bims-hylehe Biomed News
on Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Issue of 2019‒06‒30
four papers selected by
Richard James
University of Pennsylvania

  1. Pediatr Cardiol. 2019 Jun 25.
    Smerling J, Marboe CC, Lefkowitch JH, Pavlicova M, Bacha E, Einstein AJ, Naka Y, Glickstein J, Farooqi KM.
      The most common modes of medical education for congenital heart disease (CHD) rely heavily on 2-dimensional imaging. Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology allows for the creation of physical cardiac models that can be used for teaching trainees. 3D printed cardiac models were created for the following lesions: pulmonic stenosis, atrial septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, d-transposition of the great arteries, coarctation of the aorta, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Medical students participated in a workshop consisting of different teaching stations. At the 3D printed station, students completed a pre- and post-intervention survey assessing their knowledge of each cardiac lesion on a Likert scale. Students were asked to rank the educational benefit of each modality. Linear regression was utilized to assess the correlation of the mean increase in knowledge with increasing complexity of CHD based on the Aristotle Basic Complexity Level. 45 medical students attended the CHD workshop. Students' knowledge significantly improved for every lesion (p < 0.001). A strong positive correlation was found between mean increase in knowledge and increasing complexity of CHD (R2 = 0.73, p < 0.05). The 3D printed models, pathology specimens and spoken explanation were found to be the most helpful modalities. Students "strongly agreed" the 3D printed models made them more confident in explaining congenital cardiac anatomy to others (mean = 4.23, ± 0.69), and that they recommend the use of 3D models for future educational sessions (mean = 4.40, ± 0.69). 3D printed cardiac models should be included in medical student education particularly for lesions that require a complex understanding of spatial relationships.
  2. Am J Perinatol. 2019 Jul;36(S 02): S22-S28
    Martin GR, Cross RR, Hom LA, Klugman D.
      Despite numerous advances in medical and surgical management, congenital heart disease (CHD) remains the number one cause of death in the first year of life from congenital malformations. The current strategies used to approach improving outcomes in CHD are varied. This article will discuss the recent impact of pulse oximetry screening for critical CHD, describe the contributions of advanced cardiac imaging in the neonate with CHD, and highlight the growing importance of quality improvement and safety programs in the cardiac intensive care unit.
  3. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019 Jul 02. 8(13): e012349
    Cooper DS, Riggs KW, Zafar F, Jacobs JP, Hill KD, Pasquali SK, Swanson SK, Gelehrter SK, Wallace A, Jacobs ML, Morales DLS, Bryant R.
      Background Congenital heart disease is common in patients with Trisomy 13 (T13) and Trisomy 18 (T18), but offering cardiac surgery to these patients has been controversial. We describe the landscape of surgical management across the United States, perioperative risk factors, and surgical outcomes in patients with T13 and T18. Methods and Results Patients in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database with T13 and T18 who underwent cardiac surgery (2010-2017) were included. There were 343 operations (T13: n=73 and T18: n=270) performed on 304 patients. Among 125 hospitals, 87 (70%) performed at least 1 operation and 26 centers (30%) performed ≥5 T13/T18 operations. Operations spanned the full spectrum of complexity with 29% (98/343) being in the highest categories of estimated risk. The operative mortality rate was 15%, with a 56% complication rate. Preoperative mechanical ventilation was associated with an odds ratio of mortality >8 for both patients with T13 and T18 (both P<0.012) while presence of a gastrostomy tube (odds ratio, 0.3; P=0.03) or prior cardiac surgery (odds ratio, 0.2; P=0.02) was associated with better survival in patients with T18 but not patients with T13. Conclusions Data from this nationally representative sample indicate that most centers offer surgical intervention for both patients with T13 and T18, even in highly complex patients. However, the overall mortality rate was high in this select patient cohort. The association of preoperative mechanical ventilation with mortality suggests that this subset of patients with T13 and T18 should perhaps not be considered surgical candidates. This information is valuable to clinicians and families for counseling and deciding what interventions to offer.
    Keywords:  Trisomy 13; Trisomy 18; cardiac surgery; congenital heart disease; outcomes; pediatrics
  4. Front Psychol. 2019 ;10 1336
    Burgdorf V, Szabó M, Abbott MJ.
      Background: The psychological well-being of parents and children is compromised in families characterized by greater parenting stress. As parental mindfulness is associated with lower parenting stress, a growing number of studies have investigated whether mindfulness interventions can improve outcomes for families. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates the effectiveness of mindfulness interventions for parents, in reducing parenting stress and improving youth psychological outcomes. Methods: A literature search for peer-reviewed articles and dissertations was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines in the PsycInfo, Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses databases. Studies were included if they reported on a mindfulness-based intervention delivered in person to parents with the primary aim of reducing parenting stress or improving youth psychological outcomes. Results: Twenty-five independent studies were included in the review. Eighteen studies used a single group design and six were randomized controlled trials. Within-groups, meta-analysis indicated a small, post-intervention reduction in parenting stress (g = 0.34), growing to a moderate reduction at 2 month follow-up (g = 0.53). Overall, there was a small improvement in youth outcomes (g = 0.27). Neither youth age or clinical status, nor time in mindfulness training, moderated parenting stress or overall youth outcome effects. Youth outcomes were not moderated by intervention group attendees. Change in parenting stress predicted change in youth externalizing and cognitive effects, but not internalizing effects. In controlled studies, parenting stress reduced more in mindfulness groups than control groups (g = 0.44). Overall, risk of bias was assessed as serious. Conclusions: Mindfulness interventions for parents may reduce parenting stress and improve youth psychological functioning. While improvements in youth externalizing and cognitive outcomes may be explained by reductions in parenting stress, it appears that other parenting factors may contribute to improvements in youth internalizing outcomes. Methodological weaknesses in the reviewed literature prevent firm conclusions from being drawn regarding effectiveness. Future research should address these methodological issues before mindfulness interventions for parents are recommended as an effective treatment option for parents or their children.
    Keywords:  child externalizing; child internalizing; meta-analysis; mindful parenting; mindfulness; parenting intervention; parenting stress; systematic review