity and composition of the HIFα protein interaction networks, particularly for HIF-2α, with the hypoxic networks of both isoforms being enriched for mitochondrial proteins. Moreover, both HIFα isoforms were heavily covalently modified. We identified ~40 PTM sites composed of 13 different types of modification on both HIFα isoforms, including multiple cysteine modifications and an unusual phosphocysteine. More than 80% of the PTMs identified were not previously known and about half exhibited oxygen dependency. We further characterized an evolutionarily conserved phosphorylation of Ser31 in HIF-1α as a regulator of its transcriptional function, and we propose functional roles for Thr406, Thr528, and Ser581 in HIF-2α. These data will help to delineate the different physiological roles of these closely related isoforms in fine-tuning the hypoxic response.
  7. J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol. 2021 Aug;335(7): 623-631
      Adrenergic regulation, acting via the sympathetic nervous system, provides a major mechanism to control cardiac function. It has recently been shown that hypoxia inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) is necessary for normal development of sympathetic innervation and control of cardiac function in the mouse. To investigate whether this may represent a fundamental trait shared across vertebrates, we assessed adrenergic regulation of the heart in wild-type and Hif-1α knockout (hif-1α -/- ) zebrafish (Danio rerio). Wild-type and hif-1α -/- zebrafish larvae (aged 4 and 7 days postfertilisation) exhibited similar routine heart rates within a given age group, and β-adrenergic receptor blockade with propranolol universally reduced heart rate to comparable levels, indicating similar adrenergic tone in both genotypes. In adult fish, in vivo heart rate measured during anaesthesia was identical between genotypes. Treatment of spontaneously beating hearts in vitro with adrenaline revealed a similar positive chronotropic effect and similar maximum heart rates in both genotypes. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry with confocal microscopy demonstrated that the bulbus arteriosus (outflow tract of the teleost heart) of adult fish was particularly well innervated by sympathetic nerves, and nerve density (as a percentage of bulbus arteriosus area) was similar between wild-types and hif-1α -/- mutants. In summary, we did not find any evidence that adrenergic cardiac control was perturbed in larval or adult zebrafish lacking Hif-1α. We conclude that Hif-1α is not essential for the normal development of cardiovascular control or adult sympathetic cardiac innervation in zebrafish, although it is possible that it plays a redundant or auxiliary role.
    Keywords:  adrenaline; heart rate; hypoxia-inducible factor; innervation; tyrosine hydroxylase
  8. Audiol Res. 2021 Jul 15. 11(3): 365-372
      The effect of triazino-indole derivative (Trisan) on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) expression level in the organ of Corti, when administering it for therapeutic and preventive purposes, was investigated using an acoustic trauma model in experimental animals (female F1 hybrids of CBA and C57BL/6 lines). Cytoflavin was used as a comparator product. Study product Trisan (1% solution) was injected intravenously, intramuscularly and intraperitoneally, in the dose of 5, 7 and 10 mg/kg 2 h after the acoustic trauma for therapeutic purposes and in the dose of 5, 7 and 10 mg/kg for 3 days before the acoustic trauma for preventive purposes. IHC methods were used to investigate the organ of Corti. Trisan was observed to increase HIF expression in hair cells and neurons of the spiral ganglion in case of acoustic trauma. Depending on the dose, the increased HIF-1 expression in hair cells and spiral ganglion occurred both after therapeutic and preventive use of Trisan. Maximum HIF expression in hair cells and ganglion was noted at the therapeutic and preventive drug dose of 10 mg/kg. Following experimental results, we conclude that the otoprotective effect of triazino-indole derivative is realized via its effect on HIF metabolism, which makes it a target molecule for the drug.
    Keywords:  HIF-1α; acoustic trauma; antihypoxants; expression; hypoxia; hypoxia-inducible factor; triazino-indole
  9. Cancer Cell Int. 2021 Jul 19. 21(1): 382
      BACKGROUND: Ginsenosides have been reported to possess a variety of biological activities. Synthesized from the ginsenoside protopanaxadiol (PPD), the octanone pseudoginsengenin DQ (PDQ) may have robust pharmacological effects as a secondary ginsenoside. Nevertheless, its antitumour activity and molecular mechanism against hypopharyngeal cancer cells remain unclear.METHODS: Cell Counting Kit8 assays, cell cycle assays and cell apoptosis assays were conducted to assess FaDu cell proliferation, cell phase and apoptosis. The interactions between PDQ and HIF-1α were investigated by a molecular docking study. The expression of HIF-1α, GLUT1, and apoptosis-related proteins was detected by Western blotting, direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) and qRT-PCR. A glucose uptake assay was used to assess the glucose uptake capacity of FaDu cells.
    RESULTS: PDQ suppressed proliferation, reduced glucose uptake, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in FaDu cells. A molecular docking study demonstrated that PDQ could interact with the active site of HIF-1α. PDQ decreased the expression and mRNA levels of HIF-1α and its downstream factor GLUT1. Moreover, the dSTORM results showed that PDQ reduced GLUT1 expression on the cell membrane and inhibited GLUT1 clustering.
    CONCLUSION: Our work showed that the antitumour effect of PDQ was related to the downregulation of the HIF-1α-GLUT1 pathway, suggesting that PDQ could be a potential therapeutic agent for hypopharyngeal cancer treatment.
    Keywords:  Antitumour; HIF-1α-GLUT1; Hypopharyngeal cancer; Pseudoginsengenin DQ; dSTORM
  10. Int Immunopharmacol. 2021 Jul 14. pii: S1567-5769(21)00537-3. [Epub ahead of print]99 107901
      Periodontitis is initiated by serious and sustained bacterial infection and ultimately results in chronic immune-mediated inflammation, tissue destruction, and bone loss. The pathogenesis of periodontitis remains unclear. Host immunological responses to periodontal bacteria ultimately determine the severity and mechanisms governing periodontitis progression. This study aimed to clarify the effect of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activator dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) on a mouse periodontitis model and its underlying role in macrophage polarization. qRT-PCR analysis showed that DMOG inhibited the M1-like polarization of both RAW264.7 macrophages and murine bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and downregulated TNF-α, IL-6, CD86, and MCP-1 expression in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry also confirmed the less percentage of F4/80 + CD86 + cells after DMOG treatment. The phosphorylation of NF-κB pathway was also inhibited by DMOG with higher level of HIF-1α expression. Furthermore, mice treated with DMOG showed decreased alveolar bone resorption in the experimental periodontitis model, with significant increases in alveolar bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) and bone mineral density (BMD). DMOG treatment of mice decreased the ratio of M1/M2 (CD86+/CD206+) macrophages in periodontal tissues, resulting in the downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 and increased levels of anti-inflammatory factors such as IL-4 and IL-10. DMOG treatment promoted the number of HIF-1α-positive cells in periodontal tissues. This study demonstrated the cell-specific roles of DMOG in macrophage polarization in vitro and provided insight into the mechanism underlying the protective effect of DMOG in a model of periodontitis.
    Keywords:  DMOG; HIF-1α; Macrophage polarization; Periodontitis
  11. Front Physiol. 2021 ;12 670653
      Endothelial cells (ECs) form a physical barrier between the lumens and vascular walls of arteries, veins, capillaries, and lymph vessels; thus, they regulate the extravasation of nutrients and oxygen from the circulation into the perivascular space and participate in mechanisms that maintain cardiovascular homeostasis and promote tissue growth and repair. Notably, their role in tissue repair is facilitated, at least in part, by their dependence on glycolysis for energy production, which enables them to resist hypoxic damage and promote angiogenesis in ischemic regions. ECs are also equipped with a network of oxygen-sensitive molecules that collectively activate the response to hypoxic injury, and the master regulators of the hypoxia response pathway are hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs reinforce the glycolytic dependence of ECs under hypoxic conditions, but whether HIF activity attenuates or exacerbates the progression and severity of cardiovascular dysfunction varies depending on the disease setting. This review summarizes how HIF regulates the metabolic and angiogenic activity of ECs under both normal and hypoxic conditions and in a variety of diseases that are associated with cardiovascular complications.
    Keywords:  atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; diabetic endothelial dysfunction; endothelial metabolism; hypoxia-inducible factor; myocardial ischemia; pulmonary hypertension
  12. Cell Transplant. 2021 Jan-Dec;30:30 9636897211034452
      BACKGROUND: Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are a unique source for future clinical application in dentistry such as periodontology or endodontics. However, DPSCs are prone to apoptosis under abnormal conditions. Taxifolin is a natural flavonoid and possesses many pharmacological activities including anti-hypoxic and anti-inflammatory. We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms of taxifolin protects DPSC under hypoxia and inflammatory conditions.METHODS: DPSCs from human dental pulp tissue was purchased from Lonza (cat. no. PT-5025. Basel, Switzerland)) and identified by DPSC's biomarkers. DPSC differentiation in vitro following the manufacturers' instructions. ARS staining and Oil red staining verify the efficiency of differentiation in vitro after 2 weeks. The changes of various genes and proteins were identified by Q-PCR and western-blot, respectively. Cell viability was determined by the CCK-8 method, while apoptosis was determined by Annexin V/PI staining.
    RESULTS: DPSC differentiation in vitro shows that hypoxia and TNF-α synergistically inhibit the survival and osteogenesis of DPSCs. A final concentration of 10 μM Taxifolin can significantly reduce the apoptosis of DPSCs under inflammation and hypoxia conditions. Taxifolin substantially increases carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) expression but not HIF1a, and inhibitions of CA9 expression nullify the protective role of taxifolin under hypoxia and inflammatory condition.
    CONCLUSION: Taxifolin significantly increased the expression of CA9 when it inhibits DPSC apoptosis and taxifolin synergistically to protect DPSCs against apoptosis with CA9 under hypoxia and inflammatory conditions. Taxifolin can be used as a potential drug for clinical treatment of DPSC-related diseases.
    Keywords:  CA9; DPSCs; apoptosis; hypoxia and inflammation; taxifolin
  13. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jul 15. pii: 7564. [Epub ahead of print]22(14):
      Hypoxia is a key component of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and promotes not only tumor growth and metastasis, but also negatively affects infiltrating immune cells by impairing host immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells and their biology is weakened in the TME in many ways, including the modulation of their viability. RNASET2 belongs to the T2 family of extracellular ribonucleases and, besides its nuclease activity, it exerts many additional functions. Indeed, RNASET2 is involved in several human pathologies, including cancer, and it is functionally relevant in the TME. RNASET2 functions are not restricted to cancer cells and its expression could be relevant also in other cell types which are important players in the TME, including DCs. Therefore, this study aimed to unravel the effect of hypoxia (2% O2) on the expression of RNASET2 in DCs. Here, we showed that hypoxia enhanced the expression and secretion of RNASET2 in human monocyte-derived DCs. This paralleled the HIF-1α accumulation and HIF-dependent and -independent signaling, which are associated with DCs' survival/autophagy/apoptosis. RNASET2 expression, under hypoxia, was regulated by the PI3K/AKT pathway and was almost completely abolished by TLR4 ligand, LPS. Taken together, these results highlight how hypoxia- dependent and -independent pathways shape RNASET2 expression in DCs, with new perspectives on its implication for TME and, therefore, in anti-tumor immunity.
    Keywords:  RNASET2; dendritic cell; hypoxia
  14. Birth Defects Res. 2021 Jul 20.
      BACKGROUND: Smokeless tobacco (SLT) consumption during pregnancy is a well-recognized health risk that causes placental damage including hypoxia and oxidative damage. Although consumption of SLT by women varies from region to region, majority of tea leave pluckers consume SLT for relieving stress and pain. Still, the effects of SLT consumption have not been evaluated in tea garden workers (TGW). While previous studies have attempted to report effects of cigarette smoke using in vitro model, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α expression in human placentae from pregnant women exposed to SLT has not been previously studied. This study was aimed to explore the effects of SLT consumption on placental structure, expression of HIF-1α and oxidative DNA damage in sample population of TGW.METHODS: A total of 51 placentae were collected from SLT users and nonusers (n = 30 and 21, respectively) with full-term normal delivery, who were involved in the plucking of tea leaves during pregnancy in tea plantation. Low birth weight (LBW, i.e., weight <2,500 g) and normal birth weight (NBW) groups among both SLT user and nonuser were compared for the stated parameters. Placental tissues were processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study and immunohistochemical analysis for the expression of HIF-1α and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG).
    RESULTS: Altered ultrastructural characteristics were observed in the tertiary villi of LBW group among SLT users which included endothelial cells protrusion into capillary lumen, degenerated nuclei, significant thickening of trophoblast basement membrane and vasculo-syncytial membrane, abnormalities of the microvilli, swollen or damaged mitochondria, and dilatation in endoplasmic reticulum cisternae. Furthermore, significant reduction in the perimeter, area, and number of the stromal capillary of the tertiary villi of placenta were found in LBW group as compared with NBW group from the SLT users. Enhanced expression for HIF-1α and oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG) biomarker was observed in SLT users as compared with nonusers.
    CONCLUSIONS: Maternal SLT exposure during pregnancy may be associated with villus hypoxia and consequently oxidative DNA damage. It is presumed that deleterious effect of SLT exposure on placenta could result in impairment of placental barrier, and restrict nutrient and oxygen supply from mother to fetus, and thus could be a cause of fetal growth restriction.
    Keywords:  hypoxia; oxidative DNA damage; placental structure; smokeless tobacco
  15. Oncogene. 2021 Jul 22.
      Research has indicated that hypoxia profoundly contributes to chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer (PC), while the precise mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we report a hypoxic exosomal circular RNA (circRNA)-mediated mechanism of conferred chemoresistance in PC cells. Gemcitabine (GEM) resistance was enhanced in normoxic PC cells incubated with exosomes derived from hypoxic PC cells. CircRNA microarray displayed that circZNF91 was remarkably increased in hypoxic exosomes of PC cells compared with normoxic exosomes. Overexpression of circZNF91 obviously stimulated chemoresistance in PC cells, while knockdown of circZNF91 retarded the hypoxic exosome-transmitted chemoresistance. Mechanistically, the hypoxic-induced exosomal circZNF91 transmitted into normoxic PC cells could competitively bind to miR-23b-3p, which deprives the inhibition of miR-23b-3p on expression of deacetylase Sirtuin1 (SIRT1). Consequently, the upregulated SIRT1 enhanced deacetylation-dependent stability of HIF-1α protein, leading to glycolysis and GEM chemoresistance of recipient PC cells. In addition, we revealed that the increased circZNF91 in hypoxic exosome was attributed to the transcriptional regulation by HIF-1α. Coincidently, transmission of hypoxic exosomes into subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice obviously facilitated the chemoresistance of transplanted PC tumor, which could be reversed by depletion of circZNF91 or upregulation of miR-23b-3p. Furthermore, clinical data showed that circZNF91 was significantly upregulated in PC tissues and correlated with overexpression of glycolytic enzymes and short overall survival time. Collectively, exosomal circZNF91 can function as a cargo mediating the signal transmission between hypoxic and normoxic tumor cells to promote GEM chemoresistance of PC and may potentially serve as a therapeutic target.
  16. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Jul 08. pii: 3421. [Epub ahead of print]13(14):
      Lung cancer represents the first cause of death by cancer worldwide and remains a challenging public health issue. Hypoxia, as a relevant biomarker, has raised high expectations for clinical practice. Here, we review clinical and pathological features related to hypoxic lung tumours. Secondly, we expound on the main current techniques to evaluate hypoxic status in NSCLC focusing on positive emission tomography. We present existing alternative experimental approaches such as the examination of circulating markers and highlight the interest in non-invasive markers. Finally, we evaluate the relevance of investigating hypoxia in lung cancer management as a companion biomarker at various lung cancer stages. Hypoxia could support the identification of patients with higher risks of NSCLC. Moreover, the presence of hypoxia in treated tumours could help clinicians predict a worse prognosis for patients with resected NSCLC and may help identify patients who would benefit potentially from adjuvant therapies. Globally, the large quantity of translational data incites experimental and clinical studies to implement the characterisation of hypoxia in clinical NSCLC management.
    Keywords:  HIF; angiogenesis; hypoxia; lung cancer management; non-small cell lung cancer; oxygen sensing
  17. Elife. 2021 Jul 19. pii: e57436. [Epub ahead of print]10
      The cellular adaptive response to hypoxia, mediated by high HIF1α levels includes metabolic reprogramming, restricted DNA replication and cell division. In contrast to healthy cells, the genome of cancer cells, and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infected cells maintains replication in hypoxia. We show that KSHV infection, despite promoting expression of HIF1α in normoxia, can also restrict transcriptional activity, and promoted its degradation in hypoxia. KSHV-encoded vCyclin, expressed in hypoxia, mediated HIF1a cytosolic translocation, and its degradation through a non-canonical lysosomal pathway. Attenuation of HIF1α levels by vCyclin allowed cells to bypass the block to DNA replication and cell proliferation in hypoxia. These results demonstrated that KSHV utilizes a unique strategy to balance HIF1α levels to overcome replication arrest and induction of the oncogenic phenotype, which are dependent on the levels of oxygen in the microenvironment.
    Keywords:  infectious disease; microbiology; viruses
  18. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2021 Jul 14. pii: S1044-7431(21)00068-3. [Epub ahead of print] 103655
      Intestinal inflammation challenges both function and structure of the enteric nervous system (ENS). In the animal model of TNBS-induced colitis, an influx of immune cells causes early neuron death in the neuromuscular layers, followed by axonal outgrowth from surviving neurons associated with upregulation of the neurotrophin GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor). Inflammation could involve ischemia and metabolic inhibition leading to neuronal damage, which might be countered by a protective action of GDNF. This was examined in a primary co-culture model of rat myenteric neurons and smooth muscle, where metabolic challenge was caused by dinitrophenol (DNP), O-methyl glucose (OMG) or hypoxia. These caused the specific loss of 50% of neurons by 24 h that was blocked by GDNF both in vitro and in whole mounts. Neuroprotection was lost with RET inhibition by vandetanib or GSK3179106, which also caused neuron loss in untreated controls. Thus, both basal and upregulated GDNF levels signal via RET for neuronal survival. This includes a key role for upregulation of HIF-1α, which was detected in neurons in colitis, since the inhibitor chetomin blocked rescue by GDNF or ischemic pre-conditioning in vitro. In DNP-treated co-cultures, neuron death was not inhibited by zVAD, necrosulfonamide or GSK872, and cleaved caspase-3 or - 8 were undetectable. However, combinations of inhibitors or the RIP1kinase inhibitor Nec-1 prevented neuronal death, evidence for RIPK1-dependent necroptosis. Therefore, inflammation challenges enteric neurons via ischemia, while GDNF is neuroprotective, activating RET and HIF-1α to limit programmed cell death. This may support novel strategies to address recurrent inflammation in IBD.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Enteric nervous system; Ischemia; Neuron; Neurotrophin; Programmed cell death
  19. Circ Res. 2021 Jul 21.
      Rationale: Secondary brain hypoxia portends significant mortality in ischemic brain diseases, yet our understanding of hypoxic ischemic brain injury (HIBI) pathophysiology in humans remains rudimentary. Objective: To quantify the impact of secondary brain hypoxia on injury to the neurovascular unit in patients with HIBI. Methods and Results: We conducted a prospective interventional study of invasive neuromonitoring in 18 post-cardiac arrest patients with HIBI. The partial pressures of brain tissue O2 (PbtO2) and intracranial pressure were directly measured via intra-parenchymal micro-catheters. To isolate the cerebrovascular bed, we conducted paired sampling of arterial and jugular venous bulb blood and calculated the trans-cerebral release of biomarkers of neurovascular injury and inflammation in the HIBI patients and 14 healthy volunteers for control comparisons. Ten HIBI patients exhibited secondary brain hypoxia (PbtO2<20mmHg), while eight exhibited brain normoxia (PbtO2≥20mmHg). In the patients with secondary brain hypoxia, we observed active cerebral release of glial fibrillary acidic protein (-161[ -3695 - -75] pg/mL; P=0.0078), neurofilament light chain (-231[-370 - -11] pg/mL; P=0.010), total tau (-32[-310 - -3] pg/mL; P=0.0039), neuron specific enolase (-14890[-148813 - -3311] pg/mL; P=0.0039), and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (-14.7[-37.7 - -4.1] pg/mL; P=0.0059) indicating de novo neuroglial injury. This injury was unrelated to the systemic global ischemic burden or cerebral endothelial injury but rather was associated with cerebral release of interleukin-6 (-10.3[-43.0 - -4.2] pg/mL; P=0.0039). No cerebral release of the aforementioned biomarkers was observed in HIBI patients with brain normoxia or the healthy volunteers. Hyperosmolar therapy in the patients with secondary brain hypoxia reduced the partial pressure of jugular venous O2-to-PbtO2 gradient (39.6[34.1-51.1] vs. 32.0[24.5-39.2] mmHg; P=0.0078) and increased PbtO2 (17.0[9.1-19.7] vs. 20.2[11.9-22.7] mmHg; P=0.039) suggesting improved cerebrovascular-to-parenchymal O2 transport. Conclusions: Secondary brain hypoxia is associated with de novo neuroglial injury and cerebral release of interleukin-6. Mitigating cerebrovascular-to-parenchymal limitations to O2 transport is a promising therapeutic strategy for HIBI patients with secondary brain hypoxia.
  20. Mol Med Rep. 2021 Sep;pii: 637. [Epub ahead of print]24(3):
      The pathological expression and function of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a key enzyme that converts pyruvate into lactic acid during glycolysis, remains unknown in endometriosis. In the present study, LDHA expression in tissue samples was determined by immunohistochemistry. To examine whether LDHA was induced by hypoxia, primary cultured endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and glandular epithelial Ishikawa cells were exposed to 1% O2 (hypoxia) or 21% O2 (normoxia). Cellular functions were assessed by flow cytometry, Transwell and Cell Counting Kit‑8 assays in LDHA‑silenced ESCs and Ishikawa cells. Mitochondrial functions were evaluated using mitochondrial membrane potential JC‑1 staining, reactive oxygen species flow cytometric analysis and ATP detection. Additionally, lactic acid production was examined and western blotting was used to evaluate the expression levels of proteins associated with apoptosis, cell cycle and glycolysis, as well as regulatory proteins involved in epithelial‑mesenchymal transformation and glycolytic pathways. LDHA was localized to endometrial glandular cells and stromal cells. However, LDHA protein expression was higher in endometriotic lesions compared with that in normal and eutopic endometria. LDHA expression levels in ectopic glandular cells were higher during the proliferative stage compared with during the secretory stage. Hypoxia treatment of Ishikawa cells and ESCs markedly induced the mRNA and protein expression of LDHA. Silencing of LDHA expression in Ishikawa cells and THESC cells significantly promoted impaired mitochondrial function and apoptosis while inhibiting migration and glycolysis. However, it had no obvious effect on proliferation. In conclusion, the present study revealed that LDHA was highly expressed in endometriotic tissues, where it may serve a notable role in the occurrence and development of endometriosis.
    Keywords:  endometriosis; glycolysis; hypoxia; hypoxia‑ inducible factor 1α; lactate dehydrogenase A
  21. Yonsei Med J. 2021 Aug;62(8): 734-742
      PURPOSE: The present study aimed to identify the physiological characteristics of cells by investigating the change in gene expression and protein levels during extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in the intervertebral disc (IVD) under hypoxic conditions.MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test the effect of oxygen on cell growth and ECM synthesis of chondrocyte-like cells, the cells from IVD were separated and cultured in two hypoxia-mimicking systems: chemical hypoxic conditions using deferoxamine (DFO), and physiological hypoxic conditions using a hypoxic chamber for 7 days. Chondrocyte like cells cultured without DFO and under the normal oxygen concentration (21% O₂ and 5% CO₂, 37°C) served as the controls.
    RESULTS: Chondrocyte-like cells cultured in the presence of 6% oxygen demonstrated a 100% increase in cellular proliferation compared to the control. The cells treated with chemical hypoxic conditions demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in the mRNA expression of glucose transporter-1, GAPDH, aggrecan, and type II collagen on Day 1. When treated with 100 µM DFO, the cells showed a 50% increase in the levels of proteoglycan protein on Day 7. The cells treated with chemical hypoxic condition demonstrated increase in sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) protein levels on Day 7. Moreover, the cells cultured in the presence of 6% oxygen showed a 120% increase in sulfated GAG levels on Day 7.
    CONCLUSION: The oxygen concentration had an important role in the viability, proliferation, and maturation of chondrocyte-like cells in IVD. In addition, chondrocyte-like cells are sensitive to the concentration of oxygen.
    Keywords:  Intervertebral disc; chondrocyte-like cell; extracellular matrix; low oxygen; proteoglycan
  22. Clin Neurophysiol. 2021 Jul 01. pii: S1388-2457(21)00632-5. [Epub ahead of print]132(9): 2091-2100
      OBJECTIVE: Early prediction of neurological deficits following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) may help to target support. Neonatal animal models suggest that recovery following hypoxia-ischemia depends upon cortical bursting. To test whether this holds in human neonates, we correlated the magnitude of cortical bursting during recovery (≥postnatal day 3) with neurodevelopmental outcomes.METHODS: We identified 41 surviving infants who received therapeutic hypothermia for HIE (classification at hospital discharge: 19 mild, 18 moderate, 4 severe) and had 9-channel electroencephalography (EEG) recordings as part of their routine care. We correlated burst power with Bayley-III cognitive, motor and language scores at median 24 months. To examine whether EEG offered additional prognostic information, we controlled for structural MRI findings.
    RESULTS: Higher power of central and occipital cortical bursts predicted worse cognitive and language outcomes, and higher power of central cortical bursts predicted worse motor outcome, all independently of structural MRI findings.
    CONCLUSIONS: Clinical EEG after postnatal day 3 may provide additional prognostic information by indexing persistent active mechanisms that either support recovery or exacerbate brain damage, especially in infants with less severe encephalopathy.
    SIGNIFICANCE: These findings could allow for the effect of clinical interventions in the neonatal period to be studied instantaneously in the future.
    Keywords:  Active sleep; Asphyxia; Brain injury; Quiet sleep; Spontaneous activity transients
  23. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Jul 06. pii: 3388. [Epub ahead of print]13(14):
      Hypoxia is a key regulator of cancer progression and chemoresistance. Ambiguity remains about how cancer cells adapt to hypoxic microenvironments and transfer oncogenic factors to surrounding cells. In this study, we determined the effects of hypoxia on the bioactivity of sEVs in a panel of ovarian cancer (OvCar) cell lines. The data obtained demonstrate a varying degree of platinum resistance induced in OvCar cells when exposed to low oxygen tension (1% oxygen). Using quantitative mass spectrometry (Sequential Window Acquisition of All Theoretical Fragment Ion Mass Spectra, SWATH) and targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), we identified a suite of proteins associated with glycolysis that change under hypoxic conditions in cells and sEVs. Interestingly, we identified a differential response to hypoxia in the OvCar cell lines and their secreted sEVs, highlighting the cells' heterogeneity. Proteins are involved in metabolic reprogramming such as glycolysis, including putative hexokinase (HK), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6 (UD16), and 6-phosphogluconolactonase (6 PGL), and their presence correlates with the induction of platinum resistance. Furthermore, when normoxic cells were exposed to sEVs from hypoxic cells, platinum-resistance increased significantly (p < 0.05). Altered chemoresistance was associated with changes in glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis. Finally, sEVs isolated from a clinical cohort (n = 31) were also found to be enriched in glycolysis-pathway proteins, especially in patients with recurrent disease. These data support the hypothesis that hypoxia induces changes in sEVs composition and bioactivity that confers carboplatin resistance on target cells. Furthermore, we propose that the expression of sEV-associated glycolysis-pathway proteins is predictive of ovarian cancer recurrence and is of clinical utility in disease management.
    Keywords:  exosomes; extracellular vesicles; hypoxia; ovarian cancer
  24. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 690079
      Lipid metabolism plays a basic role in renal physiology, especially in tubules. Hypoxia and hypoxia-induced factor (HIF) activation are common in renal diseases; however, the relationship between HIF and tubular lipid metabolism is poorly understood. Using prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor roxadustat (FG-4592), we verified and further explored the relationship between sustained HIF1α activation and lipid accumulation in cultured tubular cells. A transcriptome and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis revealed that HIF1α directly regulates the expression of a number of genes possibly affecting lipid metabolism, including those associated with mitochondrial function. HIF1α activation suppressed fatty acid (FA) mobilization from lipid droplets (LDs) and extracellular FA uptake. Moreover, HIF1α decreased FA oxidation and ATP production. A lipidomics analysis showed that FG-4592 caused strong triglyceride (TG) accumulation and increased some types of phospholipids with polyunsaturated fatty acyl (PUFA) chains, as well as several proinflammatory lipids. Nevertheless, the overall FA level was maintained. Thus, our study indicated that HIF1α reduced the FA supply and utilization and reconstructed the composition of lipids in tubules, which is likely a part of hypoxic adaptation but could also be involved in pathological processes in the kidney.
    Keywords:  HIF; lipid metabolism; lipidome; mitochondria; transcription regulation
  25. Mol Aspects Med. 2021 Jul 19. pii: S0098-2997(21)00060-1. [Epub ahead of print] 101000
      History of pandemics is dominated by viral infections and specifically respiratory viral diseases like influenza and COVID-19. Lower respiratory tract infection is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Crosstalk between resultant inflammation and hypoxic microenvironment may impair ventilatory response of lungs. This reduces arterial partial pressure of oxygen, termed as hypoxemia, which is observed in a section of patients with respiratory virus infections including SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). In this review, we describe the interplay between inflammation and hypoxic microenvironment in respiratory viral infection and its contribution to disease pathogenesis.
    Keywords:  Hypoxia and hypoxemia; Immune response; Inflammation; Respiratory virus
  26. Front Mol Biosci. 2021 ;8 683519
      Over the past five years, oxygen-based nanocarriers (NCs) to boost anti-tumor therapy attracted tremendous attention from basic research and clinical practice. Indeed, tumor hypoxia, caused by elevated proliferative activity and dysfunctional vasculature, is directly responsible for the less effectiveness or ineffective of many conventional therapeutic modalities. Undeniably, oxygen-generating NCs and oxygen-carrying NCs can increase oxygen concentration in the hypoxic area of tumors and have also been shown to have the ability to decrease the expression of drug efflux pumps (e.g., P-gp); to increase uptake by tumor cells; to facilitate the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxide species (ROS); and to evoke systematic anti-tumor immune responses. However, there are still many challenges and limitations that need to be further improved. In this review, we first discussed the mechanisms of tumor hypoxia and how it severely restricts the therapeutic efficacy of clinical treatments. Then an up-to-date account of recent progress in the fabrications of oxygen-generating NCs and oxygen-carrying NCs are systematically introduced. The improved physicochemical and surface properties of hypoxia alleviating NCs for increasing the targeting ability to hypoxic cells are also elaborated with special attention to the latest nano-technologies. Finally, the future directions of these NCs, especially towards clinical translation, are proposed. Therefore, we expect to provide some valued enlightenments and proposals in engineering more effective oxygen-based NCs in this promising field in this comprehensive overview.
    Keywords:  nanocarriers; nanoenzyme; oxygen; tumor hypoxia; tumor therapy
  27. Sci Rep. 2021 Jul 19. 11(1): 14657
      Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most prevalent form of acute leukemia. Patients with AML often have poor clinical prognoses. Hypoxia can activate a series of immunosuppressive processes in tumors, resulting in diseases and poor clinical prognoses. However, how to evaluate the severity of hypoxia in tumor immune microenvironment remains unknown. In this study, we downloaded the profiles of RNA sequence and clinicopathological data of pediatric AML patients from Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments (TARGET) database, as well as those of AML patients from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). In order to explore the immune microenvironment in AML, we established a risk signature to predict clinical prognosis. Our data showed that patients with high hypoxia risk score had shorter overall survival, indicating that higher hypoxia risk scores was significantly linked to immunosuppressive microenvironment in AML. Further analysis showed that the hypoxia could be used to serve as an independent prognostic indicator for AML patients. Moreover, we found gene sets enriched in high-risk AML group participated in the carcinogenesis. In summary, the established hypoxia-related risk model could act as an independent predictor for the clinical prognosis of AML, and also reflect the response intensity of the immune microenvironment in AML.
  28. Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 19.
      BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major contributor to death and disability worldwide. Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPC) may offer neuroprotection but has only been tested in preclinical models. Various preclinical models with different assessments of outcomes complicate interpretation. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the neuroprotective effect of RIPC in animal models of HIE.METHODS: The protocol was preregistered at The International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (CRD42020205944). Literature was searched in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science (April 2020). A formal meta-analysis was impossible due to heterogeneity and a descriptive synthesis was performed.
    RESULTS: Thirty-two papers were screened, and five papers were included in the analysis. These included three piglet studies and two rat studies. A broad range of outcome measures was assessed, with inconsistent results. RIPC improved brain lactate/N-acetylaspartate ratios in two piglet studies, suggesting a limited metabolic effect, while most other outcomes assessed were equally likely to improve or not.
    CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of evidence to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of RIPC in HIE. Additional studies should aim to standardize methodology and outcome acquisition focusing on clinically relevant outcomes. Future studies should address the optimal timing and duration of RIPC and the combination with therapeutic hypothermia.
    IMPACT: This systematic review summarizes five preclinical studies that reported inconsistent effects of RIPC as a neuroprotective intervention after hypoxia-ischemia. The heterogeneity of hypoxia-ischemia animal models employed, mode of postconditioning, and diverse outcomes assessed at varying times means the key message is that no clear conclusions on effect can be drawn. This review highlights the need for future studies to be designed with standardized methodology and common clinically relevant outcomes in models with documented translatability to the human condition.
  29. Front Pharmacol. 2021 ;12 671783
      Background: Stroke is the second leading cause of death in human life health, but current treatment strategies are limited to thrombolytic therapy, and because of the tight time window, many contraindications, and only a very small number of people can benefit from it, new therapeutic strategies are needed to solve this problem. As a physical barrier between the central nervous system and blood, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintains the homeostasis of the central nervous system. Maintaining the integrity of the BBB may emerge as a new therapeutic strategy. Liquiritin (LQ) is a flavonoid isolated from the medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC. (Fabaceae), and this study aims to investigate the protective effects of LQ on brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), to provide a new therapeutic strategy for stroke treatment, and also to provide research ideas for the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Methods: The protective effects of LQ on HBMECs under the treatment of hypoxia reoxygenation (H/R) were investigated from different aspects by establishing a model of H/R injury to mimic ischemia-reperfusion in vivo while administrating different concentrations of LQ, which includes: cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, mitochondrial membrane potential as well as apoptosis. Meanwhile, the mechanism of LQ to protect the integrity of BBB by antioxidation and inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was also investigated. Finally, to search for possible targets of LQ, a proteomic analysis approach was employed. Results: LQ can promote cell proliferation, migration as well as angiogenesis and reduce mitochondrial membrane potential damage and apoptosis. Meanwhile, LQ can also reduce the expression of related adhesion molecules, and decrease the production of reactive oxygen species. In terms of mechanism study, we demonstrated that LQ could activate Keap1/Nrf2 antioxidant pathway, inhibit ER stress, and maintain the integrity of BBB. Through differential protein analysis, 5 disease associated proteins were found. Conclusions: Studies have shown that LQ can promote cell proliferation, migration as well as angiogenesis, and reduce cell apoptosis, which may be related to its inhibition of oxidative and ER stress, and then maintain the integrity of BBB. Given that five differential proteins were found by protein analysis, future studies will revolve around the five differential proteins.
    Keywords:  blood-brain barrier; endoplasmic reticulum stress; human brain microvascular endothelial cells; liquiritin; oxidative stress; vascular protection
  30. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021 Jul 22. 12(1): 413
      BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a major public health concern, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great potential for treating ICH. However, the quantity and quality of MSCs decline in the cerebral niche, limiting the potential efficacy of MSCs. Hypoxic preconditioning is suggested to enhance the survival of MSCs and augment the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs in ICH. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to mediate cellular senescence. However, the precise mechanism by which miRNAs regulate the senescence of hypoxic MSCs remains to be further studied. In the present study, we evaluated whether hypoxic preconditioning enhances the survival and therapeutic effects of olfactory mucosa MSC (OM-MSC) survival and therapeutic effects in ICH and investigated the mechanisms by which miRNA ameliorates hypoxic OM-MSC senescence.METHODS: In the in vivo model, ICH was induced in mice by administration of collagenase IV. At 24 h post-ICH, 5 × 105 normoxia or hypoxia OM-MSCs or saline was administered intracerebrally. The behavioral outcome, neuronal apoptosis, and OM-MSC survival were evaluated. In the in vitro model, OM-MSCs were exposed to hemin. Cellular senescence was examined by evaluating the expressions of P16INK4A, P21, P53, and by β-galactosidase staining. Microarray and bioinformatic analyses were performed to investigate the differences in the miRNA expression profiles between the normoxia and hypoxia OM-MSCs. Autophagy was confirmed using the protein expression levels of LC3, P62, and Beclin-1.
    RESULTS: In the in vivo model, transplanted OM-MSCs with hypoxic preconditioning exhibited increased survival and tissue-protective capability. In the in vitro model, hypoxia preconditioning decreased the senescence of OM-MSCs exposed to hemin. Bioinformatic analysis identified that microRNA-326 (miR-326) expression was significantly increased in the hypoxia OM-MSCs compared with that of normoxia OM-MSCs. Upregulation of miR-326 alleviated normoxia OM-MSC senescence, whereas miR-326 downregulation increased hypoxia OM-MSC senescence. Furthermore, we showed that miR-326 alleviated cellular senescence by upregulating autophagy. Mechanistically, miR-326 promoted the autophagy of OM-MSCs via the PI3K signaling pathway by targeting polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1).
    CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that hypoxic preconditioning delays OM-MSC senescence and augments the therapeutic efficacy of OM-MSCs in ICH by upregulating the miR-326/PTBP1/PI3K-mediated autophagy.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Cellular senescence; Hypoxic preconditioning; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Mesenchymal stem cells; miRNAs