bims-heshmo Biomed News
on Trauma hemorrhagic shock — molecular basis
Issue of 2021‒03‒28
twenty-five papers selected by
Andreia Luís
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute

  1. Inflammation. 2021 Mar 10.
      Liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a pathological process that often occurs during liver and trauma surgery. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect and potential mechanisms of sufentanil on hepatic I/R injury. I/R rat model and hypoxic/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced buffalo rat liver (BRL)-3A cell model were established. Following pretreatment with sufentanil, the enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in rat serum and the changes of hepatic histopathology were evaluated to track the extent of liver injury. The levels of inflammatory factors were determined with ELISA kits and RT-qPCR. The infiltration of macrophages was assessed after detecting monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and F4/80 expression. Additionally, apoptosis was measured by means of TUNEL staining, and gene expression related to apoptosis was examined using RT-qPCR and western blotting. Then, TP53BP2 was overexpressed in BRL-3A cells exposed to H/R condition to evaluate whether sufentanil defended the liver against injury by regulating TP53BP2 expression. Moreover, the potential binding site of ATF4 on the TP53BP2 promoter was analyzed using JASPAR databases and verified by chromosomal immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Furthermore, TP53BP2 expression and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-related protein levels were determined after ATF4 was overexpressed in sufentanil-treated BRL-3A cells. Results revealed that sufentanil significantly improved hepatic I/R injury, decreased the levels of inflammatory factors, and alleviated hepatocyte apoptosis. Notably, upregulated TP53BP2 expression was observed in hepatic tissues, and TP53BP2 overexpression markedly reversed the protective effects of sufentanil on the inflammation and apoptosis in H/R-stimulated BRL-3A cells. Additionally, ATF4 was confirmed to combine with the TP53BP2 promoter. ATF4 upregulation attenuated the inhibitory effects of sufentanil on the expression of TP53BP2 and ERS-associated proteins. These findings demonstrated that sufentanil protects the liver from inflammation and apoptosis injury induced by I/R by inhibiting ATF4 expression and further suppressing TP53BP2 expression, suggesting a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of liver I/R injury.
    Keywords:  TP53BP2; apoptosis; inflammation; ischemia/reperfusion injury; sufentanil
  2. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2021 Mar 22. pii: S2352-345X(21)00059-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND & AIMS: DJ-1 is universally expressed in various tissues and organs, and involved in the physiological processes in various liver diseases. However, the role of DJ-1 in liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is largely unknown.METHODS: In this study, we first examined the DJ-1 expression changes in the liver tissues of mice and clinical donor post hepatic I/R by both qPCR and western blotting assays. And then we investigate the role of DJ-1 in I/R injury by employing a murine liver I/R model.
    RESULTS: We demonstrate that DJ-1 down-regulation in both human and mouse liver tissues in response to I/R injury, and Dj-1 deficiency in hepatocytes but not in myeloid cells could significantly ameliorate I/R induced liver injury and inflammatory responses. This hepatoprotective effects was dependent on enhanced autophagy in Dj-1 knockout mice, because inhibition of autophagy by 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (CQ) could reverse the protective effect on hepatic I/R injury in Dj-1 knockout mice CONCLUSION: Dj-1 deficiency in hepatocytes significantly enhanced mitochondrial accumulation and protein stability of PARKIN, which in turn promotes the onset of mitophagy resulting in elevated clearance of damaged mitochondria during I/R injury.
    Keywords:  DJ-1; PARKIN; liver I/R injury; mitophagy
  3. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2021 Mar 23.
      Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in clinic. The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is associated with inflammation and renal injury in I/R-induced AKI. In the current study we explored the molecular and cellular mechanisms for NLRP3 inflammasome activation following renal I/R. Mice were subjected to I/R renal injury by clamping bilateral renal pedicles. We showed that I/R injury markedly increased caspase-11 expression and the cleavage of pannexin 1 (panx1) in the kidneys accompanied by NLRP3 inflammasome activation evidenced by the activation of caspase-1 and interlukin-1β (IL-1β) maturation. In Casp-11-/- mice, I/R-induced panx1 cleavage, NLRP3 inflammasome activation as well as renal functional deterioration and tubular morphological changes were significantly attenuated. In cultured primary tubular cells (PTCs) and NRK-52E cells, hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) markedly increased caspase-11 expression, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1β maturation and panx1 cleavage. Knockdown of caspase-11 attenuated all those changes; similar effects were observed in PTCs isolated from Casp-11-/- mice. In NRK-52E cells, overexpression of caspase-11 promoted panx1 cleavage; pretreatment with panx1 inhibitor carbenoxolone or knockdown of panx1 significantly attenuated H/R-induced intracellular ATP reduction, extracellular ATP elevation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation without apparent influence on H/R-induced caspase-11 increase; pretreatment with P2X7 receptor inhibitor AZD9056 also attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The above results demonstrate that the cleavage of panx1 by upregulated caspase-11 is involved in facilitating ATP release and then NLRP3 inflammasome activation in I/R-induced AKI. This study provides new insight into the molecular mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in AKI.
    Keywords:  ATP; AZD9056; NLRP3 inflammasome; NRK-52E cells; P2X7 receptor; acute kidney injury; carbenoxolone; caspase-11; ischemia/reperfusion injury; pannexin 1; primary tubular cells
  4. Front Immunol. 2021 ;12 637335
      Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI), increases morbidity and mortality, and is a significant risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Macrophage infiltration is a common feature after renal IRI, and infiltrating macrophages can be polarized into the following two distinct types: M1 macrophages, i.e., classically activated macrophages, which can not only inhibit infection but also accelerate renal injury, and M2 macrophages, i.e., alternatively activated macrophages, which have a repair phenotype that can promote wound healing and subsequent fibrosis. The role of TSC1, which is a negative regulator of mTOR signaling that regulates macrophage polarization in inflammation-linked diseases, has been well documented, but whether TSC1 contributes to macrophage polarization in the process of IRI is still unknown. Here, by using a mouse model of renal ischemia-reperfusion, we found that myeloid cell-specific TSC1 knockout mice (termed Lyz-TSC1 cKO mice) had higher serum creatinine levels, more severe histological damage, and greater proinflammatory cytokine production than wild-type (WT) mice during the early phase after renal ischemia-reperfusion. Furthermore, the Lyz-TSC1 cKO mice showed attenuated renal fibrosis during the repair phase of IRI with decreased levels of M2 markers on macrophages in the operated kidneys, which was further confirmed in a cell model of hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) in vitro. Mechanistically, by using RNA sequencing of sorted renal macrophages, we found that the expression of most M1-related genes was upregulated in the Lyz-TSC1 cKO group (Supplemental Table 1) during the early phase. However, C/EBPβ and CD206 expression was decreased during the repair phase compared to in the WT group. Overall, our findings demonstrate that the expression of TSC1 in macrophages contributes to the whole process of IRI but serves as an inflammation suppressor during the early phase and a fibrosis promoter during the repair phase.
    Keywords:  fibrosis; ischemia-reperfusion (IR); kidney; macrophage polarization; tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1)
  5. Mol Med Rep. 2021 May;pii: 341. [Epub ahead of print]23(5):
      Melatonin (MT) is an indoleamine hormone that can counteract ischemia‑induced organ injury through its antioxidant effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of exogenous MT against hemorrhagic shock (HS)‑induced hepatic ischemic injury in rats, and the role of the nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signaling pathway in this process. A rat model of HS‑induced hepatic ischemic injury was established. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, interferon (IFN)‑γ, interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑1β were measured every 6 h, and the 24‑h survival rate of the rats was analyzed. All surviving rats were sacrificed after 24 h. Pathological changes in the liver and the hepatocyte apoptosis rate were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and TUNEL assay, respectively, and the expression levels of NF‑κB p65 and NF‑κB inhibitor α (IκBα) were analyzed by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR analysis and western blotting. The results demonstrated that the serum levels of ALT, AST, LDH, GDH, TNF‑α, IFN‑γ, IL‑6 and IL‑1β gradually increased after HS compared with those in rats subjected to a sham procedure, but this increase was attenuated by MT. Furthermore, the survival rate of the MT group was significantly higher compared with that of the HS group. The degree of pathological hepatic injury, the hepatocyte apoptosis rate, and the hepatic levels of TNF‑α, IFN‑γ, IL‑6 and IL‑1β were significantly decreased in the MT group compared with the HS group. In addition, the mRNA expression of NF‑κB p65 was significantly decreased and the mRNA expression of IκBα was significantly increased in the MT group compared with the sham group. Furthermore, the NF‑κB p65 protein levels in the MT group were significantly increased in the cytosol but decreased in the nucleus, and the IκBα protein levels were increased while those of phosphorylated IκBα were decreased compared with those in the HS group. Therefore, it may be inferred that exogenous MT alleviates HS‑induced hepatic ischemic injury in rats via the inhibition of NF‑κB activation and IκBα phosphorylation.
  6. Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 23. 11(1): 6665
      Severe injuries are frequently accompanied by hemorrhagic shock and harbor an increased risk for complications. Local or systemic inflammation after trauma/hemorrhage may lead to a leaky intestinal epithelial barrier and subsequent translocation of gut microbiota, potentially worsening outcomes. To evaluate the extent with which trauma affects the gut microbiota composition, we performed a post hoc analysis of a murine model of polytrauma and hemorrhage. Four hours after injury, organs and plasma samples were collected, and the diversity and composition of the cecal microbiome were evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although cecal microbial alpha diversity and microbial community composition were not found to be different between experimental groups, norepinephrine support in shock animals resulted in increased alpha diversity, as indicated by higher numbers of distinct microbial features. We observed that the concentrations of proinflammatory mediators in plasma and intestinal tissue were associated with measures of microbial alpha and beta diversity and the presence of specific microbial drivers of inflammation, suggesting that the composition of the gut microbiome at the time of trauma, or shortly after trauma exposure, may play an important role in determining physiological outcomes. In conclusion, we found associations between measures of gut microbial alpha and beta diversity and the severity of systemic and local gut inflammation. Furthermore, our data suggest that four hours following injury is too early for development of global changes in the alpha diversity or community composition of the intestinal microbiome. Future investigations with increased temporal-spatial resolution are needed in order to fully elucidate the effects of trauma and shock on the gut microbiome, biological signatures of inflammation, and proximal and distal outcomes.
  7. Cell Prolif. 2021 Mar 10. e13021
      Although the liver is the only organ with regenerative capacity, various injury factors induce irreversible liver dysfunction and end-stage liver disease. Liver resection and liver transplantation (LT) are effective treatments for individuals with liver failure, liver cirrhosis and liver cancers. The remnant or transplanted liver tissues will undergo hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion (IR), which leads to oxidative stress, inflammation, immune injury and liver damage. Moreover, systemic ischaemia induced by trauma, stroke, myocardial ischaemia, haemorrhagic shock and other injury factors also induces liver ischaemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in individuals. Hepatic IRI can be divided into warm IRI, which is induced by liver surgery and systemic ischaemia, and cold IRI, which is induced by LT. Multiple studies have shown that melatonin (MT) acts as an endogenous free radical scavenger with antioxidant capacity and is also able to attenuate hepatic IRI via its anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic capacities. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms and current strategies of MT administration in liver surgery for protecting against warm or cold hepatic IRI. We highlight strategies to improve the efficacy and safety of MT for attenuating hepatic IRI in different conditions. After the potential mechanisms underlying the interactions between MT and other important cellular processes during hepatic IR are clarified, more opportunities will be available to use MT to treat liver diseases in the future.
    Keywords:  inflammation; injury; ischaemia/reperfusion; liver; melatonin; mitochondria
  8. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 03 22. 13
      Aging impairs mitochondrial function that leads to greater cardiac injury during ischemia and reperfusion. Cardiac endoplasm reticulum (ER) stress increases with age and contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction. Metformin is an anti-diabetic drug that protects cardiac mitochondria during acute ER stress. We hypothesized that metformin treatment would improve preexisting mitochondrial dysfunction in aged hearts by attenuating ER stress, followed by a decrease in cardiac injury during subsequent ischemia and reperfusion. Male young (3 mo.) and aged mice (24 mo.) received metformin (300 mg/kg/day) dissolved in drinking water with sucrose (0.2 g/100 ml) as sweetener for two weeks versus sucrose vehicle alone. Cytosol, subsarcolemmal (SSM), and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) were isolated. In separate groups, cardioprotection was evaluated using ex vivo isolated heart perfusion with 25 min. global ischemia and 60 min. reperfusion. Infarct size was measured. The contents of CHOP and cleaved ATF6 were decreased in metformin-treated 24 mo. mice compared to vehicle, supporting a decrease in ER stress. Metformin treatment improved OXPHOS in IFM in 24 mo. using a complex I substrate. Metformin treatment decreased infarct size following ischemia-reperfusion. Thus, metformin feeding decreased cardiac injury in aged mice during ischemia-reperfusion by improving pre-ischemic mitochondrial function via inhibition of ER stress.
    Keywords:  electron transport chain; electron transport complex I; endoplasmic reticulum stress; mitochondrial permeability transition pore; myocardial infarction
  9. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2021 Mar 12.
      BACKGROUND: Major injury results in an early cascade of immunologic responses that increase susceptibility to infection and multiorgan dysfunction. Detailed immune profiling by mass cytometry has the potential to identify immune signatures that correspond to patient outcomes. Our objective was to determine the prognostic value of immune signatures early after major trauma injury.METHODS: Trauma patients (n=17) were prospectively enrolled between September 2018 and December 2019. Serial whole blood samples were obtained from trauma patients (mean ISS 26.2, standard error of the mean 3.7) at days 1 and 3 after injury, and from age- and sex-matched uninjured controls using a standardized protocol for fixation, storage, and labeling. Computational analyses including K-nearest neighbor automated clustering of immune cells and Spearman's correlation analysis were used to identify correlations between cell populations, clinical measures, and patient outcomes.
    RESULTS: Analysis revealed 9 immune cell clusters that correlated with one or more clinical outcomes. On days 1 & 3 post injury, the abundance of immature neutrophil and classical monocytes (cMCs) exhibited a strong positive correlation with increased ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS). Conversely, the abundance of CD4 T-cell subsets, namely Th17 cells, are associated with improved patient outcomes including: decreased ventilator-days (r =-0.76), hospital-acquired pneumonia (r=-0.69), and acute kidney injury (r=-0.73).
    CONCLUSIONS: Here we provide a comprehensive multi-time point immunophenotyping analysis of whole blood from patients soon after traumatic injury to determine immune correlates of adverse outcomes. Our findings indicate that alterations in myeloid-origin cell types may contribute to immune dysfunction after injury. Conversely, presence of effector-T cell populations correspond with decreased hospital LOS and organ dysfunction. Overall, these data identify novel immune signatures following traumatic injury that support the view that monitoring of immune (sub)-populations may provide clinical decision-making support for at-risk patients early in their hospital course.
    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Basic Science paper.
  10. Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Mar 22. pii: S0753-3322(21)00262-6. [Epub ahead of print]138 111477
      Protein O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic post-translational protein modification that regulates fundamental cellular functions in both normal physiology and diseases. The levels of protein O-GlcNAcylation are determined by flux of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), which is a branch of glycolysis, and are directly controlled by a pair of enzymes: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). An increase in protein O-GlcNAcylation has been shown to have protective effects on ischemia-related insults in the heart and brain. To determine whether O-GlcNAcylation plays a beneficial role in ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced intestinal injury, we used pharmacological manipulation of O-GlcNAc to induce loss- and gain-of-function conditions and evaluated the viability and apoptosis of intestinal epithelioid cells in an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model and tissue injury grade in a small intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (SIIR) mouse model. We found that 1) Upregulation of O-GlcNAcylation induced by glucosamine (GlcN, increase in HBP flux) or thiamet G (an OGA inhibitor) enhanced intestinal cell survival in the OGD model. In contrast, downregulation of O-GlcNAcylation induced by DON (due to a reduction in HBP flux) or OMSI-1 (an OGT inhibitor) made the cells more susceptible to hypoxia injury. 2) Reducing the increase in O-GlcNAcylation levels with a combination of either GlcN with DON or thiamet G with OMSI-1 partly canceled its protective effect on OGD-induced cell injury. 3) In the in vivo SIIR mouse model, GlcN augmented intestinal protein O-GlcNAcylation and significantly alleviated intestinal injury by inhibiting cell apoptosis. These results indicate that acute increases in protein O-GlcNAcylation confer protection against intestinal ischemia insults, suggesting that O-GlcNAcylation, as an endogenous stress sensor, could be a universal protective mechanism and could be a potential therapeutic target for intestinal ischemic disease.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Intestine; Ischemia-reperfusion injury; Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD); Protein O-GlcNAcylation
  11. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Mar 19. 13
      The regulation of mTOR and the dimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9me2) H3K9me2 by Uhrf1 and the mechanism of autophagy regulation in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) were studied in vivo and in vitro. An in vitro I/R injury model was established using the primary mouse cardiomyocytes treated with H2O2. Subsequent analysis by qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence indicated that overexpression of Uhrf1 significantly inhibited apoptosis of the H2O2-treated cardiomyocytes, reduced expression of apoptosis factors caspase-3 and Bax, and increased expression of apoptosis inhibitory factor Bcl-2. Furthermore, Uhrf1 was found to increase cardiomyocyte proliferation and promote the expression of mTOR, while the four expression peaks of H3K9me2 on the mTOR gene were inhibited by overexpression of Uhrf1. The expression of autophagy factors LC3, Beclin-1, and p-mTOR in Uhrf1-overexpressed cardiomyocytes was dramatically increased, and P62 expression was dramatically decreased. When an H3K9me2 inhibitor was added to the Uhrf1-knockdown cardiomyocytes, the expression of mTOR was increased, the expression of LC3, Beclin-1, and p-mTOR was decreased, and P62 expression was significantly increased. In the present study, Uhrf1 exhibits a protective function in MIRI, reducing the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes while increasing their proliferation and viability.
    Keywords:  H3K9me2; Uhrf1; autophagy; mTOR; myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury
  12. Redox Biol. 2021 Mar 06. pii: S2213-2317(21)00084-7. [Epub ahead of print]41 101936
      Recently, numerous evidence has revealed that excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial disruption during acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) will aggravate the inflammatory process. To identify whether antioxidation can be one of the treatment strategies during this progress, we chose mitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant that was proved to be effective in reducing ROS generated in mitochondria, as a ROS scavenger to investigate the role of antioxidation in ALI. We demonstrated that overoxidation occurred during the process of ALI, which could be reduced by mitoQ. In the meantime, apoptosis of endothelial cells of ALI mice, accompanied by hyperpermeability of pulmonary vascular and impaired pulmonary function, was partially reversed following an intraperitoneal injection of mitoQ. Moreover, in in vitro study, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced excessive ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs), which were rectified by mitoQ. To explore underlying mechanisms, we proceeded RNA-sequencing and found significantly upregulated expression of musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma F (MafF) in mitoQ treated group. Additionally, mitoQ inhibited the degradation and increased nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulated its downstream antioxidant response elements (AREs), such as heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO)-1. This effect was abolished by transfecting HPMECs with Nrf2 or Maff siRNA. In Nrf2 deficient mice, the protective effects of mitoQ on LPS model of ALI were largely vanished. Taken together, these results provide insights into how antioxidation exerts beneficial effects on ALI via maintaining mitochondrial hemostasis, inhibiting endothelial cells apoptosis, attenuating the endothelial disruption and regulating lung inflammation via Nrf2-MafF/ARE pathway.
    Keywords:  ALI; Apoptosis; Endothelial cells; MitoQ; Nrf2
  13. J Chest Surg. 2021 Feb 05. 54(1): 9-16
      Background: The deposition of monomeric C-reactive protein (mCRP) in the myocardium aggravates ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and myocardial infarction. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is known to protect the myocardium against IRI.Methods: We evaluated the effects of IPC on myocardium upon which mCRP had been deposited due to IRI in a rat model. Myocardial IRI was induced via ligation of the coronary artery. Direct IPC was applied prior to IRI using multiple short direct occlusions of the coronary artery. CRP was infused intravenously after IRI. The study included sham (n=3), IRI-only (n=5), IRI+CRP (n=9), and IPC+IRI+CRP (n=6) groups. The infarcted area and the area at risk were assessed using Evans blue and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium staining. Additionally, mCRP immunostaining and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were performed.
    Results: In the IRI+CRP group, the infarcted area and the area of mCRP deposition were greater, and the level of IL-6 mRNA expression was higher, than in the IRI-only group. However, in the IPC+IRI+CRP group relative to the IRI+CRP group, the relative areas of infarction (20% vs. 34%, respectively; p=0.079) and mCRP myocardial deposition (21% vs. 44%, respectively; p=0.026) were lower and IL-6 mRNA expression was higher (fold change: 407 vs. 326, respectively; p=0.376), although the difference in IL-6 mRNA expression was not statistically significant.
    Conclusion: IPC was associated with significantly decreased deposition of mCRP and with increased expression of IL-6 in myocardium damaged by IRI. The net cardioprotective effect of decreased mCRP deposition and increased IL-6 levels should be clarified in a further study.
    Keywords:  C-reactive protein; Ischemic preconditioning; Myocardial infarction; Reperfusion injury
  14. Shock. 2021 Mar 25.
      ABSTRACT: Trauma induced coagulopathy is associated with very high mortality, and hemorrhage remains the leading preventable cause of death after injury. Directed methods to combat coagulopathy and attain hemostasis are needed. The available literature regarding viscoelastic testing, including thrombelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), was reviewed to provide clinically relevant guidance for emergency resuscitation. These tests predict massive transfusion and developing coagulopathy earlier than conventional coagulation testing, within 15 minutes using rapid testing. They can guide resuscitation after trauma, as well. TEG and ROTEM direct early transfusion of fresh frozen plasma when clinical gestalt has not activated a massive transfusion protocol. Reaction time and clotting time via these tests can also detect clinically significant levels of direct oral anticoagulants. Slowed clot kinetics suggest the need for transfusion of fibrinogen via concentrates or cryoprecipitate. Lowered clot strength can be corrected with platelets and fibrinogen. Finally, viscoelastic tests identify fibrinolysis, a finding associated with significantly increased mortality yet one that no conventional coagulation test can reliably detect. Using these parameters, guided resuscitation begins within minutes of a patient's arrival. A growing body of evidence suggests this approach may improve survival while reducing volumes of blood products transfused.
  15. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2021 Mar 25. ATVBAHA121315805
      OBJECTIVE: Macrophage-mediated inflammatory response is closely associated with the neovascularization process following hindlimb ischemia. We previously demonstrated that HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1) in macrophages evoked proinflammatory reactions and tissue damage. Here, we evaluated the role played by macrophage-derived HO-1 and elucidated its underlying molecular mechanisms in perfusion recovery after hindlimb ischemia. Approach and Results: We found significant upregulation of HO-1 in mouse ischemic muscles after hindlimb ischemia surgery and with most of this expression occurring in infiltrated macrophages. Myeloid conditional HO-1-deficient mice exhibited higher perfusion recovery, evidenced by restored blood flow, motor function and attenuated tissue damage as well as increased capillary density in the gastrocnemius muscles after hindlimb ischemia, relative to littermate controls. This protective effect was accompanied by reduced nod-like receptor family, NLRP3 (pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome activation in the infiltrated macrophages without the alteration of macrophage infiltration and polarization. Moreover, suppressing inflammasome activation with NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 improved blood flow and capillary density in wild-type mice compared with untreated mice. Mechanistically, suppressing HO-1 abolished TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-α-induced NLRP3 protein rather than mRNA expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages, indicating that HO-1 mediated post-transcriptional regulation of NLRP3. Furthermore, HO-1 inhibition promoted autolysosome-dependent degradation of NLRP3 in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Matrigel tube formation assay revealed that HO-1 deletion abrogated the antiangiogenic effect of inflammasome-activated macrophages.CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings indicate that macrophage HO-1 deficiency promotes perfusion recovery after hindlimb ischemia by accelerating autolysosomal degradation of NLRP3. The underlying mechanism of action is a potential target for therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic diseases.
    Keywords:  heme oxygenase-1; inflammasome; macrophage; mice; perfusion
  16. Cell Death Dis. 2021 Mar 26. 12(4): 330
      B cells that interact with T cells play a role in regulating the defense function by producing antibodies and inflammatory cytokines. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is a specific receptor for stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) that controls various B cell functions. Here, we investigated whether CXCR4 regulates B cell viability by inducing hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) under a hypoxic condition in WiL2-NS human B cells. Nrf2 and CXCR4 expressions increased significantly when WiL2-NS cells were incubated under a hypoxic condition. Interfering with CXCR4 expression using CXCR4-siRNA inhibited cell viability. CXCR4 expression also decreased after treatment with a HIF inhibitor under the hypoxic condition, leading to inhibited cell viability. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the expression of HIF-1α and Nrf2 decreased under the hypoxic condition following incubation with N-acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger, which was associated with a decrease in CXCR4 expression. CXCR4 expression was augmented by overexpressing Nrf2 after transfecting the pcDNA3.1-Nrf2 plasmid. CXCR4 expression decreased and HIF-1α accumulation decreased when Nrf2 was inhibited by doxycycline in tet-shNrf2-expressed stable cells. Nrf2 or HIF-1α bound from -718 to -561 of the CXCR4 gene promoter as judged by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, these data show that B cell viability under a hypoxic condition could be regulated by CXCR4 expression through binding of HIF-1α and Nrf2 to the CXCR4 gene promoter cooperatively. These results suggest that CXCR4 could be an additional therapeutic target to control B cells with roles at disease sites under hypoxic conditions.
  17. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. 2021 ;6(1): e000619
      Background: Trauma elicits a complex inflammatory response that, among multiple presenting factors, is greatly impacted by the magnitude of injury severity. Herein, we compared the changes in circulating levels of mediators with known proinflammatory roles to those with known protective/reparative actions as a function of injury severity in injured humans.Methods: Clinical and biobank data were obtained from 472 (trauma database-1 (TD-1), University of Pittsburgh) and 89 (trauma database-2 (TD-2), Indiana University) trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and who survived to discharge. Injury severity was estimated based on the Injury Severity Score (ISS), and this was used as both a continuous variable and for the purpose of grouping patients into severity-based cohorts. Samples within the first 24 hours were obtained from all patients and then daily up to day 7 postinjury in TD-1. Sixteen cytokines were assayed using Luminex and were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (p<0.05).
    Results: Patients with higher ISSs had longer ICU and hospital stays, days on mechanical ventilation and higher rates of nosocomial infection when compared with the mild and moderate groups. Time course analysis and correlations with ISS showed that 11 inflammatory mediators correlated positively with injury severity, consistent with previous reports. However, five mediators (interleukin (IL)-9, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23 and IL-17E/25) were suppressed in patients with high ISS and inversely correlated with ISS.
    Discussion: These findings suggest that severe injury is associated with a suppression of a subset of cytokines known to be involved in tissue protection and regeneration (IL-9, IL-22 and IL-17E/25) and lymphocyte differentiation (IL-21 and IL-23), which in turn correlates with adverse clinical outcomes. Thus, patterns of proinflammatory versus protective/reparative mediators diverge with increasing ISS.
    Keywords:  accidents; cytokines; inflammation; intensive care units
  18. Mol Med. 2021 Mar 26. 27(1): 29
      BACKGROUND: Alarmins are considered proximal mediators of the immune response after tissue injury. Understanding their biology could pave the way for development of new therapeutic targets and biomarkers in human disease, including multiple trauma. In this study we explored high-resolution concentration kinetics of the alarmin interleukin-33 (IL-33) early after human trauma.METHODS: Plasma samples were serially collected from 136 trauma patients immediately after hospital admission, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h thereafter, and every morning in the ICU. Levels of IL-33 and its decoy receptor sST2 were measured by immunoassays.
    RESULTS: We observed a rapid and transient surge of IL-33 in a subset of critically injured patients. These patients had more widespread tissue injuries and a greater degree of early coagulopathy. IL-33 half-life (t1/2) was 1.4 h (95% CI 1.2-1.6). sST2 displayed a distinctly different pattern with low initial levels but massive increase at later time points.
    CONCLUSIONS: We describe for the first time early high-resolution IL-33 concentration kinetics in individual patients after trauma and correlate systemic IL-33 release to clinical data. These findings provide insight into a potentially important axis of danger signaling in humans.
    Keywords:  Alarmins; Biomarkers; Critical Care; Humans; Immunity; Innate; Interleukin-33; Kinetics; Prospective Studies; Wounds and Injuries
  19. Shock. 2021 Mar 23.
      ABSTRACT: Vascular hypo-reactivity plays a critical role inducing organ injury during hemorrhagic shock. 17β-estradiol (E2) can induce vasodilation to increase blood flow in various vascular beds. This study observed whether E2 can restore vascular hypo-reactivity induced by hemorrhagic shock, and whether E2 effects are associated with RhoA - Rho kinase (ROCK)- myosin light chain kinase phosphatase (MLCP) pathway. The hemorrhagic shock model (40 ± 2 mmHg for 1 h, resuscitation for 4 h) was established in ovary intact sham operation (OVI), ovariectomized (OVX) and OVX plus E2 supplement female mice. Intestinal microvascular loop was used to assess blood flow in vivo, mRNA expression and vascular reactivity in vitro. Hemorrhagic shock significantly reduced norepinephrine microvascular reactivity. Decreased microvascular reactivity was exacerbated by OVX and reversed by E2 supplement. U-46619 (RhoA agonist) increased microvascular reactivity, and C3 transferase (an ADP ribosyl transferase that selectively induces RhoA ribosylation) or Y-27632 (ROCK inhibitor) inhibited sham mice microvascular reactivity. Similarly, U-46619 increased microvascular reactivity in OVI and OVX mice following hemorrhagic shock, which was abolished by Y-27632 or concomitant incubation of okadaic acid (OA) (MLCP inhibitor) and Y-27632. In OVX plus E2 supplement mice with hemorrhagic shock, Y-27632 inhibited microvascular reactivity, which was abolished by concomitant U-46619 application. Lastly, hemorrhagic shock remarkably decreased intestinal loop blood flow, RhoA and ROCK mRNA expressions in vascular tissues in OVX females, but not in OVI females, which were reversed by E2 supplement. These results indicate that estrogen improves microvascular reactivity during hemorrhagic shock, and RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway may mediate E2 effects.
  20. Angiogenesis. 2021 Mar 26.
      Endothelial barrier disruption and vascular leak importantly contribute to organ dysfunction and mortality during inflammatory conditions like sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We identified the kinase Arg/Abl2 as a mediator of endothelial barrier disruption, but the role of Arg in endothelial monolayer regulation and its relevance in vivo remain poorly understood. Here we show that depletion of Arg in endothelial cells results in the activation of both RhoA and Rac1, increased cell spreading and elongation, redistribution of integrin-dependent cell-matrix adhesions to the cell periphery, and improved adhesion to the extracellular matrix. We further show that Arg is activated in the endothelium during inflammation, both in murine lungs exposed to barrier-disruptive agents, and in pulmonary microvessels of septic patients. Importantly, Arg-depleted endothelial cells were less sensitive to barrier-disruptive agents. Despite the formation of F-actin stress fibers and myosin light chain phosphorylation, Arg depletion diminished adherens junction disruption and intercellular gap formation, by reducing the disassembly of cell-matrix adhesions and cell retraction. In vivo, genetic deletion of Arg diminished vascular leak in the skin and lungs, in the presence of a normal immune response. Together, our data indicate that Arg is a central and non-redundant regulator of endothelial barrier integrity, which contributes to cell retraction and gap formation by increasing the dynamics of adherens junctions and cell-matrix adhesions in a Rho GTPase-dependent fashion. Therapeutic inhibition of Arg may provide a suitable strategy for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions characterized by vascular leak.
    Keywords:  Arg/Abl2; Endothelial barrier function; Inflammation; Integrins; VE-cadherin; Vascular leak
  21. Medicine (Baltimore). 2021 Mar 26. 100(12): e25143
      BACKGROUND: Whether to use limited fluid resuscitation (LFR) in patients with hemorrhagic shock or septic shock remains controversial. This research was aimed to assess the pros and cons of utilizing LFR in hemorrhagic shock or septic shock patients.METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of science, CNKI, VIP, and Wan Fang database searches included for articles published before December 15, 2020. Randomized controlled trials of LFR or adequate fluid resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock or septic shock patients were selected.
    RESULT: This meta-analysis including 28 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and registered 3288 patients. The 7 of 27 RCTs were the patients with septic shock. Others were traumatic hemorrhagic shock patients. Comparing LFR or adequate fluid resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock or septic shock patients, the summary odds ratio (OR) was 0.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42-0.60, P < .00001) for mortality, 0.46 (95% CI 0.31-0.70, P = .0002) for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), 0.35 (95% CI 0.25-0.47) for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and 0.33 (95% CI 0.20-0.56) for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
    CONCLUSION: Limited fluid resuscitation is the benefit of both traumatic hemorrhagic shock patients and septic shock patients.
  22. Crit Care. 2021 03 23. 25(1): 119
      BACKGROUND: Traditionally, patient risk scoring is done by evaluating vital signs and clinical severity scores with clinical intuition. Urinary biomarkers can add objectivity to these models to make risk prediction more accurate. We used metabolomics to identify prognostic urinary biomarkers of mortality or need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). Additionally, we assessed acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis, injury severity score (ISS), and AKI stage.METHODS: Urine samples (n = 82) from a previous study of combat casualties were evaluated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Chenomx software was used to identify and quantify urinary metabolites. Metabolite concentrations were normalized by urine output, autoscaled, and log-transformed. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and statistical analysis were performed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess prognostic utility of biomarkers for mortality and RRT.
    RESULTS: Eighty-four (84) metabolites were identified and quantified in each urine sample. Of these, 11 were identified as drugs or drug metabolites and excluded. The PLS-DA models for ISS and AKI diagnosis did not have acceptable model statistics. Therefore, only mortality/RRT and AKI stage were analyzed further. Of 73 analyzed metabolites, 9 were significantly associated with mortality/RRT (p < 0.05) and 11 were significantly associated with AKI stage (p < 0.05). 1-Methylnicotinamide was the only metabolite to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with all outcomes and was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in patients with adverse outcomes. Elevated lactate and 1-methylnicotinamide levels were associated with higher AKI stage and mortality and RRT, whereas elevated glycine levels were associated with patients who survived and did not require RRT, or had less severe AKI. ROC curves for each of these metabolites and the combined panel had good predictive value (lactate AUC = 0.901, 1-methylnicotinamide AUC = 0.864, glycine AUC = 0.735, panel AUC = 0.858).
    CONCLUSIONS: We identified urinary metabolites associated with AKI stage and the primary outcome of mortality or need for RRT. Lactate, 1-methylnicotinamide, and glycine may be used as a panel of predictive biomarkers for mortality and RRT. 1-Methylnicotinamide is a novel biomarker associated with adverse outcomes. Additional studies are necessary to determine how these metabolites can be utilized in clinically-relevant risk prediction models.
    Keywords:  Acute kidney injury; Biomarkers; Combat injury; Metabolites; Metabolomics; Renal replacement therapy; Risk prediction
  23. Front Pharmacol. 2021 ;12 620812
      Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is often closely linked to autophagy, hypoxia signaling, mitochondrial biogenesis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses. Understanding the interaction between ER stress, mitochondrial function and autophagy is of great importance to provide new mechanisms for the pathology, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study has reported that Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) protection against thapsigargin (TG)-induced ER stress response and associated cell apoptosis in cardiac myocytes is calcium dependent and mediated by ER Ca2+ release through RyR2. However, whether its protection upon ER stress and associated apoptosis is related to mitochondrial function and autophagy remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the roles of PNS played in TG-induced mitochondrial function, ROS accumulation and autophagy. We also assessed its effects on Ca2+ homeostasis, ER stress response and associated cell death in the presence of autophagy inhibition. PNS-pretreated primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were stimulated with TG to induce ER stress response. Mitochondrial potential (Δψm) was measured by JC-1. The general and mitochondrial ROS were measured by DCFH-DA and MitoSOX Red, respectively. Autophagy was evaluated by immunofluorescence of LC3, and immunoblots of LC3, p62, ATG7 and PINK1. In addition, mRFP-GFP-LC3 labeling was used to assess the autophagic influx. SiATG7 transfected H9c2 cells were generated to inhibit autophagy. Cytosolic and ER Ca2+ dynamics were investigated by calcium imaging. RyR2 oxidation was tested by oxyblot. Cell viability was examined by TUNEL assay. ER stress response and cell apoptosis were detected by immunoblots of BiP, CHOP, Cleaved Caspase-3 and Caspase-12. The results demonstrated that firstly, PNS protects against TG-induced mitochondrial injury and ROS accumulation. Secondly, PNS enhances autophagy in TG-induced cardiac myocytes. Thirdly, inhibition of autophagy diminishes PNS prevention of TG-induced mitochondrial injury, ROS accumulation and disruption of Ca2+ homeostasis. Last but not least, inhibition of autophagy abolishes PNS protection against TG-induced ER stress response and associated apoptosis. In summary, PNS protection against ER stress response and associated apoptosis is related to the regulation of mitochondrial injury and ROS overproduction via modulation of autophagy. These data provide new insights for molecular mechanisms of PNS as a potential preventive approach to the management of cardiovascular diseases.
    Keywords:  Ca2+ homeostasis; ER stress; PNS; ROS; RyR2 oxidation; apoptosis; autophagy; mitochondrial injury
  24. Apoptosis. 2021 Mar 09.
      Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability and death worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been recognized as a marker of neuronal death during ischemic stroke. Maintaining the function of mitochondria is important for improving the survival of neurons and maintaining neuronal function. Damaged mitochondria induce neuronal cell apoptosis by releasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-apoptotic factors. Mitochondrial fission and fusion processes and mitophagy are of great importance to mitochondrial quality control. This paper reviews the dynamic changes in mitochondria, the roles of mitochondria in different cell types, and related signaling pathways in ischemic stroke. This review describes in detail the role of mitochondria in the process of neuronal injury and protection in cerebral ischemia, and integrates neuroprotective drugs targeting mitochondria in recent years, which may provide a theoretical basis for the progress of treatment of ischemic stroke. The potential of mitochondrial-targeted therapy is also emphasized, which provides valuable insights for clinical research.
    Keywords:  Ischemic stroke; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial dynamics; Mitophagy; Neuroprotective drugs; Reactive oxygen species
  25. Shock. 2021 Mar 23.
      BACKGROUND: Vascular barrier breakdown in sepsis represents a key component of the maladaptive host response to infection and the release of endothelial Angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2) is a mechanistic driver of endothelial hyperpermeability. Angpt-2 is associated with morbidity and mortality but a targeted therapeutic approach is not available. We screened for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs that might have off-target effects decreasing Angpt-2 and therefore, ameliorating capillary leakage.METHODS: Endothelial cells were isolated from human umbilical veins (HUVECs) and used for in vitro studies at baseline and after stimulation (FDA-library screening, RT-PCR, ELISA, immunocytochemistry, MTT assay). On the functional level, we assessed real-time transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) using an ECIS (electric cell-substrate impedance sensing) device.
    RESULTS: We found that the anti-fungal Bifonazole (BIFO) reduces spontaneous Angpt-2 release in a time- and dose-dependent manner after 8, 12 and 24 h (24 h: veh: 15.6 ± 0.7 vs. BIFO: 8.6 ± 0.8 ng/mL, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, we observed a reduction in its intra-cellular content by 33% (p < 0.001). Stimulation with tumor necrosis factor α induced a strong release of Angpt-2 that could analogously be blocked by additional treatment with BIFO (veh: 1.58 ± 0.2 vs. BIFO: 1.02 ± 0.1, p < 0.0001). Quantification of endothelial permeability by TER revealed that BIFO was sufficient to reduce Thrombin-induced barrier breakdown (veh: 0.82 ± 0.1 vs. BIFO: 1.01 ± 0.02, p < 0.05).
    CONCLUSION: The antifungal BIFO reduces both release and biosynthesis of the endothelial-destabilizing factor Angpt-2 in vitro thereby improving vascular barrier function. Additional studies are needed to further investigate the underlying mechanism and to translate these findings to in vivo models.