bims-hylehe Biomed news
on Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Issue of 2018‒09‒30
three papers selected by
Richard James
University of Pennsylvania

  1. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2018 Aug 11. pii: S1053-0770(18)30621-9. [Epub ahead of print]
    Nasr VG, Guzzetta NA, Mossad EB.
      Pediatric cardiac anesthesia as a discipline has evolved over the years to become a well recognized sub-specialty. Education and training in the field has also continued to change and develop. In this review, the author outline the changes in the field over the years and suggest a structure for an organized fellowship training process.
    Keywords:  congenital heart disease; fellowship; history; pediatric cardiac anesthesia; training
  2. J Pediatr. 2018 Sep 19. pii: S0022-3476(18)30911-9. [Epub ahead of print]
    Sanz JH, Wang J, Berl MM, Armour AC, Cheng YI, Donofrio MT.
      OBJECTIVE: To test a model to predict psychosocial quality of life (QOL) in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) via executive dysfunction.STUDY DESIGN: Parents of 91 children with CHD requiring surgery in the first year of life completed questionnaires by mail or as part of their cardiology clinic visit. Latent class analysis identified 2 groups of patients with different likelihoods of executive dysfunction. Select medical and demographic characteristics and executive dysfunction group membership were evaluated as predictors of QOL using structural equation modeling.
    RESULTS: In children with CHD, aortic obstruction, male sex, and premature birth predicted worse executive function, explaining 59% of the variance. Structural equation modeling results indicated that executive dysfunction plays an important mediating role, through which CHD with aortic obstruction, male sex, and premature birth indirectly affect psychosocial QOL. Neurologic abnormalities and single-ventricle CHD did not significantly predict executive dysfunction or QOL.
    CONCLUSIONS: Executive dysfunction is a strong predictor of psychosocial QOL at school age. Select medical and demographic risk factors did not directly predict QOL at school age in CHD; however, aortic obstruction, premature birth, and male sex impacted QOL indirectly by contributing to executive dysfunction. These findings suggest important risk factors for executive dysfunction that can be monitored, allowing for provision of early supports for executive skills development in an effort to improve long term psychosocial QOL in at-risk children with CHD.
    Keywords:  congenital heart defects; executive function; neurodevelopmental outcome; quality of life
  3. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2018 Aug 22. pii: S1053-0770(18)30823-1. [Epub ahead of print]
    Kumar A, Das S, Chauhan S, Kiran U, Satapathy S.
      OBJECTIVE: To know the effects of psychological preparation on perioperative stress, anxiety, and mood in children undergoing cardiac surgery and their parents.DESIGN: Prospective randomized control nonblinded trial.
    SETTING: Single-center tertiary teaching hospital.
    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 60 children aged 5 to 15 years undergoing cardiac surgery were included in the study. One of the parents, preferably the father, was selected from the respective children.
    INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were randomized into 2 groups: noninterventional (group 1) and interventional (group 2). Intervention was in the form of toys and video games in children, and counseling and information in parents. Preoperative and postoperative anxiety in parents was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), stress using the Index of Clinical Stress (ICS) scale by Abell, and the Ottawa mood scale. In children, the STAI-C (child version of STAI), Ottawa mood and Ottawa stress scales, and Wong-Baker faces pain scale were applied and serum cortisol was measured.
    MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Group 2 children had significantly less (p < 0.001) stress, anxiety, and pain and improved mood. Group 2 parents had a significant reduction in state anxiety (42 ± 4.4 v 54.5 ± 7.8; p < 0.001) and ICS score (68.1±9.6 v 84.2 ± 9.2; p < 0.001) and an improvement in mood (7.5 ± 0.7 v 5.9 ± 1; p < 0.001) compared with group 1. Postoperatively, cortisol levels in group 2 were lower than group 1 (571.3 nmol/L [123.3 -1247.14] v 718.9 nmol/L [53-1642.0]).
    CONCLUSION: Providing video games and toys preoperatively reduced postoperative stress and anxiety and improved mood in children undergoing congenital cardiac surgery. Parents were relieved of anxiety and stress with proper counseling and information.
    Keywords:  anxiety; congenital cardiac surgery; cortisol; mood; state trait anxiety inventory; stress