bims-heshmo Biomed News
on Trauma hemorrhagic shock — molecular basis
Issue of 2021‒02‒28
sixteen papers selected by
Andreia Luís
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute

  1. Mol Med. 2021 Feb 25. 27(1): 18
      BACKGROUND: Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury can be a major complication following liver surgery contributing to post-operative liver dysfunction. Maresin 1 (MaR1), a pro-resolving lipid mediator, has been shown to suppress I/R injury. However, the mechanisms that account for the protective effects of MaR1 in I/R injury remain unknown.METHODS: WT (C57BL/6J) mice were subjected to partial hepatic warm ischemia for 60mins followed by reperfusion. Mice were treated with MaR1 (5-20 ng/mouse), Boc2 (Lipoxin A4 receptor antagonist), LY294002 (Akt inhibitor) or corresponding controls just prior to liver I/R or at the beginning of reperfusion. Blood and liver samples were collected at 6 h post-reperfusion. Serum aminotransferase, histopathologic changes, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress were analyzed to evaluate liver injury. Signaling pathways were also investigated in vitro using primary mouse hepatocyte (HC) cultures to identify underlying mechanisms for MaR1 in liver I/R injury.
    RESULTS: MaR1 treatment significantly reduced ALT and AST levels, diminished necrotic areas, suppressed inflammatory responses, attenuated oxidative stress and decreased hepatocyte apoptosis in liver after I/R. Akt signaling was significantly increased in the MaR1-treated liver I/R group compared with controls. The protective effect of MaR1 was abrogated by pretreatment with Boc2, which together with MaR1-induced Akt activation. MaR1-mediated liver protection was reversed by inhibition of Akt.
    CONCLUSIONS: MaR1 protects the liver against hepatic I/R injury via an ALXR/Akt signaling pathway. MaR1 may represent a novel therapeutic agent to mitigate the detrimental effects of I/R-induced liver injury.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion; Hepatocytes; Inflammation; Lipid mediators; Oxidative stress
  2. Eur J Pharmacol. 2021 Feb 22. pii: S0014-2999(21)00085-6. [Epub ahead of print] 173932
      We aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of sevoflurane (SEV) preconditioning in liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. In vivo, rats were randomly divided into Sham group, I/R rat model group, I/R + SEV group and SEV group. In vitro, hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) cell model were established. Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) and TUNEL assay were used to evaluate the degree of tissue damage and detect apoptosis in rats, respectively. HO-1, nuclear Nrf2 and cytosolic Nrf2 expressions were detected by immunohistochemical staining, Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), respectively. Contents of Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by corresponding kits. Inflammatory factor levels, cell viability, apoptosis were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), MTT assay, and flow cytometry, respectively.In the I/R group, liver damage was severe, apoptosis-positive cells were increased, HO-1 and nuclear Nrf2 expressions were increased, and cytosolic Nrf2 expression was decreased. After SEV pretreatment, the degree of liver injury and apoptosis in rats were significantly reduced, HO-1 and nuclear Nrf2 expressions were increased significantly, and cytosolic Nrf2 expression was decreased. 4% SEV had the best mitigating effect on H/R-induced liver cell damage, as evidenced by reduced contents of LDH and MDA, decreased inflammatory factors, a lowered apoptosis rate, inhibited ROS production, effectively promoted Nrf2 nucleation, and activated Nrf/HO-1 pathway. ML385 pretreatment significantly inhibited the effect of SEV on hepatocytes.Sevoflurane protects the liver from ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.
    Keywords:  Nrf2; hypoxia-reoxygenation; ischemia-reperfusion; liver; sevoflurane
  3. Shock. 2021 Feb 22.
      ABSTRACT: Rats exposed to hypobaria equivalent to what occurs during aeromedical evacuation within a few days after isolated traumatic brain injury exhibit greater neurologic injury than those remaining at sea level. Moreover, administration of excessive supplemental O2 during hypobaria further exacerbates brain injury. This study tested the hypothesis that exposure of rats to hypobaria following controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced brain injury plus mild hemorrhagic shock worsens multiple organ inflammation and associated mortality. In this study, at 24 hr after CCI plus hemorrhagic shock, rats were exposed to either normobaria (sea level) or hypobaria (=8000 ft altitude) for 6 hr under normoxic or hyperoxic conditions. Injured rats exhibited mortality ranging from 30% for those maintained under normobaria and normoxia to 60% for those exposed to 6 hr under hypobaric and hyperoxia. Lung histopathology and neutrophil infiltration at 2 days post injury were exacerbated by hypobaria and hyperoxia. Gut and kidney inflammation at 30 days post-injury were also worsened by hypobaric hyperoxia. In conclusion, exposure of rats after brain injury and hemorrhagic shock to hypobaria or hyperoxia results in increased mortality. Based on gut, lung, and kidney histopathology at 2-30 days post-injury, increased mortality is consistent with multi-organ inflammation. These findings support epidemiological studies indicating that increasing aircraft cabin pressures to 4000 ft altitude (compared to standard 8000 ft.) and limiting excessive oxygen administration will decrease critical complications during and following aeromedical transport.
  4. Cell Biosci. 2021 Feb 26. 11(1): 44
      BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence demonstrated dapagliflozin (DAPA), a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, prevented various cardiovascular events. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying its cardioprotective properties remained largely unknown.RESULTS: In the present study, we sought to investigate the effects of DAPA on the cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Results from in vitro experiments showed that DAPA induced the phosphorylation of AMPK, resulting in the downregulation of PKC in the cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) condition. We demonstrated that DAPA treatment diminished the H/R-elicited oxidative stress via the AMPK/ PKC/ NADPH oxidase pathway. In addition, DAPA prevented the H/R-induced abnormality of PGC-1α expression, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial DNA copy number through AMPK/ PKC/ NADPH oxidase signaling. Besides, DAPA reversed the H/R-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that DAPA improved the I/R-induced cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography and abrogated the I/R-elicited apoptosis in the myocardium of rats. Also, the administration of DAPA mitigated the production of myocardial infarction markers.
    CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data suggested that DAPA treatment holds the potential to ameliorate the I/R-elicited oxidative stress and the following cardiac apoptosis via modulation of AMPK, which attenuates the cardiac dysfunction caused by I/R injury.
    Keywords:  AMPK; Dapagliflozin; Ischemia/reperfusion injury
  5. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021 Feb 24. 12(1): 144
      BACKGROUND: Brain death (BD) has been suggested to induce coronary endothelial dysfunction. Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury during heart transplantation may lead to further damage of the endothelium. Previous studies have shown protective effects of conditioned medium (CM) from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) against IR injury. We hypothesized that physiological saline-supplemented CM protects BD rats' vascular grafts from IR injury.METHODS: The CM from rat MSCs, used for conservation purposes, indicates the presence of 23 factors involved in apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. BD was induced by an intracranial-balloon. Controls were subjected to a sham operation. After 5.5 h, arterial pressures were measured in vivo. Aortic rings from BD rats were harvested and immediately mounted in organ bath chambers (BD group, n = 7) or preserved for 24 h in 4 °C saline-supplemented either with a vehicle (BD-IR group, n = 8) or CM (BD-IR+CM group, n = 8), prior to mounting. Vascular function was measured in vitro. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) have been performed.
    RESULTS: BD in donors was associated with significantly impaired hemodynamic parameters and higher immunoreactivity of aortic myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitrotyrosine, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-12 compared to sham-operated rats. In organ bath experiments, impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation to acetylcholine in the BD-IR group compared to BD rats was significantly improved by CM (maximum relaxation to acetylcholine: BD 81 ± 2% vs. BD-IR 50 ± 3% vs. BD-IR + CM 72 ± 2%, p < 0.05). Additionally, the preservation of BD-IR aortic rings with CM significantly lowered MPO, caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 immunoreactivity compared with the BD-IR group. Furthermore, increased mRNA expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in the aortas from the BD-IR rats compared to BD group were significantly decreased by CM.
    CONCLUSIONS: The preservation of BD rats' vascular grafts with CM alleviates endothelial dysfunction following IR injury, in part, by reducing levels of inflammatory response and caspase-mediated apoptosis.
    Keywords:  Brain death; Conditioned medium; Endothelial function; Ischemia/reperfusion; Mesenchymal stem cells
  6. Biochem Pharmacol. 2021 Feb 18. pii: S0006-2952(21)00062-9. [Epub ahead of print] 114466
      Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs), derived from coronary circulation microvessel, are the main barrier for the exchange of energy and nutrients between myocardium and blood. However, microvascular I/R injury is a severely neglected topic, and few strategies can reverse this pathology. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of shear stress in microvascular I/R injury, and try to elucidate the downstream signaling pathways that inhibit CMECs apoptosis to reduce I/R injury. Our results demonstrated that shear stress inhibited the apoptosis protein, increased PECAM-1 expression and eNOS phosphorylation in hypoxia reoxygenated (H/R) CMECs. The mechanism of shear stress was related to up-regulated expression of YAP, the increased number of YAP entering the nucleus by dephosphorylation, the reduced number of TUNEL positive cells, increased miR-206 and inhibited protein level of PDCD4 in CMECs. However, siRNA-mediated knockdown of YAP abolished the protective effects of shear stress on CMECs apoptosis, similar results obtained from administration with AMO-miR-206, and also prevented PDCD4 (target gene of miR-206) increasing when treatment with both AMO-miR-206 and mimics-miR-206. In vivo, restoring the blood fluid with nitroglycerin (NTG) to mimic in vitro shear stress levels, which subsequently improved cardiac function, reduced infarcted area, lowered microvascular perfusion defects. Functional investigations clearly illustrated that increased the protein expression of PECAM-1 and eNOS phosphorylation, activated YAP, strengthened miR-206 expression, and suppressed PDCD4 expression. In summary, this study confirmed that shear stress reversed CMECs apoptosis, relieved microvascular I/R injury, the mechanism of which involving through YAP/miR-206/PDCD4 signaling pathway to finally suppress myocardial I/R injury.
    Keywords:  YAP; apoptosis; cardiac microvascular endothelial cells; ischemia reperfusion injury; miR-206; shear stress
  7. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 621509
      Background: Cardiac autophagic flux is impaired during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R). Impaired autophagic flux may exacerbate MI/R injury. Charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) is a subunit of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT-III) complex that is required for autophagy. However, the reverse role of CHMP2B accumulation in autophagy and MI/R injury has not been established. The objective of this article is to elucidate the roles of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/atrogin-1 pathways in inhibiting CHMP2B accumulation in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice (3-4 months) and H9c2 cardiomyocytes were used to evaluate MI/R and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury in vivo and in vitro, respectively. MI/R was built by a left lateral thoracotomy and occluded the left anterior descending artery. H9c2 cells were firstly treated in 95% N2 and 5% CO2 for 15 h and reoxygenation for 1 h. Metformin (100 mg/kg/d) and CHMP2B (Ad-CHMP2B) transfected adenoviruses were administered to the mice. The H9c2 cells were treated with metformin (2.5 mM), MG-132 (10 μM), bafilomycin A1 (10 nM), and compound C (20 μM). Results: Autophagic flux was found to be inhibited in H/R-treated cardiomyocytes and MI/R mice, with elevated cardiac CHMP2B accumulation. Upregulated CHMP2B levels in the in vivo and in vitro experiments were shown to inhibit autophagic flux leading to the deterioration of H/R-cardiomyocytes and MI/R injury. This finding implies that CHMP2B accumulation increases the risk of myocardial ischemia. Metformin suppressed CHMP2B accumulation and ameliorated H/R-induced autophagic dysfunction by activating AMPK. Activated AMPK upregulated the messenger RNA expression and protein levels of atrogin-1, a muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase, in the myocardium. Atrogin-1 significantly enhanced the interaction between atrogin-1 and CHMP2B, therefore, promoting CHMP2B degradation in the MI/R myocardium. Finally, this study revealed that metformin-inhibited CHMP2B accumulation induced autophagic impairment and ischemic susceptibility in vivo through the AMPK-regulated CHMP2B degradation by atrogin-1. Conclusion: Impaired CHMP2B clearance in vitro and in vivo inhibits autophagic flux and weakens the myocardial ischemic tolerance. Metformin treatment degrades CHMP2B through the AMPK-atrogin-1-dependent pathway to maintain the homeostasis of autophagic flux. This is a novel mechanism that enriches the understanding of cardioprotection.
    Keywords:  AMPK; CHMP2B; atrogin-1; autophagic flux; metformin; myocardial ischemia/reperfusion
  8. Life Sci. 2021 Feb 20. pii: S0024-3205(21)00233-2. [Epub ahead of print] 119248
      AIMS: Reperfusion therapy is the most common and effective treatment against ischemic heart disease (IHD), but the process inflicts massive ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury for which no treatment exists. Notably, reperfusion after ischemia causes ischemia/reperfusion injury (IR injury) and the "no-reflow" phenomenon seriously affecting the therapeutic effects in clinical practice. The principle purpose of this study is to validate the effect of hydrogen gas on IHD and further explore the mechanism of hydrogen gas in alleviating myocardial I/R injury and no-reflow phenomenon.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion was well established. Myocardial infarct size was evaluated by TTC & Evans blue staining. The no-reflow area and the cardiac function were assessed by thioflavin-S staining and echocardiography respectively. Microstructure and mitochondria of myocardial tissue were assessed by transmission electron microscope. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of NLRP3 mediated pyroptosis related proteins. The 8-OHdG, MDA and serum total ROS were used to evaluate the degree of oxidative stress.
    KEY FINDINGS: The myocardial infarct size, no-reflow area, cardiac function, microstructure and mitochondrial morphology of I/R model rats were significantly improved after hydrogen inhalation. In addition, the expression of 8-OHdG, MDA, ROS and NLRP3 mediated pyroptosis related proteins were significantly decreased.
    SIGNIFICANCE: We found that oxidative stress and NLRP3 mediated pyroptosis are the important mechanisms for hydrogen to alleviate myocardial I/R injury, and we also confirmed that hydrogen can significantly improve no reflow phenomenon caused by ischemia-reperfusion.
    Keywords:  Hydrogen; Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury; NLRP3 inflammasome; Oxidative stress; Pyroptosis; The no-reflow phenomenon
  9. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2021 Feb 23. pii: gmab007. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS)-induced apoptosis has been suggested to contribute to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Interleukin 35 (IL-35), a novel anti-inflammatory cytokine, has been shown to protect the myocardium and inhibit mtROS production. However, its effect on cardiomyocytes upon exposure to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) damage has not yet been elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the potential protective role and underlying mechanisms of IL-35 in H/R-induced mouse neonatal cardiomyocyte injury. Mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes were challenged to H/R in the presence of IL-35, and we found that IL-35 dose dependently promotes cell viability, diminishes mtROS, maintains mitochondrial membrane potential, and decreases the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes. Meanwhile, IL-35 remarkably activates mitochondrial STAT3 (mitoSTAT3) signaling, inhibits cytochrome c release, and reduces apoptosis signaling. Furthermore, co-treatment of the cardiomyocytes with the STAT3 inhibitor AG490 abrogates the IL-35-induced cardioprotective effects. Our study identified the protective role of IL-35 in cardiomyocytes following H/R damage and revealed that IL-35 protects cardiomyocytes against mtROS-induced apoptosis through the mitoSTAT3 signaling pathway during H/R.
    Keywords:  IL-35; ROS; STAT3; apoptosis; hypoxia/reoxygenation
  10. J Surg Res. 2021 Feb 17. pii: S0022-4804(21)00041-X. [Epub ahead of print]262 212-223
      BACKGROUND: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury constitutes a severe disorder, in great part resulting from oxidative stress. Because sulforaphane and albumin were shown to increase antioxidant defenses, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of these agents in an experimental model of I/R injury.METHODS: Wistar rats were used to establish a model of intestinal I/R (35 min of ischemia, followed by 45 min of reperfusion) and were treated with albumin (5 mL/kg), sulforaphane (500 μg/kg), or saline intravenously before reperfusion. Animals that were not subjected to I/R served as the sham (laparotomy only) and control groups. Blood samples were analyzed for arterial gas, reactive oxygen species, and reactive nitrogen species using different molecular fluorescent probes. After euthanasia, ileal samples were collected for analysis, including histopathology, immunohistochemistry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assays, and lactic dehydrogenase measurement.
    RESULTS: Oxygenation status and hemodynamic parameters were uniform during the experiment. The sulforaphane- or albumin-treated groups showed reduced concentrations of reactive oxygen species (P < 0.04), nitric oxide (P < 0.001), and peroxynitrite (P = 0.001), compared with I/R injury untreated animals. Treatment with sulforaphane or albumin resulted in the preservation of goblet cells (P < 0.03), reductions in histopathologic scores (P < 0.01), macrophage density (P < 0.01), iNOS expression (P < 0.004), NF-kappa B activation (P < 0.05), and apoptotic rates (P < 0.04) in the mucosa and a reduction in the concentration of lactic dehydrogenase (P < 0.04), more pronounced with sulforaphane.
    CONCLUSIONS: Attenuation of intestinal I/R injury in this model probably reflects the antioxidative effects of systemic administration of both sulforaphane and albumin and reinforces their use in future translational research.
    Keywords:  Albumin; Experimental model; Ischemia/reperfusion injury; Mesenteric ischemia; Oxidative stress; Sulforaphane
  11. Hum Genomics. 2021 Feb 26. 15(1): 15
      BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI), a common type of coronary heart disease, is the major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Chemokine-mediated inflammatory cell infiltration and local inflammatory damage response are recent research hotspots. Hence, we attempted to examine the role of C-X-C motif chemokine 16 (CXCL16) as a potential candidate in MI.METHODS: Human cardiomyocytes were treated with hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) to establish an in vitro cell model. GEO database provided the clinical data of MI patients and GSEA verified the relationship of chemokine and MI. CCK-8 and flow cytometry analyses were used to measure cell viability and apoptosis. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay were conducted to determine the correlation between CXCL16 and miR-545. qRT-PCR and western blot assays were performed to investigate the expression level of the indicated genes. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10 were explored using ELISA assay.
    RESULTS: CXCL16 was increased in MI. CXCL16 knockdown can reverse the inhibitory effect of H/R treatment on cell viability, while overexpression of CXCL16 showed the opposite trend. MiR-545 directly targeted CXCL16 and negatively regulated CXCL16 levels. MiR-545 promoted cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in the MI cell model, which attenuated the CXCL16-induced injury on cardiomyocytes.
    CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated that CXCL16 aggravated MI damage through being directly targeted by miR-545 and mediating inflammatory responses, thereby providing potential therapeutic targets for MI therapy.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Hypoxia/reoxygenation; Inflammation; Myocardial infarction; Proliferation
  12. Neurosci Bull. 2021 Feb 23.
      The present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms by which P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) mediate the activation of vasopressinergic neurons thereby increasing sympathetic hyperactivity in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus of rats with acute myocardial ischemia (AMI). The left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery was ligated to induce AMI in rats. The rats were pretreated with BBG (brilliant blue G, a P2X7R antagonist), nelivaptan (a vasopressin V1b receptor antagonist), or diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) [an nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor]. Hemodynamic parameters of the heart were monitored. Myocardial injury and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were assessed. In the PVN of AMI rats, P2X7R mediated microglial activation, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) were higher than in the sham group. Intraperitoneal injection of BBG effectively reduced ROS production and vasopressin expression in the PVN of AMI rats. Moreover, both BBG and DPI pretreatment effectively reduced sympathetic hyperactivity and ameliorated AMI injury, as represented by reduced inflammation and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, microinjection of nelivaptan into the PVN improved cardiac function and reduced the norepinephrine (AE) levels in AMI rats. Collectively, the results suggest that, within the PVN of AMI rats, P2X7R upregulation mediates microglial activation and the overproduction of ROS, which in turn activates vasopressinergic neuron-V1b receptors and sympathetic hyperactivity, hence aggravating myocardial injury in the AMI setting.
    Keywords:  Myocardial ischemia; P2X7 receptor; PVN; Reactive oxygen species; Vasopressin; c-fos
  13. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2021 Jan 22. pii: S0022-5223(21)00134-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Necroptosis plays an important role in cell death during pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). We hypothesized that therapy with necrosulfonamide (NSA), a mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein inhibitor, would attenuate lung IRI.METHODS: Rats were assigned at random into the sham operation group (n = 6), vehicle group (n = 8), or NSA group (n = 8). In the NSA and vehicle groups, the animals were heparinized and underwent left thoracotomy, and the left hilum was clamped for 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 120 minutes. NSA (0.5 mg/body) and a solvent were administered i.p. in the NSA group and the vehicle group, respectively. The sham group underwent 210 minutes of perfusion without ischemia. After reperfusion, arterial blood gas analysis, physiologic data, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, histologic changes, and cytokine levels were assessed. Fluorescence double immunostaining was performed to evaluate necroptosis and apoptosis.
    RESULTS: Arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) was better, dynamic compliance was higher, and mean airway pressure and lung edema were lower in the NSA group compared with the vehicle group. Moreover, in the NSA group, lung injury was significantly alleviated, and the mean number of necroptotic cells (55.3 ± 4.06 vs 78.2 ± 6.87; P = .024), but not of apoptotic cells (P = .084), was significantly reduced compared with the vehicle group. Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels were significantly lower with NSA administration.
    CONCLUSIONS: In a rat model, our results suggest that NSA may have a potential protective role in lung IRI through the inhibition of necroptosis.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; cell death; ischemia-reperfusion injury; mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein; necroptosis; necrosis; necrosulfonamide; receptor-interacting protein kinase-1; receptor-interacting protein kinase-3
  14. Life Sci. 2021 Feb 17. pii: S0024-3205(21)00206-X. [Epub ahead of print] 119221
      The present study aimed to investigate the invitro preconditioning of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) with CD44-targeted hyalournic acid (HA) on ischemic kidney injury in rats. Ninety male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated into the following groups; i) sham group, ii) control group: rats exposed to 45 min left renal ischemia with saline treatment, iii) HA group as control group but rats treated with HA, iv) ADMSCs group as control but rats treated with ADMSCs v) HA + ADMSCs group as ADMSCs but rats treated with ADMSCs preconditioned with CD44-tageted HA for 14 days. We found that treattment with either ADMSCs or HA + ADMSCs caused significant decrease in the elevated serum creatinine and BUN and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and expression of TGF-β1, fibronectin, collagen type I, inducible nitric oxide synthease (iNOS) and microRNAs (miR-21, miR-17-5p, miR-10a) in kidney and significant increase in creatinine clearance, superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and the expression of Bcl2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Wnt/β-catenin pathway genes in kidney compared to control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, HA + ADMSCs group caused more significant improvement in these parameters than ADMSCs group (p < 0.05), while HA group did not cause any significant improvement in these parameters compared to control group. These results suggest that preconditioning of ADMSCs preconditioned with CD44-targted HA enhanced their cytoprotective effect against ischemic kidney injury. This renoprotective effect might be due to activation of angiogenesis, Wnt/β-catenin pathway proteins, and suppression of oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis.
    Keywords:  Adipose mesenchymal stem cells; Hyaluronic acid; Renal ischemia/reperfusion injury
  15. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021 Mar 02. pii: S0735-1097(21)00067-X. [Epub ahead of print]77(8): 1073-1088
      BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction results in an imbalance between energy supply and demand in a failing heart. An innovative therapy that targets the intracellular bioenergetics directly through mitochondria transfer may be necessary.OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to establish a preclinical proof-of-concept that extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated transfer of autologous mitochondria and their related energy source enhance cardiac function through restoration of myocardial bioenergetics.
    METHODS: Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iCMs) were employed. iCM-conditioned medium was ultracentrifuged to collect mitochondria-rich EVs (M-EVs). Therapeutic effects of M-EVs were investigated using in vivo murine myocardial infarction (MI) model.
    RESULTS: Electron microscopy revealed healthy-shaped mitochondria inside M-EVs. Confocal microscopy showed that M-EV-derived mitochondria were transferred into the recipient iCMs and fused with their endogenous mitochondrial networks. Treatment with 1.0 × 108/ml M-EVs significantly restored the intracellular adenosine triphosphate production and improved contractile profiles of hypoxia-injured iCMs as early as 3 h after treatment. In contrast, isolated mitochondria that contained 300× more mitochondrial proteins than 1.0 × 108/ml M-EVs showed no effect after 24 h. M-EVs contained mitochondrial biogenesis-related messenger ribonucleic acids, including proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, which on transfer activated mitochondrial biogenesis in the recipient iCMs at 24 h after treatment. Finally, intramyocardial injection of 1.0 × 108 M-EVs demonstrated significantly improved post-MI cardiac function through restoration of bioenergetics and mitochondrial biogenesis.
    CONCLUSIONS: M-EVs facilitated immediate transfer of their mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial cargos, contributing to improved intracellular energetics in vitro. Intramyocardial injection of M-EVs enhanced post-MI cardiac function in vivo. This therapy can be developed as a novel, precision therapeutic for mitochondria-related diseases including heart failure.
    Keywords:  bioenergetics; heart failure; human stem cells; mitochondria; myocardial infarction
  16. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2021 Feb 25. ATVBAHA119313581
      OBJECTIVE: The NONO (non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein) is a multifunctional nuclear protein involved in RNA synthesis, transcriptional regulation, and DNA repair. However, the effect of NONO on neointima induced by vascular injury or restenosis remains unclear. We hypothesized that NONO is required for maintaining vascular integrity and NONO knockout may inhibit neointima formation. Approach and Results: NONO gene KO (knockout; NONO KO or NONOgt/0) mice were produced from C57BL/6J mice using the CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-associated 9) technique. The left common carotid artery of mice was ligated to induce carotid neointima formation. The primary mouse aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were derived from the media of wide-type and NONOgt/0 mouse aortas for in vitro studies. Human coronary arteries containing atherosclerotic plaque and normal coronary arteries were obtained from body donors. Histological staining demonstrated that NONO expression was increased in human coronary atherosclerotic lesions and mouse ligated carotid arteries. Moreover, the increased NONO was primarily from VSMCs of neointima. Mice with NONO deficiency showed no significant difference in carotid artery structure from control mice. However, after carotid artery ligation, NONOgt/0 mice exhibited reduced neointima thickness in ligated arteries. NONO deficiency led to decreased proliferation and migration of VSMCs and increased expression of contractile marker genes in neointima and VSMCs. The mechanistic study indicated that NONO interacted with Erk (extracellular regulated kinase) 1/2 in VSMCs and affected its activation in VSMCs, implying Erk signaling cascade might mediate the roles of NONO in VSMCs.CONCLUSIONS: NONO was not required for maintaining vascular integrity, but NONO knockout reversed the pathological processes mediated by increased proliferation, migration, and phenotypic switching of VSMCs. The mechanism of these effects involved an interaction of NONO and Erk signaling cascade. Thus, inhibition of NONO may provide a novel therapeutic strategy in cardiovascular disease associated with intimal thickening.
    Keywords:  aorta; carrier proteins; coronary vessels; neointima; vascular system injuries