bims-heshmo Biomed News
on Trauma hemorrhagic shock — molecular basis
Issue of 2021‒03‒14
eleven papers selected by
Andreia Luís
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute

  1. Front Pharmacol. 2021 ;12 598959
      Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) has been confirmed to be responsive to oxidative stress and to negatively regulate the activity of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, the effect of ATF3 on cardiac microvascular ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. The GEO2R online tool was employed to obtain differentially expressed genes GSE4105 and GSE122020, in two rat I/R injury microarray datasets. We established a rat myocardial I/R model in vivo, and also generated an in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) model of cardiomyoblast H9c2 cells. Overexpression of ATF3 was achieved by adenoviral-mediated gene transfer (Ad-ATF3). Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, I/R, I/R + Ad-Lacz (as a control), and I/R + Ad-ATF3. ELISA, CCK-8, DCFH-DA probe, qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of ATF3, oxidative indices, cellular injury and TLR4/NF-κB pathway-associated proteins. Transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to detect the leukocyte infiltration and the alteration of microvascular morphology and function in vivo. Echocardiographic and hemodynamic data were also obtained. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that ATF3 was upregulated in I/R myocardia in two independent rat myocardial I/R models. Cardiac microvascular I/R injury included leukocyte infiltration, microvascular integrity disruption, and microvascular perfusion defect, which eventually resulted in the deterioration of hemodynamic parameters and heart function. Ad-ATF3 significantly restored microvascular function, increased cardiac microvascular perfusion, and improved hemodynamic parameters and heart function. Mechanistically, Ad-ATF3 ameliorated oxidative stress, inhibited TLR4/NF-κB pathway activation and down-regulated the expression of downstream proinflammatory cytokines in I/R myocardium in vivo and in H/R H9c2 cells in vitro. ATF3 overexpression protects against cardiac microvascular I/R injury in part by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB pathway and oxidative stress.
    Keywords:  Ischemia/reperfusion; activating transcription factor 3; inflammatory response; microvascular injury; oxidative stress; toll-like receptor 4
  2. Basic Res Cardiol. 2021 Mar 10. 116(1): 16
      BACKGROUND: Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) by brief periods of limb ischemia and reperfusion protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury. We studied the cardioprotective role of extracellular vesicles (EV)s released into the circulation after RIC and EV accumulation in injured myocardium.METHODS: We used plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after RIC (pre-PLA and post-PLA) to evaluate the transferability of RIC. Pre- and post-RIC plasma samples were separated into an EV enriched fraction (pre-EV + and post-EV +) and an EV poor fraction (pre-EV- and post-EV-) by size exclusion chromatography. Small non-coding RNAs from pre-EV + and post-EV + were purified and profiled by NanoString Technology. Infarct size was compared in Sprague-Dawley rat hearts perfused with isolated plasma and fractions in a Langendorff model. In addition, fluorescently labeled EVs were used to assess homing in an in vivo rat model. (, number: NCT03380663) RESULTS: Post-PLA reduced infarct size by 15% points compared with Pre-PLA (55 ± 4% (n = 7) vs 70 ± 6% (n = 8), p = 0.03). Post-EV + reduced infarct size by 16% points compared with pre-EV + (53 ± 15% (n = 13) vs 68 ± 12% (n = 14), p = 0.03). Post-EV- did not affect infarct size compared to pre-EV- (64 ± 3% (n = 15) and 68 ± 10% (n = 16), p > 0.99). Three miRNAs (miR-16-5p, miR-144-3p and miR-451a) that target the mTOR pathway were significantly up-regulated in the post-EV + group. Labelled EVs accumulated more intensely in the infarct area than in sham hearts.
    CONCLUSION: Cardioprotection by RIC can be mediated by circulating EVs that accumulate in injured myocardium. The underlying mechanism involves modulation of EV miRNA that may promote cell survival during reperfusion.
    Keywords:  Cardioprotection; Extracellular vesicles; Ischemia/reperfusion; MiRNA; Myocardial Infarction; Remote ischemic conditioning
  3. J Cell Mol Med. 2021 Mar 12.
      Recent studies have revealed that exercise has myocardial protective effects, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. Studies have increasingly found that peptides play a protective role in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, little is known about the role of exercise-induced peptides in myocardial I/R injury. To elucidate the effect of exercise-induced peptide EIP-22 in myocardial I/R injury, we first determined the effect of EIP-22 on hypoxia/reperfusion (H/R)- or H2 O2 -induced injury via assessing cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed by fluorescence microscope. Meanwhile, Western blot and TUNEL methods were used to detect apoptosis level. Then, we conducted mice I/R injury model and verified the effect of EIP-22 by measuring cardiac function, evaluating heart pathology and detecting serum LDH, CK-MB and cTnI level. Finally, the main signalling pathway was analysed by RNA-seq. In vitro, EIP-22 treatment significantly improved cells viabilities and MMP and attenuated the LDH, ROS and apoptosis level. In vivo, EIP-22 distinctly improved cardiac function, ameliorated myocardial infarction area and fibrosis and decreased serum LDH, CK-MB and cTnI level. Mechanistically, JAK/STAT signalling pathway was focussed by RNA-seq and we confirmed that EIP-22 up-regulated the expression of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3. Moreover, AG490, a selective inhibitor of JAK2/STAT3, eliminated the protective roles of EIP-22. The results uncovered that exercise-induced peptide EIP-22 protected cardiomyocytes from myocardial I/R injury via activating JAK2/STAT3 signalling pathway and might be a new candidate molecule for the treatment of myocardial I/R injury.
    Keywords:  EIP-22; JAK2/STAT3; myocardial I/R; peptide
  4. Shock. 2021 Mar 10.
      ABSTRACT: Hemorrhagic shock with tissue trauma (HS/T) leads to the activation of a system-wide immune-inflammatory response that involves all organs and body compartments. Recent advances in single-cell analysis permit the simultaneous assessment of transcriptomic patterns in a large number of cells making it feasible to survey the landscape of immune cell responses across numerous anatomic sites. Here, we used single-cell RNA sequencing of leukocytes from the blood, liver, and spleen to identify the major shifts in gene expression by cell type and compartment in a mouse HS/T model. At 6 h, dramatic changes in gene expression were observed across multiple-cell types and in all compartments in wild-type mice. Monocytes from circulation and liver exhibited a significant upregulation of genes associated with chemotaxis and migration and a simultaneous suppression of genes associated with interferon signaling and antigen presentation. In contrast, liver conventional DC exhibited a unique pattern compared with other myeloid cells that included a pronounced increase in MHCII gene expression. The dominant pattern across all compartments for B and T cells was a suppression of genes associated with cell activation and signaling after HS/T. Using complement factor 3 (C3) knockout mice we unveiled a role for C3 in the suppression of monocyte MHCII expression and activation of gene expression associated with migration, phagocytosis and cytokine upregulation, and an unexpected role in promoting interferon-signaling in a subset of B and T cells across all three compartments after HS/T. This transcriptomic landscape study of immune cells provides new insights into the host immune response to trauma, as well as a rich resource for further investigation of trauma-induced immune responses and complement in driving interferon signaling.
  5. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 618574
      Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most prevalent cardiac disease with high mortality, leading to severe heart injury. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a new type of regulatory RNAs and participate in multiple pathological cardiac progressions. However, the role of circRNAs Postn (circPostn) in MI modulation remains unclear. Here, we aimed to explore the effect of circPostn on MI-induced myocardial injury and cardiac remodeling. We identified that the expression of circPostn was elevated in the plasma of MI patients, MI mouse model, and hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R)-treated human cardiomyocytes. The depletion of circPostn significantly attenuated MI-related myocardium injury and reduced the infarct size in MI mouse model. The circPostn knockdown obviously enhanced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS) and inhibited left ventricular anterior wall thickness at diastole (LVAWd) and left ventricular posterior wall thickness at diastole (LVPWd). The depletion of circPostn was able to decrease MI-induced expression of collagen 1α1 and collagen 3α1 in the ventricular tissues of mice. The protein expression of collagen and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) was up-regulated in MI mice and was inhibited by circPostn knockdown. Meanwhile, the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was repressed by circPostn depletion in the ventricular tissues of MI mice. Besides, the circPostn depletion attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis in mice. Mechanically, circPostn served as a miR-96-5p sponge and miR-96-5p-targeted BNIP3 in human cardiomyocytes, in which circPostn up-regulated BNIP3 expression by targeting miR-96-5p. circPostn promoted H/R-induced cardiomyocyte injury by modulating miR-96-5p/BNIP3 axis. Thus, we conclude that circPostn contributes to MI-induced myocardial injury and cardiac remodeling by regulating miR-96-5p/BNIP3 axis. Our finding provides new insight into the mechanism by which circPostn regulates MI-related cardiac dysfunction. circPostn, miR-96-5p, and BNIP3 are potential targets for the treatment of MI-caused heart injury.
    Keywords:  MI; cardiac remodeling; circPostn; miR-96-5p; myocardial injury
  6. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021 ;8 626878
      Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles (HuMSC-EVs) can repair damaged tissues. The expression profile of circular RNAs (circRNAs) provides valuable insights into the regulation of the repair process and the exploration of the repair mechanism. AC16 cardiomyocytes were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury and subsequently cultured with or without HuMSC-EVs (Group T and Group C, respectively). High-throughput RNA sequencing was implemented for the two groups. On the basis of the transcriptome data, gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, and network analyses were carried out to determine the differential gene expression profiles between the two groups. After screening the circRNA database, the results were proved by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The survival rate of cardiomyocytes exposed to H/R was increased by treatment with HuMSC-EVs. RNA-seq analysis showed that 66 circRNAs were differentially expressed in cardiomyocytes in the co-cultured group. The cellular responses to hypoxia and to decreased oxygen levels were at the top of the GO upregulated list for the two groups, while the vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway, long-term potentiation, and the glucagon signaling pathway were at the top of the KEGG pathway upregulated list for the two groups. In the same samples, the 10 most aberrantly upregulated circRNAs were chosen for further verification of their RNA sequences. Seven of the 10 most aberrant circRNAs were significantly upregulated in the co-cultured group and in the HuMSC-EVs. Our results revealed that upregulated circRNAs were abundant during the repair of damaged cardiomyocytes by HuMSC-EVs, which provides a new perspective for the repair of H/R by HuMSC-EVs.
    Keywords:  AC16 human cardiomyocytes; circular RNA; human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles; hypoxia/reoxygenation injury; repair
  7. Front Immunol. 2021 ;12 611910
      Detrimental inflammatory responses after solid organ transplantation are initiated when immune cells sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and certain damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released or exposed during transplant-associated processes, such as ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), surgical trauma, and recipient conditioning. These inflammatory responses initiate and propagate anti-alloantigen (AlloAg) responses and targeting DAMPs and PAMPs, or the signaling cascades they activate, reduce alloimmunity, and contribute to improved outcomes after allogeneic solid organ transplantation in experimental studies. However, DAMPs have also been implicated in initiating essential anti-inflammatory and reparative functions of specific immune cells, particularly Treg and macrophages. Interestingly, DAMP signaling is also involved in local and systemic homeostasis. Herein, we describe the emerging literature defining how poor outcomes after transplantation may result, not from just an over-abundance of DAMP-driven inflammation, but instead an inadequate presence of a subset of DAMPs or related molecules needed to repair tissue successfully or re-establish tissue homeostasis. Adverse outcomes may also arise when these homeostatic or reparative signals become dysregulated or hijacked by alloreactive immune cells in transplant niches. A complete understanding of the critical pathways controlling tissue repair and homeostasis, and how alloimmune responses or transplant-related processes disrupt these will lead to new immunotherapeutics that can prevent or reverse the tissue pathology leading to lost grafts due to chronic rejection.
    Keywords:  alarmins; damage-associated molecular patterns; immunometabolism; ischemia–reperfusion injury; macrophage; regulatory T cell; tissue repair and fibrosis; transplantation
  8. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2021 ;2021 2678134
      Deletion of pannexin-1 (Panx-1) leads not only to a reduction in endothelium-derived hyperpolarization but also to an increase in NO-mediated vasodilation. Therefore, we evaluated the participation of Panx-1-formed channels in the control of membrane potential and [Ca2+]i of endothelial cells. Changes in NO-mediated vasodilation, membrane potential, superoxide anion (O2 ·-) formation, and endothelial cell [Ca2+]i were analyzed in rat isolated mesenteric arterial beds and primary cultures of mesenteric endothelial cells. Inhibition of Panx-1 channels with probenecid (1 mM) or the Panx-1 blocking peptide 10Panx (60 μM) evoked an increase in the ACh (100 nM)-induced vasodilation of KCl-contracted mesenteries and in the phosphorylation level of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) at serine 1177 (P-eNOSS1177) and Akt at serine 473 (P-AktS473). In addition, probenecid or 10Panx application activated a rapid, tetrodotoxin (TTX, 300 nM)-sensitive, membrane potential depolarization and [Ca2+]i increase in endothelial cells. Interestingly, the endothelial cell depolarization was converted into a transient spike after removing Ca2+ ions from the buffer solution and in the presence of 100 μM mibefradil or 10 μM Ni2+. As expected, Ni2+ also abolished the increment in [Ca2+]i. Expression of Nav1.2, Nav1.6, and Cav3.2 isoforms of voltage-dependent Na+ and Ca2+ channels was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Furthermore, the Panx-1 channel blockade was associated with an increase in O2 ·- production. Treatment with 10 μM TEMPOL or 100 μM apocynin prevented the increase in O2 ·- formation, ACh-induced vasodilation, P-eNOSS1177, and P-AktS473 observed in response to Panx-1 inhibition. These findings indicate that the Panx-1 channel blockade triggers a novel complex signaling pathway initiated by the sequential activation of TTX-sensitive Nav channels and Cav3.2 channels, leading to an increase in NO-mediated vasodilation through a NADPH oxidase-dependent P-eNOSS1177, which suggests that Panx-1 may be involved in the endothelium-dependent control of arterial blood pressure.
  9. Br J Anaesth. 2021 Mar 05. pii: S0007-0912(21)00090-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Trauma-induced shock is associated with endothelial dysfunction. We examined whether the tyrosine kinase inhibitor bosutinib as an adjunct therapy to a balanced blood component resuscitation strategy reduces trauma-induced endothelial permeability, thereby improving shock reversal and limiting transfusion requirements and organ failure in a rat polytrauma transfusion model.METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=13 per group) were traumatised and exsanguinated until a MAP of 40 mm Hg was reached, then randomised to two groups: red blood cells, plasma and platelets in a 1:1:1 ratio with either bosutinib or vehicle. Controls were randomised to sham (median laparotomy, no trauma) with bosutinib or vehicle. Organs were harvested for histology and wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio.
    RESULTS: Traumatic injury resulted in shock, with higher lactate levels compared with controls. In trauma-induced shock, the resuscitation volume needed to obtain a MAP of 60 mm Hg was lower in bosutinib-treated animals (2.8 [2.7-3.2] ml kg-1) compared with vehicle (6.1 [5.1-7.2] ml kg-1, P<0.001). Lactate levels in the bosutinib group were 2.9 [1.7-4.8] mM compared with 6.2 [3.1-14.1] mM in the vehicle group (P=0.06). Bosutinib compared with vehicle reduced lung vascular leakage (W/D ratio of 5.1 [4.6-5.3] vs 5.7 [5.4-6.0] (P=0.046) and lung injury scores (P=0.027).
    CONCLUSIONS: Bosutinib as an adjunct therapy to a balanced transfusion strategy reduced resuscitation volume, improved shock reversal, and reduced vascular leak and organ injury in a rat polytrauma model.
    Keywords:  bosutinib; endothelial dysfunction; shock; transfusion; trauma; tyrosine kinase inhibitor
  10. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Mar 04. pii: S0891-5849(21)00145-3. [Epub ahead of print]166 238-254
      Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Left ventricle remodeling, fibrosis, and ischemia/reperfusion injury all contribute to the deterioration of cardiac function and predispose to the onset of heart failure. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the universally recognized energy sensor which responds to low ATP levels and restores cellular metabolism. AMPK activation controls numerous cellular processes and, in the heart, it plays a pivotal role in preventing onset and progression of disease. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, known as oxidative stress, can activate AMPK, conferring an additional role of AMPK as a redox-sensor. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the crosstalk between ROS and AMPK. We describe the molecular mechanisms by which ROS activate AMPK and how AMPK signaling can further prevent heart failure progression. Ultimately, we review the potential therapeutic approaches to target AMPK for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and prevention of heart failure.
    Keywords:  AMPK; Cardiac hypertrophy; HFpEF; HFrEF; Heart failure; Ischemia; Ischemia/reperfusion injury; Nox; ROS; Reperfusion
  11. ACS Biomater Sci Eng. 2021 Mar 08.
      Injectable acellular matrix hydrogels are proven to be potential translational materials to facilitate the repairment in various tissues. However, their potential to repair hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) has not been explored. In this work, we made hepatic acellular matrix (HAM) hydrogels based on the decellularized process and evaluated the biocompatibility and hepatoprotective effects in a rat IRI model. HAM hydrogels supported viability, proliferation, and attachment of hepatocytes in vitro. Treatment with HAM hydrogels significantly attenuated hepatic damage caused by IRI, as evidenced by hepatic biochemistry, histology, and inflammatory responses. Importantly, HAM hydrogels inhibited macrophage M1 (CD68/CCR7) differentiation but promoted M2 (CD68/CD206) differentiation. Additionally, TLR4/NF-κB signaling was found to be involved in the hepatoprotective effect of HAM hydrogels. Collectively, our study reveals that HAM hydrogels ameliorate hepatic IRI by facilitating M2 polarization via TLR4/NF-κB signaling.
    Keywords:  TLR4/NF-κB signaling; hepatic acellular matrix; hydrogel; ischemia/reperfusion injury; macrophage polarization